Perception And Teaching Competence In Relation To Research

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In concept, the EESP students already get teaching competence before they take PPL program. Does such conceptual knowledge guarantee them to be qualified teacher? In other word, is it true that mastery of the IBM, PPL students can teach properly in real classes? In this relation, Nana Sujana said "Kemampuan mengelola proses belajar men gajar tidak mungkin diperoleh tanpa mengalami secara langsung" (1989:21). To have experience teach in real situation EESP students are given program, whish is called PPL (Program Pengalaman Lapangan) program.

By applying PPL program, it is expected that EESP students have adequate competence in teaching, such as developing and presenting materials, as well as conducting evaluation. PPL program is also one of the perquisites of students graduate. Tnis program takes place in real situation and it will be observed by lecturer and also advises teacher (the real English teacher in school who is supervisor and advisor of the PPL students). The PPL students should pass this program with minimum B grade to prove that the students are capable in teaching.

In some cases, PPL students who have good score (A or B grade) in IBM subject do not always prove that they are good teachers. Therefore, it seems that such students will not get good score in PPL program. However, in the real situation it often appears that PPL students tend to get good score because they do the task given from the advisor teacher (guru pamong) rather than their teaching competence. Conceptually, this might happen since perception of guru pamong to the PPL students

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is one of the significant elements in PPL students' score. Thus, there is immediate need of study to investigate guru pamorigs' perception on the teaching competence of PPL students.

The input from guru pamongs, either from their study or work, is that experienced can he used as the basis to EESP to make a new course or modify its current syllabus in order to produce qualified graduates who are ready to face the globalization era.

B. Identification of problem

Based on the backgrouid knowledge above, some problems that will be

identified in the study are as follow:

1. What is guru parnongs' perception toward teacher competence of PPL students of English Department?

2. What is guru pamongs' perception toward PPL students' jprsol1 between PPL students and students in class, PPL students and guru pamong him!herself, PPL students and colleagues?

3. Is there any limitation task given from guru pamong to PPL students in their teaching?

4. What is guru pamongs' perception on the goal of the PPL program?

5. What is guru pamongs' perception on the use of language of PPL students?

F

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C. Limitation of Problem

In the study, the problem will focus on guru pamongs' perception on English teaching competence of PPL students, and the goal of the PPL program from their experience in handling or observ'ing PPL students of State University of Jakarta.

D. Formulation of Problem

According to limitation of the problem above, the problem formulation of this study are:

1. What is guru pamongs'1 perception toward teacher competence of PPL students of English Department?

2. What is guru pamongs' perception on the goal of the PPL program?

E. Purpose of the study

This study is aimed to obtain information based on the guru pamongs' perception toward teacher competence of PPL students of English Education and the goal of PPL program. Hopefully, this study can give an input to department in improving the quality of PPL students of educational field to be more qualified.

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Theoretical Description

This part explains the two underlying theores related to the research, namely, (1) Perception, and (2) Teaching Competence, including personal competence, teaching competence, professional competence and social competence.

2.1.1. Perception

Generally, perception is described as an act to perceive one object or experience. It means (1) the act of perceiving, apprehension with the mind or senses; (2) an immediate of institutive recognition, as of a moral or esthetic quality; (3) the faculty of perceiving, as distinguished from the act of perceiving. (The New Lexicon Webster International Dictionaiy of English Language, Vol. 2, 1997: 702)

As an act to comprehend something with mind, perception requires the characteristics of object being perceived. According to Luthans the act of perception will help someone to understand the characteristic of something and thus providing them with many methods to get other's perception. (1989: 160). The perception itself may be conducted by recognizing and understanding the events, objects, and stimuli through the use of senses (sight, hearing, touch, etc). (Richard, 1999: 268-269) Accordingly, everyone has their own senses.

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Little said that the major problem in doing act of perception is the problem of description - the description labeling the object or experience since the perception is affected by the previous experiences or the term attached to that object or experience (1996:3).

Regarding to this, Richard proposed three categories in perform

perception, they are:

(1) Visual perception: the perception of visual information and stimuli,

(2) Auditory perception: the perception of information and stimuli received through the ears. Auditory perception requires a listener to detect different

kinds of acoustic signals, and to judge differences as their frequency, amplitude and dunttion.

(3) Speech perception: the understanding of comprehension of speech.

In this research, the Richard's categories are limited to the first category, namely, visual perception since the respondent which is supervisor, advisor or counselor (hereinafter referred to as Guru Parnong) deliver their perception based on their observation toward the prospective teacher (student who perform teaching practice) at their school. Thus, the Guru Parnong perception may refer to what they observe visually on five aspects practiced by PPL students during PPL activities. According to the Act of Republic of Indonesia No. 14 of 2005 on Teacher and Lecture and Regulation of Republic of Indonesia Government No. 19 of 2005 on Standard of National Education, the five aspects including

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(1) personal competence, (2) pedagogical competence, (3) professional competence and (4) social competence.

Moreover, the visual perception may be obtained through the following

processes: (adopted from Little, 1999:4)

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World I Psychological factors

Figure 2.1 The process of perception (Little, 1999, p.5-6 available on:

www. griphiiosooly.co.nz/paper 5htm)

Based on the figure above, it is shown that the way Guru Pamong perceives the teaching competence of PPL student come from their thought as well as emotion to the object of perception, namely PPL students. It is therefore, the poor condition of thought and emotion of the teacher observing the student will potentially produce negative perception to the students' teaching competence.

Body-eye

Thought

_____ Emotion

Interpretative

Perceptual

Field

Envrionment

Reality

icngPar1

I

Visual Cortex I.

t t

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In addition, the students' teaching competence and teacher's physcological factor may contribute to the outcome of perception The earlier stimulates the teachers' brain when preparing their perception and the latter which is the teacher's psychology may direct their perception. As a result, the determination of number of respondents in this study may minimize the single perception of the teacher toward the students' teaching competence.

2.1.2 Categories of Teacher's Coinpetences

Laurillard, D. (1993) in "Rethinking the University Teaching" stated that the success of education lies not in having the resources but the capabilities and competency of the resources. in short, the quality of human resources, namely, teacher or lecture, becomes important in achieving educational goals.

Since the quality of human resources is an important part in education,

teacher or lecture become main point of discussion, specifically their competence related to educational activities.

Concerning to this, Adlan categorized the teachers' competence into three parts. namely (1) cognitive competence, that is, the competence in intellectual field, such as in learning and teaching and individual attitude, (2) affective competence, that is, the preparedness and skill of teachers in various subjects related to their profession, such as appreciating their job, loving their subject, and the last (3) attitude competence, that is, the competence in performing their attitude such as providing a guidance and offering their evaluation.

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Further. Sudiana proposed four teachers' competences, including (1) having knowledge on human learning and behavior, (2) having a knowledge of their subject being thought. (3) having a good attitude to their selves, schools, colleague, and subject they teach, and (4) having a teaching technique skill.

Nevertheless, teacher competence may be arranged by the lbrmulation of teachers' main duties either as teacher, guide. and administrator in the classroom. The teachers' competence thus consists of: (1) mastering the subject material. (2) managing a teaching and learning process, (3) managing classroom, (4) using media or learning sources, (5) mastering the pedagogical philosophy, (6) managing the learning and teaching instruction, (7) assessing learning achievement, (8) comprehending the counseling function and service, (9) comprehending and performing school administration, and (10) comprehending and predicting the research result for the improvement of teaching and learning method. (Survadi and Mulyana, 1993)

Thus, competence may be generally described as ability, capability and an authority condition, or requirement stipulated under a particular principles. It may be considered by seeing the teacher in implementing their obligations and responsibilities. So, the teacher called as having competence and professionalism if the teacher may accomplish their profession properly or meet the professional standard.

Regarding to this. Peacock (1993) provides some of the key opinion concerning to the competency standards, namely:

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• assist teachers to improve their work organization and their workplace performance by encouraging them to reflect critically on their own

practice, individually and collaboratively

• inform professional development to support improvements to teaching

• boost teachers' self esteem and their commitment to teaching by enhancing their awareness of the nature of their teaching competence

• underpin an approach to improving teacher education programs, including cunicuhun and pedagogy

• provide a basis for communication about the nature of teachers' work and the quality of teaching and learning within the education community and

among education iiterest groups.

In short, the categories of teacher's competence stated above are involved in the Act of Republic of Indonesia No. 14 of 2005 on Teacher and Lecture and Regulation of Republic of Indonesia Government No. 19 of 2005 on Standard of National Education, including personal competence, pedagogical competence, professional competence and social competence.

2.1.2.1 Personal Competence

Personal competence is required for teachers. Thi competence may lead teacher to guide their student in order to achieve the educational goals. This competence also helps teacher in coping with obstacles faced in learning and teaching process, such as cultural difference, and the like.

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Personal competence of teacher as stated on the Act No. 14 of 2005 comprises of students' discipline, performance, responsibility, positive effect, and behavior.

Students' discipline may be defined as the level of discipline of students in performing their responsibilities. This aspect may determine the quality of learning outcomes. For example, when the teacher has poor discipline, it will affect to the target of subject matter they teach. As a result, the learning and teaching process will be stuck.

Performance and behavior are the two aspects determining the competence of the teacher. This aspect focuses on the way speak and dress of teacher. The fail in this astect will result to the low motivation of students in learning since the teacher is a model for students.'

In short, the personal competence is related to the way of teacher treat their students. The high grade iii this competence may contribute to the increasing of students' motivation in learning. Thus, prospective teacher, as an object of this research, have to improve their personal competence.

2.1,2.2 Pedagogical Competence

Theoretically, the main task of teachers is to provide students with knowledge (cognitive), attitude/value (affective) and skills (psychomotor). Also, the teacher has a function to be a guide in learning and teaching process in achieving the educational goals. Hence, the role of teachers is to teach as well as to educate.

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It is stated in the Act of Republic of Indonesia No. 14 of 2005 on Teacher and Lecture that the pedagogical competence comprises of comprehending students' characteristics, preparing lesson plan, implementing learning and teaching theories, determining learning strategy, using available learning facilities and infrastructures, explaining learning material at the classroom, assessing students, designing remedial and enrichment program in order to achieve the completeness of learning objectives.

Comprehending students' characteristic is related to the determination of teaching method. This competence suggests that the teachers should know the general characteristic of students in particular group of age. For example, if the teacher teach Junior High &hool's students, the teacher should possess the general knowledge on behavior pattern and thinking model of the students.

Preparing lesson plan. The learning and teaching process need to be prepared in order to achieve the efficient and effective outcomes. Thus the expected result may be obtained. Every plan is related to the concept on what activity will be performed. The learning and teaching program plan may predict the actions in classroom. The principle of learning and teaching plan is to administer and determine the learning aspects, such as objectives, material and content, method, aid and sources, and assessment. (Hasibuan, 1986, p. 41-42)

Implementing learning ar1d teaching theories. This aspect is related to the

determination of subject matter and teaching technique. The comprehension on theories may help teachers in performing their tasks.

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In conclusion, the padagogical competence is related to the preparation as well as implementation of lesson plan consisting of determining learning sources and media, formulating goals, and explaining the subject matter, preparing learning and teaching activities and providing assessment to the students achievement.

2.1.2.3 Professional Competence

The word "professional" is highly related to the word "profession". Profession is a kind of job requiring some particular requirement in implementing the job. The definition shows that the profession or professional need a specific and systemic knowledge fürmulated and implemented in order to fulfill the clients' need, for example, a teacher.

Moreover, a professional teacher should refer to the professional standard. The standard means the procedures, norms and principles used as a guide to produce qualified outcomes. Briefly, Eble (1988: 23) suggested that the teacher's own self-development and planning and implementation for further improvement based on feedbacks and research are assumed to be the minimal competency. Thus, professional competence asks teacher to develop their skill and competence, specifically related to their responsibilities.

Referring to the above description, it may be concluded that the teachers' professional competence may be described as a capacity or skill in implementing the roles or jobs based on feedbacks from colleague, research findings, or students and teachers' opinion. It consists of skill in understanding educational principles,

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comprehending and implementing the learning theories in accordance with the students need, implementing an appropriate teaching method, using learning aid and facilities, organizing and perfonning the learning program, performing learning evaluation, and encouraging students' motivation. (Act No. 14 Of 2005)

2.1.2.4 Social Competence

Social competence involves skill in communicating with students, teacher and other school community. This competence leads teachers to perform or act properly.

According Act No. 14 Of 2005), this competence involves skill in making students to participate actively in the classroom, responding students' participation positively, showing open attitude, and creating happiness and enthusiasm.

Based on the above discussion, it may be summarized that the competency of teacher is the capability of teacher in performing the pedagogical activities, such as, their competence in preparing the learning and teaching program, competence in performing and managing the learning and teaching process and the competence evaluating the learning and teaching process.

So, the aforementioned standard should be possessed by teachers in order to perform well their educational tasks. As a set, the standards call on teachers to demonstrate skill at selecting, developing, applying, using, communicating, and evaluating student assessment information and student assessment practices.

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2.2. Conceptual Framework

Based on the above discussion, the scope of a teacher's professional role and responsibilities for student assessment may be described in terms of the following activities. These activities may illustrate the four competences stated earlier.

The activities consist of activities before the instruction, including understanding students' cultural backgrounds, interests, skills, and abilities related to the subject matter they teach, understanding students' motivations and motivating them to learn, improving their instruction, and judging the extent of pupil attainment of instructional outcomes and the last is assessing students achievement.

In addition, the attitude and performance of teacher is also important to be considered. Positive attitude and polite manner in teaching will improve the competence of teacher, especially in teaching and social competence.

Thus, the aforementioned activities, attitude as well performance may be used to determine the competence of teachers.

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses about the methodology of this study, sampling

method, data collection method, and the technique of analysis. Each will be

discussed discretely.

3.1. Methodology

The study is a survey, developed using a questionnaire directed to the Pamong teachers who guides teachers' student implementing their PPL in 12 schools during academic yar (May - December) of 2006. The survey was employed since this type of study is directed to verifS' the existing theories or concept. So, the study is not intended to formulate new theory. (Mantra, 2001).

According to Rapple and Mensah (2003: 1), survey research is conducted to ask a group of people a set of carefully selected questions to collect their views, values and beliefs on a topic. Moreover, survey is a data collection technique in which information is gathered from individuals, called respondents, by having them to respond to questions (http ://www. cwu. edu/kaufthan!analysis/gloss4.

htrn).

In addition, Stone described the survey research as an easy and fast research instrument in collecting information on one particular topic in form of simple and relatively easy questionnaire (1993). Since this present research is

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intended to find out the Guru Pamorig's Perception on PPL students' teaching competence, thus one of proper approaches to obtain the perception may be reached by applying survey research.

3.2. Population and Sampling technique

The study was directed to the Famong teachers at 12 (fifleen) school at Jakarta. The 12 Pamong teachers were then became a sample of the study. The respondents were asked to complete the questionnaire provided by the researcher.

The sampling procedure used in this study was accidental sampLing. Accidental sampling, according to Sugiyono (1997: 64), is: "Sampling aksidental adalah teknik penentuan sampel, berdasarkan kebetulan, yaitu siapa saja yang secara kebetulan bertemu dengan peneliti dapat digunakan sebagai sampel, bila dipandang orang yang kebetulan ditemui itu cocok sebagai sumber data."

3.3. Data Collection Method

This research obtain the data from questionnaire distributed to 12 (twelve) guru pamong at 12 schools where the PPL students perform their teaching practices.

The questionnaire involves are the parameters on the competence of

English teaching by referring to competence cited on Law of Republic of

Indonesia No. 14 of 2005 on Teacher and Lecturer and Government Regulation

No. 19 of 2005 on Educational National Standard were examined, including

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personal competence, teaching competence, professional competence, social competence, and non-teaching competence including PPL students' participation in school activities and students' attendant.

List of questions in questionnaire is as follow:

3.4. Data Analysis Technique

Data for the present work were perception obtained from Guru Pamong at twelve (12) schools at Jakarta. The data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively in order to find out the real condition of students' teaching competence. The data, then, are analyzed, described, summarized, and interpreted. Accordingly, the development in teaching competence may be prepared.

No

Aspect of Competence

Number of Questions in Questionnaire

L

Personal Competence

3. la - f; 4

2.

Teaching Competence

3.2a -

3.

Professional Competence

3.3a - c

4.

Social Competence

34a - d

5.

Non-teaching aspect

3.5a - b

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