People And Organisational Management Education Essay

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The portfolio has five events in it, in which each of them demonstrates a stage of development and which requires specific thought and development. The five events which are recorded in the portfolio building are:




Learning needs

Learning opportunities

Experience shows what happened, What was done, what was seen, what made

Learning is the discovery that what happened has some significance for doing or changing things in the future.

Demonstration is the evidence that shows what has been learnt is actually used in the workplace or other relevant place.

Learning needs is known as ownership. It's when people take responsibility for what and how they develop.

Learning opportunities shows the real marker for growth and the sign that change is taking place.

There are seven good reasons why portfolio-building is helpful

Warren Redman (1995) says that it is helpful as a tool for self development, to asses prior learning, to gain accreditation, to share good practice, to evaluate training, to enhance performance and to change a culture.

"Personal Development Portfolio is defined as a record of goals, growth, achievement and attributes developed over time and in collaboration with others" (Windsor, 2000).


The Personal Development Portfolio (PDP) consists of several different elements:

a personal development plan

personality type

learning styles

theories of motivation

career development

Learning Styles

"Learning has happened when people can demonstrate that they know something they didn't know before (insights and realisations as well as facts) and/or when they can do something they couldn't do before (skills)" (Honey and Mumford, 1992).

There are large numbers of factors which influence the extent of learning. They are:

Awareness of the Learning process, Rewards and punishments, Blockages to learning, Personal learning style, Learning skills, Impact of boss, colleagues and subordinates, Impact of trainer and facilitator, Methods of learning, Culture/climate, Job content, Range of opportunities, The impact of shocks/mistakes, Recognition of need and Past experience of learning.

Honey and Mumford (1992) suggest four learning styles which are

Activist: Activists are enthusiastic, open-minded and their philosophy is "I'll try anything once". They tend to learn new things and like the challenges of new experiences. They prefer to have new experiences

Reflectors: Reflectors wouldn't make an easy decision to take a step forward. They think thoroughly before coming to a conclusion. They review the experience and their philosophy is to be cautious. They think in all the angles before making a move.

Theorists: Theorists conclude everything from the experience and think in a logical way and always relates one thing to the other.

Pragmatists: Pragmatists are very keen on trying the theories, ideas and techniques. They plan the next steps. Their philosophy is "How can i apply this inn practice".

My learning style is to learn new things and like the challenges of new experiences. Learning new things helps us to know a lot. From learning the new things, we can have new experiences, opportunities and know about the problems. In solving the problems there will be involvement of other people and bouncing ideas off them. I would like to be an Activist with having experiences.

Fleming and Mills (1992) suggest four learning styles known as VARK that reflect the student's experiences. VARK stands for Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinaesthetic.

Visual: In this type of learning style students learn by depicting the information from maps, charts, graphs, flow charts and labelled diagrams.

Aural / Auditory (A): In this of learning style students learn best from lectures, tutorials, group discussion, email, and tapes and by using mobile phones.

Read/write (R): In this type of learning style students prefer to learn by PowerPoint, the Internet, lists, dictionaries, quotations and words.

Kinaesthetic (K): In this type of learning style students learn by experience and practice (simulated or real) which includes demonstrations, case studies, practice and applications.

By the Fleming and Mills theory Aural/Auditory type of learning would be better for students. From the above four learning styles my learning style would match with the Aural/Auditory learning style because i would prefer to learn from lectures, tutorials and group discussion. Learning from the lectures and tutorials would be more preferable. From the group discussions lot can be learned because people in the group express their ideas which can be used for solving a problem.

Personality type

"The term personality by psychologists is defined as which consist of stable characteristics which explain why a person behaves in a particular way" (Mullins, 2006).

Self-control, independence, agreeableness and conscientiousness would be some examples of personality characteristics. Personality studies can be divided into two main approaches which has been named nomothetic and idiographic.

Nomothetic approaches will identify the personality traits and produce effective

measurements of the traits in order to draw comparisons between individuals. The major aim and outcome of this approach is to predict the behaviour of a personality.

Eysenck (1973) described personality types as Extroversion, Introversion, Neuroticism and stability. Individuals can be one of the four personality types from the Eysenck's theory.

Cattell (1977) identified 16 personality factors or source traits which are outgoing, more intelligent (abstract thinker), higher ego strength (emotional stable), dominant, surgency (optimistic), stronger superego, strength(conscientious), parmia (adventurous), presmia (tender-minded), pretension (suspicious), autia (imaginative), shrewdness, insecure- guilt-proneness, radicalism, self sufficiency, high self-concept control(controlled), high ergic tension (tense, frustrated).

McCrae and Costa (1989) suggests five traits which distinguish individuals and also capture distinct differences between people. These traits are known as Big Five. They are:




Emotional stability/Instability

Openness or intellect/Closed-mindedness

"Idiographic approaches emphasize the development of the individual and of individual's views of themselves- their self concept" (Mullins, 2006).

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator identifies different personality types and attitudes. It also shows characteristics frequently associated with particular personality types.

Introvert (I) or Extrovert (E)

Sensing (S) or Intuitive (N)

Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)

Perceiving (P) or Judging (J)

Sensing types

Intuitive types















A personality type ESFP indicates that a person is friendly, outgoing and accepting. Person with such personality type enjoys working with others to make things happen. They bring a realistic approach and sense to their work and enjoy working. They are flexible and spontaneous and easily adapt to new people and environments. They show their interest in learning the new skills. This personality type matches with my own personality type. Being friendly, jovial, talkative, outgoing, spontaneous, easily adapted to new environment and enjoying the work at workplace is my own personality type.

Belbin's team role

Belbins' team roles are useful for the team members in the organisation. My designation in the company named Speck Systems Ltd was a Software Engineer, where the role was Team Leader.

Understanding the belbins team roles will help the team members to improve the performance (Aritzeta et al, 2007). In a team at workplace everyone has their individual responsibilities. Every role helps to achieve the team's goal. If every member of the team understands their team role it helps them to develop their strengths and manage their weaknesses and improve themselves. As a Team leader we often used this model to create the balanced teams.

The Belbin's team roles are:

Shapers (SH)

Shapers are the one who is very challenging in improving the team. They are the one who stimulates the team members and finds the best approach to a problem. Shapers are challenging, dynamic and courageous.

Implementer (IMP)

Implementers are the one who gets the things done. Implementers turn the ideas and concepts of team members into practical actions and plans. They work systematically and efficiently in a well organized manner.

Completer - Finisher (CF)

Completer-Finishers are the one who are responsible for the completion of the project. They see that the projects are completed within the time and thoroughly without any errors. They pay attention even for the smaller details. They make sure that every member of the team completes their work meeting the deadlines. They are conscientious, and anxious.

Coordinator (CO)

Coordinators are the ones who take the team-leader role and guide the team to do the best and to achieve the objectives. They are excellent listeners and recognize the value that each team member. They are calm and good-natured and handle the tasks very effectively.

Team Worker (TW)

Team Workers are the one who provide support for the team and ensure that the team is working together. They are flexible, diplomatic, and perceptive.

Resource Investigator (RI)

These are the one who are very innovative and intrusive. They are the team members, who are very enthusiastic and help the team in accomplishing its objective. They are outgoing and extroverted.

Plant (PL)

These are the people who come with innovative thoughts and new ideas. They normally prefer to work apart from the team. They are impractical at times as their ideas are so novel.

Monitor - Evaluator (ME)

These are the people who are good at evaluating and analyzing the ideas of other people like plants. They see the consequences of all the things before taking a decision. They are critical thinkers and are very clever and systematic in their approach.

Specialist (SP)

Specialists are the one who possess a specialized knowledge which is needed for getting the job done. Specialists feel proud of themselves for their skills and abilities, and they work hard for maintaining their professional status.

As a Team Leader my role in the company named Speck Systems Ltd was shaper, completer-finisher and implementer who was responsible for guiding the team members, making the project completed within the time without any errors.

Theories of Motivation

There are many theories of motivation which helps to explain the behaviour and nature of people. These theories of motivation are very important for the people who are at the beginning of their career. They are

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Alderfer's ERG theory

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory shows the hierarchy of needs which acts as motivators. They are physiological needs, safety needs and love needs which relates to job context, esteem needs and the need for self-actualisation which relates to job content (Mullins, 2006).

All the needs mentioned by the Maslow are not satisfied at the work place. All the physiological needs were satisfied because there was a good pay, pleasant working conditions and a good cafeteria which provided me good food and water. Safety needs are satisfied as there was safe working conditions and job security. Social needs are not satisfied as there was no good team. Esteem needs are not satisfied to that level because there was no proper recognition and promotion. Self-actualisation needs are also not satisfied as there was no growth in the job and no opportunities for creativity.

Herzberg's two-factor theory consists of two factors which relate to the job context and with the job environment. These factors are the Hygiene factors and growth factors. Hygiene factors can be related to the Maslow's lower level needs and the growth factors can be related to the Maslow's higher level needs.

In the company Speck systems Ltd, the management has failed to provide the motivation. Their attention was only on the hygiene factors but not on the growth factors.

Career Development

Career is nothing but a profession or occupation which we choose. Career development means managing the career within the organizations. Career development includes learning new skills and making improvements which help in our career. Career development is an ongoing, lifelong process which helps us to learn and achieve more in our career. By creating the personal career development plan, goals and objectives can be set for our own personal career growth.

A career development plan may be a short one or a long one. It depends on the person who wants to achieve his goals in short time or take more time. Career Development Plan includes five steps like identifying the career interests, identifying the resources, preparing the plan, revise and adjust the plan and assess the progress.

The profession or the career which i choose was software profession because there will be a good future in this profession as the world cannot run without software. My designation was Software Engineer and within a short time promotion was given as a team leader. As a team leader there were many roles and responsibilities like managing the team, make sure that the team are performing well and completing the tasks assigned to them within the stipulated time. My short-term goal is to become a project manager and long-term goal is to own a software company.

There should be an Action plan to achieve the goals. Action plan determines the steps to be taken to achieve the particular goals. Action plan for achieving the goals is

Action (or) What needs to be done?


Time to complete the action

To Join as a Team Leader in a software company

CV should be updated in the job sites, preparing and attending the interviews

1 year

To get the promotion as a Project Manager

As a team lead hard work should be done and analyze the projects carefully so that you can be promoted as project manager.

Within 3 years

To Lead the software division as a head

To lead the software division control on all the projects, getting the projects into the company is very essential.

Within 7 years

To own a Software Company

Good idea on the process of getting the projects, maintaining and finishing them in time is required.

Within 14 years


It can be concluded that good learning style helps us to learn a lot and improve ourselves. Career development is a lifelong process which helps us to learn a lot in our career. Career development plan is very essential for an individual to achieve goals in his/her own life. An Action plan is very important to determine the steps needed to achieve the goals. Personality development plays a vital role in each and every individual's life.