Washington AccordÂ is an international accreditation agreement for professionalÂ courses such as engineering. It was established in 1989 and the signatory country as of 2010 are Canada, Australia,Â TheÂ Republic of Ireland,Â Hong Kong,Â Japan,Â New Zealand,Â Singapore,Â South Africa,Â Taiwan, South Korea,Â Â Malaysia, theÂ United KingdomÂ and theÂ United States. Washington Accord recognizes that there is substantial equivalency of programs accredited by those signatories. Graduates from which ever country which is a signatory country to it are recognized as having met the academic requirements for entry to the practice of engineering.
Below are the signatory accreditation bodies of the Washington Accord and their respective countries with territories, and years of admission:
Institution of Engineers AustraliaÂ (Australia; 1989)
Institution of Engineers of IrelandÂ (Republic of Ireland; 1989)
Institution of Professional Engineers New ZealandÂ (New Zealand; 1989)
Hong Kong Institution of EngineersÂ (Hong Kong; 1995)
Accreditation Board for Engineering Education of KoreaÂ (South Korea; 2007)
Institute of Engineering Education TaiwanÂ (Taiwan; 2007)
Board of Engineers, MalaysiaÂ (Malaysia; 2009)
Accreditation Board for Engineering and TechnologyÂ (United States; 1989)
Engineering Council of South AfricaÂ (South Africa; 1999)
Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering EducationÂ (Japan; 2005)
Institution of Engineers SingaporeÂ (Singapore; 2006)
Canadian Council of Professional EngineersÂ (Canada; 1989)
Engineering Council UKÂ (United Kingdom; 1989)
Outcome Based Education
Outcome-based education is a teaching model of education that focuses onÂ empiricallyÂ measuring student performance, which is calledÂ outcomes. Outcome-based education rejects the traditional focus onÂ what the school provides to students, in favour of making students demonstrate that they know and are able to do whatever the required outcomes are. Each and every education agency has its own outcomes and its own methods of measuring student achievement according to their own outcome. Results of these measurements can be used for various purposes. An agency may use the information to know how well the entire education system is performing, and another may use its assessments to know whether an individual student has learned the required output.
In Malaysia, OBE is implemented in most of the universities to fulfill the requirements of EAC (Engineering Accreditation Council), BEM (Board of Engineers Malaysia), Washington Accord. BEM registers graduates and professional engineers as a qualified person in their particular field. The programmes attain standard comparable to global practice, hence accreditation is required. EAC is the body delegated by BEM which requires elements of outcomes in engineering curriculum to ensure CQI (Continual Quality Improvement) culture in the spirit of OBE. OBE is a natural way of what higher level education should be based on to provide globally qualified graduates.
Key features which are used to judge ifÂ a system has implemented anÂ outcomes-based education systems are as below:
Creation of theÂ curriculum frameworkÂ that outlines specific, measurable outcomes. The standards included in the frameworks were decided by the area's normal political processes.
A commitment is to not only provide an opportunity of education, but to have learning outcomes for advancement. Promotion to the next grade, aÂ diploma, or other reward is granted upon achievement of the standards, while extra classes, repeating the year or other consequences entail upon those who do not meet the standards.
Standards-based assessmentÂ determines whether students have achieved the stated standard. Assessments may takeÂ anyÂ form, so long as the assessments actually measure whether the student knows the required information or can perform the required task.
A commitment that every student of all groups will ultimately reach the same standards.
Difference of Outcome Based Education
Students are givenÂ grades and rankings compared toÂ each other in aÂ traditional educationÂ system. Content and performance expectations are based primarily on what was taught in the past to students. The main goal of traditional education is to present the knowledge and skills of the old generation to the new generation of students. It is also to provide students with an environment in which to learn, with little attention to whether or not any student ever learns any of the material.Â It was enough that the school presented an opportunity to learn.
Actual achievement was neither measured nor required by the school system. Moreover, under traditional method, student performance is expected to show a wide range of abilities. Failure of some students is accepted as it is natural and unavoidable in certain circumstance. The highest-performing students are given the highest grades and test scores, and the lowest performing students are given low grades.
Discuss Current Key Issues
OBE is viewed as a valuable replacement of the traditional model of relative ranking by ability and getting pass for merely sitting through class. Politicians often support OBE because of its vision of high outputs for all groups. Conservatives like the idea of measuring outputs rather than inputs and insisting that student demonstrate learning rather than just showing up. Proponents believed that all the students can learn, regardless of ability, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender. Furthermore, OBE recognizes that a complex organization is more likely to produce what it measures and to downplay anything it thinks unnecessary. Adoption of measurable standards is seen as a means of ensuring that the content and skills covered by the standards will be a high priority in the education of students.
Mainly, OBE seeks to reject a rank-ordered definition of success by essentially promising that all students will perform at least as well as the stated standards. Practically, OBE often results in large increases in spending more resources by pouring it into students who were previously allowed to graduate while being functionallyÂ illiterateÂ andÂ innumerate. OBE's objective standard is also to put a brake onÂ grade inflation, to the distress of students who prefer high, but meaningless, grades.
Criticism of OBE (Outcome Based Education) falls intoÂ a few major groups such as oppositionÂ to standardizedÂ testing, criticism of inappropriate outcomes, lack of evidence thatÂ OBE works, extra burdenÂ on instructors and educational institutions and dislike of something that is notÂ OBE.
Issues in Higher Education
Accountability towards students
Satisfying needs of industry
Maintaining academic standards
Accountable to grant providing organizations
Issues in Teaching and Learning
Student intake - qualification, quantity
Staff - Qualification, competency
Teaching process - transparent, control
Assessment - outcomes
Courses - up to date, relevant
Facilities - sufficient, up to date
Studies and Discussions
As from survey conducted, the following can be discussed:
100% of the 137 people whom answered the survey are from tertiary level of studies and belongs to the age group of 18-30. The purpose survey is only distributed to people who educated up to tertiary level is because for better, concerned and informative feedbacks.
From the survey analysis, 62% (84) of students had suggested OBE as their preferred education system. The other, remains 28% (37) preferred to have the traditional education system as most of them wants the education system to remain the same as always. 10% (13) students would like to have a new kind of learning system which is far away better than OBE.
Conclusion and Suggestion for Improvements
By implementing this, competency framework will result in successes, challenges and a list of essential ingredients for outcomes-based education. Implementation strategy also will enable this large-scale curriculum change for outcomes-based education. With outcome-based education, many graduates are calling for a broader setÂ of evaluation techniques. Early attempt of a graduate student from various kinds of works has proved difficult.
Many of them are concerned about who will determine the learner outcomes for their schools. Many wonder if there will be real consideration of what learner outcomes the public wants rather than assuming that educators know what's best for the students.
As a conclusion, Outcome Based Education will standardize all higher learning institution learning process which will make all countries which is a signatory country to Washington Accord equal. By this, all the graduates are equal in their particular field all around the world.
All higher learning institutes from every country must implement Outcome Based Education and must be registered under Washington Accord to make no difference between graduates from other institute or country.
Division Of Work
Introduction & Background Study
Discuss current key issues
Case studies and discussion about the cases
Conclusion and suggestion for improvements
Traditional education system