Outcome Based Education Engineering and Society

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Washington Accord is an international accreditation agreement for professional courses such as engineering. It was established in 1989 and the signatory country as of 2010 are Canada, Australia,  The Republic of Ireland, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, South Korea,  Malaysia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Washington Accord recognizes that there is substantial equivalency of programs accredited by those signatories. Graduates from which ever country which is a signatory country to it are recognized as having met the academic requirements for entry to the practice of engineering.

Below are the signatory accreditation bodies of the Washington Accord and their respective countries with territories, and years of admission:

Institution of Engineers Australia (Australia; 1989)

Institution of Engineers of Ireland (Republic of Ireland; 1989)

Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand (New Zealand; 1989)

Hong Kong Institution of Engineers (Hong Kong; 1995)

Accreditation Board for Engineering Education of Korea (South Korea; 2007)

Institute of Engineering Education Taiwan (Taiwan; 2007)

Board of Engineers, Malaysia (Malaysia; 2009)

Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (United States; 1989)

Engineering Council of South Africa (South Africa; 1999)

Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education (Japan; 2005)

Institution of Engineers Singapore (Singapore; 2006)

Canadian Council of Professional Engineers (Canada; 1989)

Engineering Council UK (United Kingdom; 1989)

Outcome Based Education

Outcome-based education is a teaching model of education that focuses on empirically measuring student performance, which is called outcomes. Outcome-based education rejects the traditional focus on what the school provides to students, in favour of making students demonstrate that they know and are able to do whatever the required outcomes are. Each and every education agency has its own outcomes and its own methods of measuring student achievement according to their own outcome. Results of these measurements can be used for various purposes. An agency may use the information to know how well the entire education system is performing, and another may use its assessments to know whether an individual student has learned the required output.

In Malaysia, OBE is implemented in most of the universities to fulfill the requirements of EAC (Engineering Accreditation Council), BEM (Board of Engineers Malaysia), Washington Accord. BEM registers graduates and professional engineers as a qualified person in their particular field. The programmes attain standard comparable to global practice, hence accreditation is required. EAC is the body delegated by BEM which requires elements of outcomes in engineering curriculum to ensure CQI (Continual Quality Improvement) culture in the spirit of OBE. OBE is a natural way of what higher level education should be based on to provide globally qualified graduates.

Key features which are used to judge if a system has implemented an outcomes-based education systems are as below:

Creation of the curriculum framework that outlines specific, measurable outcomes. The standards included in the frameworks were decided by the area's normal political processes.

A commitment is to not only provide an opportunity of education, but to have learning outcomes for advancement. Promotion to the next grade, a diploma, or other reward is granted upon achievement of the standards, while extra classes, repeating the year or other consequences entail upon those who do not meet the standards.

Standards-based assessment determines whether students have achieved the stated standard. Assessments may take any form, so long as the assessments actually measure whether the student knows the required information or can perform the required task.

A commitment that every student of all groups will ultimately reach the same standards.

Difference of Outcome Based Education

Students are given grades and rankings compared to each other in a traditional education system. Content and performance expectations are based primarily on what was taught in the past to students. The main goal of traditional education is to present the knowledge and skills of the old generation to the new generation of students. It is also to provide students with an environment in which to learn, with little attention to whether or not any student ever learns any of the material. It was enough that the school presented an opportunity to learn.

Actual achievement was neither measured nor required by the school system. Moreover, under traditional method, student performance is expected to show a wide range of abilities. Failure of some students is accepted as it is natural and unavoidable in certain circumstance. The highest-performing students are given the highest grades and test scores, and the lowest performing students are given low grades.

Discuss Current Key Issues

OBE is viewed as a valuable replacement of the traditional model of relative ranking by ability and getting pass for merely sitting through class. Politicians often support OBE because of its vision of high outputs for all groups. Conservatives like the idea of measuring outputs rather than inputs and insisting that student demonstrate learning rather than just showing up. Proponents believed that all the students can learn, regardless of ability, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. Furthermore, OBE recognizes that a complex organization is more likely to produce what it measures and to downplay anything it thinks unnecessary. Adoption of measurable standards is seen as a means of ensuring that the content and skills covered by the standards will be a high priority in the education of students.

Mainly, OBE seeks to reject a rank-ordered definition of success by essentially promising that all students will perform at least as well as the stated standards. Practically, OBE often results in large increases in spending more resources by pouring it into students who were previously allowed to graduate while being functionally illiterate and innumerate. OBE's objective standard is also to put a brake on grade inflation, to the distress of students who prefer high, but meaningless, grades.

Criticism of OBE (Outcome Based Education) falls into a few major groups such as opposition to standardized testing, criticism of inappropriate outcomes, lack of evidence that OBE works, extra burden on instructors and educational institutions and dislike of something that is not OBE.

Issues in Higher Education

Accountability towards students

Satisfying needs of industry

Maintaining academic standards

Accountable to grant providing organizations

Accreditation

Issues in Teaching and Learning

Student intake - qualification, quantity

Staff - Qualification, competency

Teaching process - transparent, control

Assessment - outcomes

Courses - up to date, relevant

Facilities - sufficient, up to date

Studies and Discussions

As from survey conducted, the following can be discussed:

100% of the 137 people whom answered the survey are from tertiary level of studies and belongs to the age group of 18-30. The purpose survey is only distributed to people who educated up to tertiary level is because for better, concerned and informative feedbacks.

From the survey analysis, 62% (84) of students had suggested OBE as their preferred education system. The other, remains 28% (37) preferred to have the traditional education system as most of them wants the education system to remain the same as always. 10% (13) students would like to have a new kind of learning system which is far away better than OBE.

Next, for

Conclusion and Suggestion for Improvements

Conclusion

By implementing this, competency framework will result in successes, challenges and a list of essential ingredients for outcomes-based education. Implementation strategy also will enable this large-scale curriculum change for outcomes-based education. With outcome-based education, many graduates are calling for a broader set of evaluation techniques. Early attempt of a graduate student from various kinds of works has proved difficult.

Many of them are concerned about who will determine the learner outcomes for their schools. Many wonder if there will be real consideration of what learner outcomes the public wants rather than assuming that educators know what's best for the students.

As a conclusion, Outcome Based Education will standardize all higher learning institution learning process which will make all countries which is a signatory country to Washington Accord equal. By this, all the graduates are equal in their particular field all around the world.

Suggestion

All higher learning institutes from every country must implement Outcome Based Education and must be registered under Washington Accord to make no difference between graduates from other institute or country.

Appendixes

Division Of Work

NAVIN RAJ

KESHAN

MARIMUTHU

PRASHAANTH

Introduction & Background Study

X

X

X

X

Discuss current key issues

X

X

Case studies and discussion about the cases

X

X

Conclusion and suggestion for improvements

X

Questionnaire preparation

X

X

X

Final Report

X

X

X

X

Slides preparation

X

X

X

X

Survey Analysis

 

Response percentage

Count

Traditional education system

28.00%

 37

OBE

62.00%

84

Something new

10.00%

13

 

100.00%

137

Response

Percentage

Count

No

21.91%

30

Yes

78.09%

107

 

100.00%

137

Response

Percentage

Count

Yes

92.10%

126

No

0%

0

Maybe

7.90%

11

 

100.00%

137

Choices

Percentage

Count

Technology

22%

30

Economics

19.30%

27

Education

57.10%

78

Politics

1.75%

2

 

100%

137

Response

Percentage

Count

Strongly Agree

9%

12

Agree

27.30%

38

Neutral

40.90%

56

Disagree

22.70%

31

Strongly Disagree

0.00%

0

 

100%

137

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