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During Pol Pot regime 1975-1979, there was a severe crisis in all sectors especially in education system. School infrastructure was devastated and used in other purpose, and that time there was no educational administrative, no curricular and no adequate learning materials, including qualified teaching personnel (Ayres, 2003, p.128). In late 1979, the unclear education system was formed by establishing a school in a village which was teaching in a classroom that was unused building left from the Pol Pot regime. The teacher had no experiences and no pedagogical training and also there is no teaching material (Ayres, 2003, p. 129).
Cambodia is a developing country which is rehabilitating educational system. The Asian Development Bank (1996) conducted a research of education situation in 1980s as "poor school conditions, large numbers of unqualified teachers, and absence of a nation curriculum framework, inadequate book supply system and a high pupil dropout rate in primary school" (Asian Development Bank, 1996, p. 6)
MoEYS has adopted the concept of Child Friendly School and set an objective to promote the quality of education. The text books and the curriculum were improved as material resources (MoEYS, 2007). Despite Child Friendly School Policy focused on primary school to achieve the objective No2 for effective teaching and learning activities. And government pays attention very much for the quality of education. The number of student enrollments was increased after the priority action program launched and focused on quality of teaching as well as enhancing the literacy among children at primary school. (MoEYS, 2007).
The purpose of this writing is to find the role of the parents in the family to support children success. The perception the parents in education why it is their role for education?
II: The Role of Education
Education is widely broadcast to all people in the world and everyone has the right to receive education and the education is largely supported by the most government in the country and other private sectors. There are many institutes to support education beside government which provide education such as family, peers and society. The goals for education held by teachers, school, administrators, and society at large reflect desires for children to develop social and moral competencies as well as intellectual skills. Moreover, students who are academically successful report trying to achieve socially appropriate as well as academic goals at school. Wentzel, K. (1998) Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The Role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (2), 202-209.
2.1 The Role of Parents
Parents is the main factor to support children in education in every society (Ornstein, Allan C.& Levine, Daniel U, 2006) and in every society has different culture including behavior, attitude, tradition, memories, rule, belief, habit, and value to transmit to the next generation in society (Ornstein, Allan C. & Levine, Daniel U, 2006.p. 289). Culture and socialization and education points out that family are the most important agents in children's early socialization and education (Ornstein, Allan C. & Levine, Daniel U, 2006.p. 330). Parents have to get involve closely to child's learning and also provide more friendly behavior and care with child when they come from school and create environment of help in education. Parents will volunteer in participating during child reading at home both in and out of the learning environment as Steinmann, Malcolm, Connell, Davis, & McMann said " We must work with parents because families are the first and the most important sources for student's joy, creativity, purpose and all the other gateways to soul in education. Parent's wisdom and modeling continue to shape these young people throughout their livesâ€¦a strong foundation from which to launch (as cited in Kessier, 2000, p.165).
Parents could participate with child's learning by creating home environment for learning and parents could help them in teaching the culture or tradition from the old to the present or parents provide the child orientation on how to prepare to live. Students can gain the knowledge from parents and also learning the tradition, custom, belief, from family environment. The study shown that "Many children do well in school because their family environment has provided them with good preparation for succeeding in the traditional classroom" (Ornstein, Allan C. & Levine, Daniel U, 2006.p. 289).
Parents have the important role to support child in learning beside providing financing to children, sending them to school. Moreover, provide coaching children how to learn and sharing experiences, but it also depends on the background of education of the parents themselves and income for the family. Therefore the outcome to the children will result from the family as the literature found that parents of moderate to high income and educational background held beliefs and expectations that were closer than those of low-income families to the actual performance of their children, Low income families instead had high expectations and performance beliefs that did not correlate well with their children's actual school performance. Davis-Kean, P, (2005). The Influence of parent education and family income on child achievement. Journal of Family Psychology, 19 (2), 294-304
2.2 Parents' knowledge and understanding
In a family with a high education will also help children to have a good performance and success in school academic, like Ornstein, Allan C. & Levine, Daniel U stated in Foundation of Education "Knowledge and understandings acquired through exposure to the wider world are helpful to children when they enter school" (Ornstein, Allan C. & Levine, Daniel U, 2006.p. 332). As a result, educated parents could be ownership to help children more better in learning and performing as the research finding of Alberta Initiative for School Improvement of University of Calgary "Ownership is one part of parents, teachers, students, administrators and community as well as innovation in the context of the specific projects were crucial elements of parent involvement that led to demonstrated student success. How well each participants understood these two terms was pivotal" (Steinmann, Malcolm, Connell, Davis, & McMann, 2008, p. 12)
To sum up, in order to get a good academic success for children, parent is the significant factors to participate and encourage children at school achievement. Otherwise, parents should have deep understanding of what the children learn and need. Parents have a good relationship with school to get some information or know the school curriculum. As a result, in the study of Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (2008) shown that the varied opportunity for parents include: "evening workshops, parenting courses, information sessions, printed materials and online materials" (Steinmann, Malcolm, Connell, Davis, & McMann, 2008, p. 11). Parents play very important role to support children success in education in their life for the bright future.