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Intelligence is something which describes our potential ability to understand or measurement certain things which are happening around us, which is needed for us. This ability is complex and a different person has got different ability of understanding.
Such as example someone can easily understand how a chicken is grown up but maybe it is difficult for him to play football. This intelligence can be measured but it is very tough to change.
Multiple Intelligences model of Learning Styles
Howard Gardner , a Harvard University Psychologist, who has received more than twenty honorary degrees from different foreign institutions proposed a model known as multiple intelligences model. This theory was first outlined in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The theory of Multiple Intelligences, where he recommended that all of us have different kinds of "intelligences." 1
Gardner suggested that there are eight intelligences, and has suggested the possible addition of ninth known as "existentialist intelligence"2
To determine all the abilities and talents that people enjoy, Gardner recommends that people don't enjoy only one intellectual capacity, but have many different intelligences including musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual and linguistic intelligences. 3
Gardner's theory has come under criticism from both psychologists and educators. These critics argue that Gardner's definition of intelligence is too broad, and that his eight different "intelligences" simply represent talents , personality traits and abilities. Gardner's theory also suffers from a lack of supporting empirical research .4
Someones ability to comprehend and use words and language is recommended as verbal/Linguistic intelligence. Every person is considered to hold this intelligence at a few levels. Different forms of verbal and written communication, reading, writing, speaking are included in this group. Teacher's can improve students verbal/linguistic brainpower by asking them to read journals, newspapers, playing vocabulary games, and by seminars. Individual with well-built oratorical rhetoric knowledge like poets, writers and lawyers exhibit strong Linguistic quality of being intelligent. Maya Angelou, T. Martin Luther king junior are such as examples .This intelligence has value in education and learning environments.
Individual's ability of collection, organisation and interpretation of data and making a conclusion and prediction from the data prediction of data is recommended as Logical/Mathematical intelligence. Those who are strong in these types of intelligence see patterns and relationships. This individuals love to think, create logic , numeric and abstract patterns. They do love to solve problem, making strategic analysis, solving mathematical terms. Being strong in this sector they do have a great scientific ability. Albert Einstein, John Dewey are real life examples of this type.
Individual's talent to shape and control deviously an intellectual model is recommended as Visual/Spatial intelligence. These types of people are very imaginative and they do depend upon visual thinking. Individual's of this type tends to learn from cinemas, films and exhibitions using pattern and movable object. This types of people do like painting and express their ideas through art. They love to dream, pretend and imagine. They are good at reading graphs, charts , diagrams, maps and enjoys puzzles, jigsaw. Persons who are gifted with this intelligence are Pablo Picasso, Bobby Fischer.
Individual's who handle knowledge by feelings they sense in their bodies are recommended as Bodily/Kinaesthetic. These types of person likes to touch the person they are talking to. Kinaesthetic persons are good at small and large muscle skills; they like every types of physical activities and sports. Most often they express themselves through dance. Michael Jordan, Martina Navratilova, and Jim Carrey are examples of renowned person of this category
Individual's who recognize and divide flora into groups, natural world, and natural resources including a high grade of knowledge of plants are recommended as Naturalistic intelligence. They are complete thinkers who distinguish specimens and value the unusual. They are aware of species around them. They become aware of natural and artificial taxonomies such as dinosaurs to algae and cars to clothes. Charles Darwin . John Muir was of this type.
Individual's who are able to recognize, produce, and understand musical pitches, tone, beat, and the ability to compose music are recommended as Musical Intelligence. Music composers and those who plays musical instruments are persons with potency in this area. Example of this kind of intelligence are Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Louis Armstrong .
Individual's who are able to understand and react to the behaviour, feelings, enthusiasm , performance of others is recommended as interpersonal intelligence . Good lobbing and dealing skills are required for interpersonal skills. The capability to show sympathy towards the feelings of other persons. Those who have got strength in this area can work as counsellors or social workers. Gandhi, Ronald Reagan, and Bill Clinton are examples of this fields.
Individual's who are able to know himself is recommended as intrapersonal intelligence. To show potency in Intrapersonal Intelligence, a person should be able to understand their own feelings, enthusiasm, and be aware of own potential and failing. A person should spigot into other intelligences to entirely articulate Intrapersonal Intelligence. Individuals who showed well-built Interpersonal Intelligence in their lifetimes are Jean Paul Satre and Frederick Douglas
EFFECTIVE LEARNING AND BALANCE OF LEARNING STYLE
Different learning styles can be useful for different learning situation. Kolb(1984) explains four distinctive learning styles which are based on four stage learning cycle. He said ' immediate or concrete experiences' provide a basis for' observation and reflection'. Hence 'observation and reflection' are diluted into 'abstract concepts' and produce new insinuations for accomplishment which can be 'actively tested' in turn creating new experiences.
Kolb's model works on two level.
A four stage cycle known as
Concrete Experience (CE)
A four type learning styles
Kolb(2006) proposed three different types of stages as we grow up and we adopt four different learning styles by getting our maturity. The stages Kolb identified is:
Acquisition - from birth to adolescence- this time we develop our basic abilities ' ciognitive structure'
Specialization - by going to school, getting experience from workplace, personal experience from way of life we do shape our learning style
Integration- from our mid life to rest of the time we do express our learning style by a non - dominant style.
Whatever style we do select our preference is two pairs of 'choices' that we make. Kolb put a line of axis each with conflicted mode at either end:
Concrete Experience- CE (feeling) ----- V ------ Abstract Conceptualization-AC(thinking)
Active Experiment-AE(doing)---- V----- Reflective Observation - RO(watching)
When we take decision we usually do or watch and at the same time we decide to think or feel.our learning style is a product of choice of this two decisions:
1.While approaching to a task we do grasp our experience by preferring (a) watch or (b) do and
2.Our Response towards the task by preferring (a)think or (b) feel.
So we can conclude from the above
1(a)- By watching others involvement and by gaining experience we chose our approach ' Reflective Observation' (RO)- 'watching'
1(b) - By straight way jumping to do at once to get experience ( 'active experimentation'(AE)- 'doing')
2(a)-We love to get new information by planning, thinking, analysing (' abstract Conceptualisation'(AC)- 'thinking'
2(b)-by getting concrete experience from way of life (' Concrete Experience' (CE)- 'feeling')
Formation of abstract concepts and generalisationHoney and Mumford (1986) developed a learning styles questionnaire building upon kolbs work. They found four styles of learning which has strong correlations with Kolb's model
Testing implications of concepts in new situations
Observations and Reflection
Fig: The Lewinian Experimental learning model ( after Kolb,1984,p 21) with the linked Honey and Mumford Learning Styles( Honey and Mumford,1986)
My own learning style
I am a person of the sort of Interpersonal Intelligence because
People come to me for advice and counsel at work and my adjacent area where I do live
I do love sports which needs a group of people like football, badminton, cricket
When I am in problem I do seek others help including my friends and families.
I have a lot of close friends who do share their facts and figures with me.
I do like social past times like monopoly over video games
I do love to train people, teaching another or group of students
I do love leading people, I feel that I am a leader, sometimes others treat me like that also.
I don't feel uncomfortable in crowd .
I like to get involved in social activities such like helping the poor, distress during disaster, like to work for public awareness about different types of diseases such as polio, HIV etc
I love to spend my evening for a party rather than stay at home.
How I will develop my learning style
I will develop my learning style by emphasising more on my strength sides and by illuminating my weak points. I will try to involve me on more social jobs and also try to make a strong field in my workplace by helping my colleagues. I will try to nurture myself for visual/spatial intelligence. I will try to follow over suggestions for developing the intelligences in 7 kinds of Smart (Armstrong 1999a).
There are individuals who also possess all the eight difference types of intelligence. But it is unique to each person. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a poet, a statesman, a scientist, a naturalist, a philosopher at the same time. Most of us highly nurtured by one of this intelligence, may be modestly nurtured by other one or two and totally underdeveloped in the rest. Gardner suggests that virtually everyone has the capacity to develop all eight intelligences to a reasonably high level of performance if given the appropriate encouragement, enrichment and instruction.
1 Gardner, H. (1983) Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York: Basic Books.
2 Gardner, H. (2004). A Multiplicity of Intelligences. http://www.howardgardner.com/Papers/documents/T-101%20A%20Multiplicity%20REVISED.pdf
3 Gardner, H. (2001). The Three Faces of Intelligence. http://www.howardgardner.com/Papers/documents/T-101%20A%20Multiplicity%20REVISED.pdf
4 Waterhouse, L. (2006a). Multiple Intelligences, the Mozart Effect, and Emotional Intelligence: A critical review. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), Fall 2006, pp. 207-225.