Past Origins And Philosophical Concepts Of Childhood Education Essay

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"Children are precious gifts from God in whom He has planted His very image. Children from the youngest age deserve respect not only on account of whom they represent but also on account of who they will eventually become"

Comenius cited from Early childhood education page 90

What are the past origins and philosophical concepts of childhood? Has the society always treated the child as a 'whole person', given him or her the necessary status in society? Was there a break-through in mentality? The purpose of this essay is, to help me identify and gain an understanding to see whether childhood became an established and recognised time of life for the child throughout the centuries. Personally, I believe that, all children deserve an opportunity to prove their capabilities and that they should be respected as individuals.

However, until around the twelfth century, European society did not think of childhood as an important period of development, in the manner that we do nowadays. Children were not cherished as individuals. In the Middle Ages, children had no status in society, and were considered as miniature adults. Children were trained to become the future productive members of the society or community. Moreover, the young children were not expected to need any special treatment. However, this placid attitude, reflected deeply in the lack of schools available. The possibility of having proper education was remote, and considered to be an extravagant luxury fit only for boys coming from wealthy families. Children's welfare and rights were still not recognised or acknowledged. But society's ideology towards the conception of childhood changed gradually from time to time. Research shows that eventually, children stopped being considered as an addition contribution to their families' financial economy. Thanks to the initiative efforts and work of influential international figures, new concepts of childhood were introduced. New systems and reforms were established to give status to the child. Towards the twentieth century education replaced child-labour. Unlike previous centuries, society acknowledged the assets of the child's educational contribution, rather than his financial input. Since then, education became the main element of childhood, and has become a necessity. Much can be said about the twenty first century where, individualism and creativity are synonymous with early childhood.

Studies into the history of childhood during the medieval times

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This was not always the case, as one of the most controversial issues of the study of childhood's history is whether or not children were treated as miniature adults.

Early studies into the history of childhood were those of Aries Philippe (1962), Centuries of Childhood and De Mause, Lloyd, (1976) The History of Childhood. Both historians came to a conclusion and stated that the children's welfare has evolved significantly throughout the centuries.  Both historians, picture a very negative image of childhood, in the earlier period. Lloyd De Mause (1976) went as far as saying that;

 "The history of childhood is a nightmare from which we have only recently begun to awaken,"

Moreover he stated that ;

"The further back in history one goes, the lower the level of child care, and the more likely children are to be killed, abandoned, beaten, terrorized, and sexually abused".

Lloyd De Mause, (ed.), The History of Childhood (London, 1976).

On the other hand Aries pointed out and supported this idea by saying that,

"It is hard to believe that this neglect was due to incompetence or incapacity; it seems more probable that there was no place for childhood in the medieval world."(Aries, 2002, p.33)

Moreover, in his book 'Centuries of childhood', he continues to sustain this argument by saying that "there was no concept of childhood as a state different to adulthood in these centuries, and therefore, even if parents did feel affection for their offspring, they did not fully understand how to respond to the emotional needs of their children.'.

Ariès, Philippe, 1962, Centuries of Childhood, New York: Random House

However, this argument was strongly challenged by Hawalt et al (1986). To prove her point she researched corner inquest records where it was concluded that medieval families did in fact make a distinction between being a child and an adult.

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Hawalt (1986) Hwang,P.C., in Lamb,ME., and Sigel I.E. (ed)(1996) Images of Childhood. London: Routledge

David Archard (2001), also agrees with this opinion. He argues that

"all societies at all times have had the concept of childhood, that is to say, the concept that children can be distinguished from adults in various ways"

Archard D., in Heywood. C (ed) (2001) A history of Childhood. USA: Blackwell Publishers Inc.

Linda Pollack, (1983) in her rigorous research criticised severely all the opinions of Aries and de Mause and argues that childhood was not as stern as it was implied by these two writers. She continues to sustain her point and says, that the parents always treated their children in the same way and that there was no change at all during this period. Moreover, she argues that childhood did not evolve much during this period.

 "The texts reveal no significant change in the quality of parental care given to, or the amount of affection felt for infants for the period 1500-1900"

Linda Pollock, Forgotten Children - Parent : Child Relations from 1500-1900 (Cambridge University Press, 1983).

It is worth reflecting that, there are different opinions of how childhood was perceived throughout the centuries. In order to determine this, it is important to establish if there was a change, how it changed, and the final outcome of this change.

The change through History

"Any country and citizenry that truly believes attention to children's care and education during the early years is of inestimable value to society would make every reasonable effort to invest in preschool education'

Early Childhood Education journal, Vol 32, no 3 December 2004 (c2004) Blended perspectives A Global vision for high Quality E.C.E.

Between the 16th and 17th century (pre-industrial period), England was mainly rural and agricultural. During their childhood, kids worked in the fields. If they could not work on their families' farm, they were put to work elsewhere.

The modern idea of distinguishing childhood from adulthood, started to develop throughout the sixteenth century. Middle class parents began to demand some form of formal educational system for their sons. Consequently, schooling for boys started getting popular. This revolutionary social attitude towards children and childhood, now requested new educational provisions. The number of new schools began expanding throughout Europe. Parents preferred that their children attended school, than sending them to learn skills.

By the end of the sixteenth century, and beginning of the 17th century, society started separating the role of a child from that of an adult. Grown-ups did not hesitate to show this change. This new conception of childhood put upper class children in the limelight, and they soon became a source of amusement among adults. They were dressed fashionable clothes and were the delight of their parents. However, another perception of the concept of childhood soon arose amongst the church and the moralists, who felt the importance of spiritual development during these early years. They thought that children needed discipline and education: the child was perceived as

"a delicate creature, who must be protected, educated, and moulded in accordance with the current educational beliefs and goals". (Aries, 2002, p.35)

However, during the Victorian age, the thought of having any primary education was still not important. Britain was still short of any primary educational provision. The Victorian era has been depicted by historians, as a foundation of the modern concept of childhood. Paradoxically, during this period, the Industrial revolution promoted child labour.

During this era, the industrial Revolution brought on new jobs. They worked daily in coal mines and factories. They carried out hazardous jobs. Children were ideal for these jobs as they were agile, and could crawl into small places between the heavy machines. They were paid less than adults. Throughout their childhood, boys and girls had no choice but to work hard, in order to help their families. This was not considered mean or odd, because parents thought that work was important for the financial situation of their families. Throughout this time, children spent their childhood crammed in overcrowded rooms and an insanitary environment. All this resulted in bad health, injuries, and sometimes even death. In his novels, Charles Dickens (1812) emphasizes on the severity of their childhood.

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Child manual labour was slowly diminished and finally stopped in Britain. This change was brought on through the introduction of the factory Acts of 1802-1878. However, the thought of having any primary education was not important during the Victorian Age. Britain and all Europe were still short of any primary educational provision. When compulsory education was introduced in the nineteenth century there was a desperate resistance from working-class families. They needed the children's wages and would not exchange them with education.

Throughout history, many early childhood educators struggled to better children's education and holistic needs. Historically they all sustained the same idea that of children need play to develop their maximum potentiality.

These however is not to specify that all these influential figures were of the same opinion about the teaching and theories of learning. They disagreed on several issues, but all emphasized on the vital importance of a multi-sensory approach to learning

Froebel, Montessori and Steiner all agreed and set up tangible material which enabled the child to explore and discover the world around them..

Some other pioneers of early childhood assumed that child's development is to its maximum because it is an innate skill. Although their conception of child's development differed, Russeau, Piaget and Vygotsky all agreed that the child's characteristics were part of 'nature'.

However, the work and effort of early pioneers contributed to the historical and philosophical changes which eventually improved the role of the children in society.

During the 17th and 18th century, " Monitorial" schools, established by the Quaker, Joseph Lancaster, and the New Lanark elementary schools, founded by Robert Owen were the only foundations which provided education for the infants. During this period there was still the idea that education throughout childhood was irrelevant. The majority of the children did not attend school, as it was not yet compulsory. Boys coming from wealthy families had the only opportunity for some official education. They were provided with elementary education to help them with basic literacy, and arithmetic. On the other hand, little girls in England, did not attend school, but stayed at home, to learn how to become good wives. Disabled children were also subject to be neglected and forgotten. However it seems to be the case, that it was very unlikely for children to have good quality jobs when they became adults. Lloyd de Mause (1976) supports this argument, and says that children grew up unable to write or read.

De Mause, Lloyd, (1976). (ed.), The History of Childhood :London,

The Victorians gradually realised the importance of the role of the child during childhood.. Influential reformers started becoming aware of the true concept of childhood. They started debating the development of children. Politicians also become sensitive to the fact that educating children could be an asset to the future society. Since then this concept of childhood remained dominant in other societies. Nutbrown et al (2010) sustains this by

" the education of young children could contribute to the development of a better society"

Nutbrown C., Clough P., and Selbie P (2010) Early Childhood Education., London:Sage publications

Consequently, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries schools started being established by benefactors and politicians who believed that society could be of an advantage by having better educated children . Moreover Nutbrown et al (2010)

'Schools were being developed and systems devised and expanded, not only by religious organisations and benefactors, but also of course by the socially and politically motivated who were driven, not by religious conviction but by a belief that the education of young children could contribute to the development of a better society

Influential Figures and their philosophy of childhood

Education is the womb in which our society reproduces itself and re-creates itself for the future. ( Louis Galea Minister of Education, National Minimum Curriculum Malta -1999)

http://curriculum.gov.mt/docs/nmc_english.pdf

Many influential figures in history started changing the ideas, the policies and habits of how early education was perceived by society. Now, it was considered that educating children would have social benefits. Nutbrown et al (2010) pg 5, sustains this argument when she wrote and said

'seeing education and schooling as part of what we could call a social intervention to make a difference to the lives of poor and orphaned children'

Some major influential figures who contributed in the development of early childhood education are brought up in this study. Although their ideas of childhood development were different all of them thought that the child's innate tendencies and characteristic were part of 'nature' and that learning should be by discovery and not by instructions.

Comenius (1592-1670), is credited for introducing the first illustration book for children who was called: "Orbis Pictus (The World of Pictures). He believed that children needed pictures to help them learn. His philosophy was based upon the idea that, children should be permitted to play, learn and discover at their own pace. He compared the children to 'seeds' Selbie & Clough (2005) journal of early childhood research

2005, Sage Publications (www.sagepublications.com)

Nutbrown C et al (2010)pg 113 continues to sustain this and says, that they need a 'guiding hand to help them flourish', and that 'a child cannot be forced to learn' and heeds on to say that 'A child will blossom into the flower he or she was created to become'. Moreover, he believed in social improvement of inclusive education where 'all children should receive their education, whatever their gender and social class'. In Nutbrown C. et al (2010)

During the eighteenth century Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), a philosopher, first wrote about 'nurturing' children as opposed to the 'repressive' perspective taken at the time (MacLeod-Brudenell 2004). Rousseau renowned for his book Emilie, encouraged free play. He focused on the surrounding settings. His style is still followed today in early childhood classes. Following on from his work, other theorists have developed varying approaches to the care and education of children.

Pestalozzi (1746-1827),

Pestalozzi, born in Zurich, believed that children should 'discover the world through activity'. Nutbrown C. et al (2001) Pg 112. His wish was to educate the child as a whole individual. His interests in children's rights makes him an important focus of historical and philosophical studies. He was one of the primary founders of inclusive education. He founded a school for girls in 1806.

Robert Owen (1771-1858),

Robert Owen (1790) started the first elementary schools for children whose parents and older brothers worked in the New Lanark Mills. Moreover, as stated in the book early childhood education, Nutbrown et al (2010) he was 'making an education of the community'. He supported the enactment of the Factory Act of 1819, and was the first from forbidding teachers to hit children.

'I support a philosophy of education which does its best to reduce any need for punishment'

Nutbrown et al ( 2010) early childhood education Sage Publications

Froebel (1782-1852),

'Children must master the language of things before they master the language of words'

Friedrich Froebel (1895) Pedagogies of the Kindergarten research publisher on internet.

The Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852), a German educator, was one of the early pioneers of the reformation of childhood education. As an idealist, he supported the idea, that every child from birth had educational potentiality, and that a appropriate educational setting was imperative to help the child to continue to grow and develop his or her optimal potential.

"Young children are to be regarded and tended essentially like plants. Like these, if they were given the right conditions, they would grow and unfold and flower, by their own law, each according to its individual capacity and destiny." (Lawrence, 1969, p.195)

Lawrence, E (1969) Friedrich Froebel and English Education London, Routledge&Kegan Paul

Froebel believed that a child should learn at his own pace. The child should never be hurried or rushed in this childhood development.

"Young animals and plants are given rest, and arbitrary interference with their growth is avoided, because it is known that the opposite practice would disturb their pure unfolding and sound development; but, the young human being is looked upon as a piece of wax or a lump of clay which man can mould into what he pleases" (Froebel, 1907, p. 8).

Froebel, F. (1907) The Education of Man New York, Appleton & Co

Froebel s philosophy of education was also based on the importance of play during childhood through manipulative materials, creativity and motor experience, the latter referring to learning through activities. He maintained the idea that a young child can only learn through direct contact with tangible objects.

'Children are born with a need to play and explore' Nutbrown C et al pg11 Early Childhood Education

Froebel's dream was to create a world for little children... a world which he called kindergarten.

According to Froebel, "play is the freest active manifestation of the child's inner self which springs from the need of that inner living consciousness to realize itself outwardly." (Bowen, 1907, p.116)

Bowen, H. (1907) Froebel and Education by Self-Activity London, William Heinemann

In Froebel's Kindergarten, activities through play, enhanced a child's social, emotional, physical and intellectual development. Play was the most important steps in the child's growth. In his studies one of the most apparent elements which fascinated Froebel was the child innate wish to play.

"It is through play that the child learns the use of his limbs, of all his bodily organs, and with this use gains health and strength. Through play he comes to know the external world, the physical qualities of the objects which surround him, their motions, action, and reaction upon each other, and the relation of these phenomena to himself, - a knowledge that forms the basis of that which will be his permanent stock for life. (Bowen, 1907, p.101)

Bowen, H. (1907) Froebel and Education by Self-Activity London, William Heinemann

To sustain his philosophy, he provided the infants with educational toys to stimulate their creativity.

Charlotte Mason 1842-1923

Another pioneer was Charlotte Mason whose philosophy in educating was by letting them use their own senses and learn through experience. She also encouraged home education.

Rachel and Margaret Mc Millan (1859-1931),

The Macmillan Sisters (1859) dedicated their lives on promoting a combined kind of service, that of social, health and education. This was to encourage mothers to bring their children to the nursery. Children stayed in well-supervised play areas. They introduced health and social welfare in their kindergarten schools to deal with a holistic development of the child.

Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), an Austro-Hungarian philosopher believed that learning should be holistic. In his Waldorf schools, crafts music and arts played an important factor in the school's curriculum.

Whereas, Montessori and Froebel focused on other aspects of learning that of individual discovery, Steiner based his ideas on more social aspects.

Maria Montessori (1870-1952),

Maria Montessori an Italian physician, worked with poor and mentally disabled children. She taught them self help skills. Montessori also believed that children had an innate ability to learn educational skills. In the Montessori environment, children were encouraged to correct their own mistakes, hence permitting the child to be reinforced positively and subsequently will have an internal satisfaction/ Whilst Froebel believed that concrete objects would also teach abstract concepts, Maria Montessori believed that children's learning would guide and help the child to build up a better future. Her multi-sensory approach to learning is still very popular in kindergarten classes, nowadays.

Susan Sutherland Isaacs (1885-1948)

Another pioneer, Susan Isaacs' influence is experienced in nowadays schools. She established the 'experimenting' Malting House School in 1924. Nutbrown et al (2010) pg 54 her philosophy highlighted the concept of 'discovery' learning and play as the child's primary education. She also believed in the 'maximum use of the outdoors' Nutbrown et al (2010) pg 107

Jean Piaget (1896-1980

Piaget's philosophy also respects children as 'independent learners'. He argues that children learn from their spontaneous involvement of activities. He also emphasised the involvement of play to enhance cognitive development,

'Piaget viewed play as a process in which the child is active and through which the child learns', (O'Hagan and Smith, 1993, p.69).

O'Hagan, M. & Smith, M. (1993) Early Years Child Care and Education: Key Issues 2nd ed. China: Tindall

Piaget spoke about children during their childhood as being 'egocentric', that is to say that because of their restricted knowledge of the world, they have trouble understanding the point of view of others. His work presented much criticism; Donaldson (1978) in particular argued that many of Piaget's research lacked relation to actual life. (Donaldson 1978) .

Donaldson, M. (1978) Children's Minds London: Fontana

Lev S.Vygotsky (1896-1971),

Another early theorist who can be named as a 'constructivist' is Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Whilst agreeing with Piaget that during their childhood, children were 'active' learners, he placed more weight on social communication with others, as a way to stimulate learning. He introduced the 'zone of proximal development', Although he also believed that intellectual development was natural, he argued that a child had to have the guidance of adults to attain her optimal potentiality.(MacLeod-Brudenell, 2004). MacLeod-Brudenell, I. (Ed) (2004) Advanced Early Years Care and Education Oxford: Heinemann.

It can be argued that, the philosophy of these historical figures can be correlated to their interpretation of the issue of 'children's rights'. All these past pioneers, and present researchers, agree on the fact that there is a very close similarity between the perception in the concept of childhood, and the claim to children's rights. All agree that children have the right to learn. Jalango M.R. et al, support this idea by stating that

"All young children have a right to develop optimally, to have their intrinsic worth as human beings recognised, and to have their learning facilitated by caring adults"

Jalongo M.R., Fennimore B.S., Pattnark. J., Laverick D. M., Brewster J., and Mutuku M. (2004) Blended perspectives: A Global vision ," Early Childhood Education Journal Vol 32, no 3

The concept that learning is a process which cannot be hurried has been continuously echoed through time by all pioneers of Early Childhood education. Nowadays children are continuously made to learn from printed out handouts. It is hard for me to believe that young infants can achieve more from this formal teaching, than they do from experimenting with age- appropriate tasks. My ideal kindergarten classroom is seeing children experimenting with the nature around them, caring for pets and plants, creative painting, engaging themselves in role play and above all getting messy.

Acts and Legislations

There is no duty more important than ensuring that children's rights are respected, that their welfare is protected, that their lives are free from fear and that they can grow up in peace.

Kofi Annan, the 7th Secretary-General of the United Nations

It is argued that all children ought to have an equal opportunity to demonstrate their abilities and should be respected as individuals. Unfortunately this was not always the issue.

In 1862, the Revised Code was established. Grants were given to elementary schools according to the grade of performance and abilities of its pupils. Gradually the life for poor children started changing. It took some time for the present government to decide that it was important for the children to be protected by law. Child-labour was discussed in parliament, and it was established that no child under the age of ten was allowed to work in a mine. Parliament also passed a law requiring children to attend school every week. This was presented in parliament by Lord Shaftesbury who later on founded and was chairman of the Ragged School Union. These 'ragged schools' were for poor children. However, school was not yet compulsory, and children had to pay for this service. The Forster Education Act of 1870 came into force and required that all England would provide elementary schools to young children. The Mundella Code of 1882 brought on a big change. Finally, schooling became compulsory. All children had to attend school till the age of 10 and later on it became obligatory till the age of 12. Shortly after on, the school's 'pence' fee was removed so now it was free for all.

Discussions started in parliament, to decide the age when a child should start attending school. The idea of sending the children a year before other European countries was brought up by Mundella. He addressed the parliament and said

"I ask you Englishmen and Englishwomen are Austrian children to be educated before English children?" (National Education League 1869:133)

National Education League 1869:133) Report of the General Meetings of the Members of the National Education League., Birmingham: National Education League

After the Second World War, in Britain, the decrease in family siblings and the closing down of kindergarten schools had lessened the opportunity for little children to play and socialise. At that time, the Local Education Authorities (LEAs) found it hard to add to the number of nurseries, as the Ministry of Education Circular 8/60 said that there could be no increase in nursery school provision. The shortage of LEA nursery places and the continuous increase of parental awareness in the little children's wellbeing and education during their childhood, triggered a new sort of nursery provision, that of nursery groups.

In 1972, the Secretary of State for Education, Ms. Margaret Thatcher presented a White Paper, which planned for nursery day schools to be provided for the little children. There was no turning back. Nowadays research shows that children's rights are recognised internationally. These have been acknowledged in most of the countries, through both international and national treaties. The most important laws which contributed to the rights of the children are, The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Declaration of Human Rights, Children Act 1989, the Education Act 2002, Every Child Matters, and the new Childcare Act 2006 which is entirely devoted to early childhood practice. Clearly now the child is an active individual who "can contribute to society amongst others, and who are much more competent than we choose to believe, and at much younger ages too". Freeman cited in King, (2007:210)

King, M.(2007) Children's rights to participation. In waller, T. (2007) An introduction to Early Childhood. Paul Chapman:London

The Establishment of Laws and Acts in Malta

Education is the womb in which our society reproduces itself and re-creates itself for the future. ( Louis Galea Minister of Education, National Minimum Curriculum Malta -1999)

http://curriculum.gov.mt/docs/nmc_english.pdf

During the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century in Malta, the vast majority of Maltese families also lived in great poverty. Childhood was not much different for Maltese children. Boys, at a very early age, were sent to toil in fields to help their families whilst, girls helped their mothers at home. As the Maltese families were very poor, the necessity to provide their children with proper education was never considered. During the British stay in Malta, the Governor Sir Henry F. Bouviere (1836-42) engaged Mr. John Austin the High Commission to do research about the situation of the Maltese families. In the Commissioner's report of 1836, Mrs. Sarah Austin commented on the Maltese children and stated that:

"The moral and intellectual contribution of the people is dreadful. No schools in the Casals, no tolerable education for the middling classes, a University whose first professor received £25 a year, no press, no place for discussion, no intercourse with the English of an amicable and instructive type- what wonder if they are ignorant and childish. The only thing I cannot understand is how life is sustained under these circumstances."

Quoted from Dr. David R. Marshall in History of the Maltese Language in Local Education (Malta, University Press 1971) pg 13

In 1849, in Malta there were only 30 primary schools, whilst in Gozo only two small schools existed. Sir Patrick Joseph Keenan, the Commissioner who was in charge of writing a report about the education of children in Malta, in 1881 also suggested 'payment according to results obtained by children'. Teachers were paid according to the results, which were obtained by the children. These had to sit for an exam which was given by the 'inspector'. This system was used in Malta till 1900.

J. Zammit Mangion states; 'The tyranny of reading and writing and figuring was now complete...The children were trained like pointer to bark at print'.

J Zammit Mangion,in op.cit. p.135.

In the early twentieth century (1927) a survey was carried out in Malta, and Pawlu F. Bellanti (1901) stated that,

"the fact that nearly fifty per cent of the rising generation are growing up without any sort of training or instruction is of too serious a nature to be left unnoticed."

Bellanti P.F., Census of the Maltese Islands taken on the Sunday the 31st March, 1901, under Ordinances no X of 1900 and NoIII of 1901, (Malta Government Printing Office, 1903) p.LVII

In 1944 the Education act gave rise to the creation of other schools and in 1981 the creation of special educational needs schools.

The Education Act in Malta came into force in 1988. It declared that obligatory education commences at the age of 5 years. It also declared that it was the responsibility of every parent of a child to make certain that their infant had to attend school everyday during the whole scholastic year.

http://www.european-agency.org/country-information/malta/national-overview/legal-system

It was a break through for all the children. Inclusive education was also a big issue and the Maltese National Minimum Curriculum ( 1999), dedicates a section to early childhood education and acknowledges inclusive Education as one of the basic principles in education. By contrast to previous centuries, a child with a disability now attends a mainstream kindergarten, with other children. In 2000 The Equal Opportunities Act was established in Parliament. The Equal Opportunities Act (2000) spoke about inclusion and stated that it was against the law for an educational entity to discriminate against disabled children

http://www.european-agency.org/country-information/malta/national-overview/legal-system

My memories of childhood

"All young children have the right to develop optimally to have their intrinsic worth as human beings recognized and to have their learning facilities by caring adults"

Jalango M.R., Fennimore B.S., Pattmark. J., Laverick De Anna M., Brewster J., and Mutuku M. (2004) Blended Perspectives: A global vision (from) Early childhood Education Journal Vol 32, no 3, December 2004

The course of developing the concept of childhood is an ongoing continuous practice. In the 20th century the most vital change in the welfare of children was the striking reformation in health issues and education. Governments funded social benefits which subsequently, enabled the child to extend his or her life expectancy and to have a better education. Vaccines and medicine were administered to eliminate childhood diseases and schools were established all over Europe.

However, I was raised up in Gozo, the small sister island of Malta, and traditions were still more dominant. Religion was the main focus of the community and families. I attended a convent school run by a religious society. The sisters in the nursery ran the kindergarten school in a very regime way. We always started our day with prayers and hymns. Morning lessons started with mathematics and we would recite over and over again a set of numbers. A paragraph from the Holy Bible was read every morning by the mother superior, whilst we later chanted psalms until we got them perfect. However, I don't have fond memories of this school, as I still remember the taste of cod liver oil which I had to endure as a 'compulsory delicacy'. I was never allowed to learn through exploration or play. No stimulating or creative activities were introduced.

However an enriched nurturing environment was provided at home. My childhood memories at home with my family are both memorable and positive. A balanced life was maintained where my emotional and physical basic needs were provided and catered for. Like a sponge i absorbed the basic foundations of adulthood which ultimately helped me take responsibilities of a parent. My parents provided me with love, education, protection and were my role-models. Wonderful smells filled our house and my home was a place of comfort and love.

As a child I remember having completed my homework, venturing outside and playing in the empty streets. It was traditional to play in the quiet backstreets. We invented new games and played 'hopscotch', 'catch', 'hide and seek 'or beads and marbles. We engaged ourselves in 'miniature adult' role and we played for very long periods without any adult's supervision or interference. This playing in the street allowed me to increase my creativity, develop my leadership and enabled me to work as a group. It is through play that I interacted with the world around me. It brought out the maximum potential of my childhood's development - intellectually, physically, socially and emotionally.

Childhood at the turn of the twenty first century

Paradoxically, at the turn of the twenty first century, history is repeating itself. It is worth reflecting, that we are rekindling the ideas of past pioneers and subsequently passing them on as our own "new" ideas. This is supported by Rosemary Peacocke (1999), when she stated that it is a matter of "old wine in new bottles, old plasticine in new shapes". She continues to sustain her views by saying that history comes as a "circular path". Whilst Cathy Nutbrown (2010) also supports this idea and claims that "nothing is new, ideas simply recur". I ask, do we learn from history, or do we commit the same mistakes?

Lesley Abbott and Helen Moylett (1999) Early Education Transformed. London: Palmer Press

Cathy Nutbrown,Peter Clough, Philip Selbie (2010) Early Childhood Education History Philosphy and Experience. London: Sage Publications Bibliography

Researchers of the future will keep referring to the teachings of past philosophers, in hope of achieving the perfect result for the optimal upbringing of children, that of nurturing, and educating each child to attain his or her maximum potential through her childhood

"It is essential to have a better conceptual articulation of what good early childhood education is, with appropriate assessment and evaluation, which does not cut across its valuable traditions". (Bruce, 1997, p.204)

Bruce, T. (1997) Early Childhood Education London, Hodder&Stoughton

Ironically many of the ideas that shaped the children's characteristics of past century still apply today. Children still work, the difference being, that sometimes they do odd jobs to earn extra pocket money to buy new entertaining technologies. Girls are not needed as 'little mummies' anymore, but play virtual families on the computer. Since the beginning of indoor activities such as computerHYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_games"/ video games, and television, serious worries have evolved about childhood-life. The freedom of childhood which was so much believed in, and encouraged by early pioneers is being now endangered by the fear of exploitation of new technologies.

Today the modern concept of childhood is that society view children as "social beings, active in the construction of their own realities and subjectivities and therefore potentially active in the construction and deconstruction of dominant ideologies" (Cole, 2004, p.6)

Cole, M(2004)"Time to Liberate the Mind: primary Schools in the New Century" Primary Teaching Studies, August 2004, Trentham Books

Life for children is again being restricted, as now they live in large blocks of flats, with little space or time to be creative. Much can be debated about the continued existence of children's street culture which reigned supreme during my childhood! Is this 'golden era' for children?

Conclusion

Despite all this, in this exciting time of continuous development, I have to admit that this century is offering children in their early years, better welfare and learning opportunities, which are appropriate to their individual needs. The attitude of society towards the conception of childhood throughout the centuries has changed in a positive way, and society nowadays perceives childhood as an important factor in a child's life. Unlike children of past ages, now have status in society and are individuals.

Qvortrup, (1994) also supports this fact by saying that

"Children today are no longer seen as incomplete adults not yet able to participate in social life, but as co-constructors of childhood and society"

Qvortrup, J., M. Bardy, G. Sgritta and H. Wintersberger (1994) Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice and Politics. Aldershot: Avebury.