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Education in Malaysia is an on going effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated manner, in order to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically, balanced and harmoniously, based on a firm belief in and devotion to God. Such an effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess high moral standards and who are responsible and capable of achieving a high level of personal well being to contribute to the betterment of the nation, family and society.
Based on the NPE above,
The Importance of NPE
2.0 National Curriculum
Curriculum is the planned and guided learning experiences and intended learning outcomes, formulated through the systematic reconstruction of knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of the school, for the learners' continous and willful growth in personal social competence.School curriculum implies as a series of planned events to have pedagogical effects towards the students. The educational goal also will be achieved as the school curriculum is well planned and regulated by the school.Besides, the curriculum made is to guide and lead the school learning activities and usually it is represented in specific documents. The reflection of those curriculum usually is implies to actualize it in the classroom for the learners to experience and lay down by the observer.The learning environment also influence the learners for what they have learnt.
2.1 KLSR, KBSR AND KSSR
Education system in Malaysia has changed a lot after several years of Independence Day. Basically, school curriculum is based on Education Act 1961 that was formed from Rahman Talib Report 1960. As we know, Razak Report 1956 was suited in system of education by Rahman Talib 1960 and after that become as Education Act 1961.
Kurikulum Lama Sekolah Rendah (KLSR) was the first curriculum that is being implemented in primary school. The education system focused more on eradication of literacy among students as reading is very important at this phase. In addition, all students must pass Bahasa Melayu subject in public examination. For instances, Peperiksaan Malayan Secondary School Entrance Examination (MSSEE),Ujian Penilaian Darjah Lima, SRP dan MCE. The assesments for the students was started since they are in standard 3. Unfortunately, KLSR was repealed and has been replaced by Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah (KBSR) later change to Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah for some reasons.Firstly, the syllabus contents were sometimes repeated and there was no links between the subjects and the next year of learning. The process of learning and teaching were just based on textbooks. Hence, it limits the teachers' creativity and teaching techniques that are more interesting and effective.Besides, the syllabus was too heavy and it made students feel burdened and boring.
There are several important objectives need to be achieved on this new curriculum. KBSR emphasize the students to master and appreciate the Malay language as the National language as well as a tool for solidarity.Besides, this curriculum also stress on the three major skills in learning which are Reading, Writing and Arithmetic.It also focuses on the development of the individual wholly which includes the physical, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and social.KBSR principles bring on the student-centered teaching, the diversity of activities and involvement of all students in the activity among themselves. Besides, KBSR students are more efficient and independent compared to KLSR students. Nevertheless, there are some drawback regarding this curriculum. Some principles of KBSR were not implemented effectively in the process of learning and teaching. Thus, the learning process that occurs in the classroom is more towards preparing students for the examination, not of imparting knowledge, skills and values necessary as required by the curriculum.
Now, the curriculum that exist and replacing KBSR is Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR). This curriculum was implemented in all primary school since 2010 with some phases and stages. It has 8 major elements that are stress on like time management and pedagogy. Besides, there are also additional elements in KSSR which are creative and innovative, entrepreneurship and ICT. These are because to focus the students more on creative thinking and fully occupied with holistic development of 'modal insan'.
In conclusion, reformation of school curriculum must be relevant to the needs of global and local education system. The perfect and effective ways of implementing the curriculum will give a huge impact on the future generations.