ORGANISATION MATTERS TO BEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE

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The objective is to analyse How people behave and perform as members of a group is as important as their behaviour or performance as individuals. Drawing my own experiences and on the theory and research on groups, how working in a group can be both psychologically rewarding as well as potentially demanding for the individual.

People behave and perform as members of a group is as important as their behaviour or performance as individuals working in a group can be both psychologically rewarding as well as potentially demanding for the individual. The psychological contract workers; implicit expectations about what they are expected to contribute to an organization and what they will receive in return .In groups your ability is checked with aptitude where the capacity to perform physical and intellectual tasks and the capacity to learn and ability . The attribution and self-serving bias and how people learn more in groups in comparison to individual one. The behavioural conditions in which you going to see classical and operant conditions. Classical conditioning an experimental approach that associate a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to achieve a conditional response and operant conditioning in which learning is reinforcement depends on the person behaviour. We going to see social learning theory where people learns by observing and imitating others. Also about generalization through which we transfer learning from one situation to another as well as categories information. In this assignment I explain the early results from research into the effect of organizational variables upon workplace behaviour. In particular, what impact do organizational and situational variables have on performance? In organizations, we often see groups of people behaving in rather similar ways. Example from a business unit is "keep-your-head-down" a defensive policy people have adopted in response to an autocratic and rather punishing style of leadership. If a group of people with different personalities is exhibiting some common behaviour patterns it seems likely that their organization is giving them a particular message about what they have to do and perform, or the situation is encouraging a particular pattern of behaviour. This kind of behaviour you find in hotel industry as I am having hotel industry experience. Cross-section of variables including organizational goals, performance measures, reward system, task and situation variables. We assumed that the highest levels of performance or productivity or output are achieved when the work environment presents a uniform message to the individual.

In this research our assumption is that the work environment should present a consistent message to the individual person. For example, management actions should be supportive of the measurement system by giving them rewards when they achieved their goals and targets. In addition, the achievement of the goals should be support the organization's strategy and achievement of the company targets. It seems quite understood that this should be so, but surprisingly, there appears to be a frequent mismatch, which leads to people working in ways that seem bizarre when others who are not company employer looks into a company. In addition, we like to expect that the management style should suit to the developmental level of the individual person and to encourage particular behaviour depending upon their ability, skills and knowledge of the individual completing the task. According to us problems will occur for example, when the management style and their ways are complexes and critical, when a more complicated style might have been more appropriate because the person completing the task has high levels of motivation with sufficient knowledge and experience. The characteristic of appropriateness and reinforcement is a key factor to the consequence chart. The variables are assessed to ensure they reimposed one another and reflect the stated goals of an organization. (1)

Individual person behaviour is inspired by motivation, ability, role perception and situational factor which is called ( MARS). Motivation which is a mixture of internal forces that affects the direction, intensity and persistence of individual voluntary choices of behaviour. Ability comprises of natural aptitude and learned capabilities required to achieved the goal successfully .role perception is something like person individual choice that what kind of behaviour is required in particular circumstances. Situational factor are based on environmental or surrounding conditions that facilitate individual behaviour and performance. (2)

FIVE TYPE OF WORK RELATED BEHAVIOUR

1 Performing task -in which directed behaviour under individual control. Which relates mentally and physically. in performing job or task each require special , particular ability and knowledge.

2 Exhibiting organizational citizenship - where person give his more then best beyond job duties required. For example-if some one helping out other in performing task and avoiding conflicts and consequences . Performing more then their job duties.

3 Counter productive work behaviour- when employer behave in violent or in negative way which ultimately harm organization like-threats ,abusive language , work negligence .it include act of commission and act of omission.

4 Joining and staying with organization -attracting and retaining employees -"WAR OF TALENT"

5 Maintaining work attendance - around 10 percent of Russian full-time work force absent each week. This happens due to situational factors like bad weather conditions , heavy traffic jams . Also due to unsatisfied by their job they are just performing their task without any interest and willingness. (2)

Bhaviour in an organization

Hellriegel, Slocum and Woodman suggest that:

… one way to recognise why people behave as they do at work is to view an organisation as an iceberg. What sinks ships isn't always what sailors can see, but what they can't see.(3)

The formal aspects concentrate only on the edge of the iceberg (organization). It is as important as focus on any thing which you can't see, behavioural aspects As part of the Financial Times Mastering Management series, Wood, in his discussion explain the nature of organizational behaviour (OB), suggests that in its point of view the people behaviours in an organizational context, organizational behaviour can be regarded as the key to the whole area of management.(3)

THE PHYSOCOLIGAL CONTRACT

Physiological contract plays a very vital role between individual and organizational relationship. It comprises of mutual expectations and satisfaction of needs rising up from the people-organisation relationship. this is a process in which give and take type of relationship between individual and organization .the full range of expectations of rights and privileges are comes under physiological contract , job role ,duties and obligations plays a important role on individual behaviour where as it does not form part of formal agreement but still have a great impact on individual behaviour. who knows how to maintain balance between unmentioned requirement of their employer with the need of the company is a successful companies .Caring, Communicating, Listening, Knowing and Rewarding Are the simple things which companies have to follow to become successful.(3)

BEHAVEIOUR AND PERFORMANCE AS AN INDIVIDUAL IN ORGANISATION

In any work field , no direct supervision increases individual's level of responsibility in that's organization. Need for autonomy can be fulfilled by working all alone by an individual , control, responsibility and challenge. The individual's will be more freely and natural while performing work or task. Individual feels less distracting while performing work or job role individually because no one will be there for chats and other kind of stuff and individual performs job and task more professionally .while performing work or task individual doesn't have to coordinate with any one because he has to complete and achieve target all alone .so ,individual perform with more sincerely and consciously .(4)

Basically the performance and behaviour of an individual is depend on the combination of internal and external factors .Each and every individual has different values and believes which in the end reflect while performing work or task. Every individual has different personality so, every one perform work in their own way of style with their own point of view. some people are introvert and some are extrovert.

Some people able to adapt themselves according to work environment whereas some find it difficult to adapt themselves according to that kind of environment and circumstances . which ultimately reflects their performance in job role. Some individuals attached themselves emotionally with work whereas in group its hard to find every individual like this. The most important thing person attitude towards work and organization . if person looks work with positive attitude then the outcome of the work will going to be good.

Where as attitude varies from person to person in groups. People feels less stressed while performing job individually because while you performing job individually you hardly interact or coordinate with any one. So,there is no reason of discrimination and consequences . But sometimes people feels stressed due to overload of work and they don't have any one to help them out or find any solution. People feels stressed when they don't achieve their target and goals in that given time because they are all alone performing that task. (5)

GROUPS

Any number of people who communicate with one another and also aware of one another psychologically and physically are mend to be a group .Groups can be of various size it can be medium or large or even small comprises or two or three members. The selection of group is immaterial where you find solo or single leadership who leads the whole group by assessing them directions and work. The working style of group is convergence and quite conformism. In groups you will see spirit of togetherness all members of group unite together to perform work and achieve their goal. They also have persecution opponents' spirit. (6)

REASON OF MAKING GROUPS

There are certain tasks and work which requires combined effort .which can not be done individually. There are situations and circumstances which require combine advice, suggestions and their point of view and different ways of style to perform that task in good and better way. Groups forming make the work more easy and fast because it has been divided among all the members of group. Every thing is pooled in group like resources, abilities and energy. in group there is less chance of committing mistakes as other members are around you to make it correct.

Discussions which are made in group help to get to know about new ideas which is not possible for individual working alone.

GROUP THINK

" A deterioration of mental efficiency , reality testing and moral judgment that result from in-group pressures "

JANIS

According to him the way group think result in tendency of their group to just drift along and can be apparent in any kind of organizational situations .where groups are meant to make important and reliable decisions.

KINDS OF GROUPS

FORMAL GROUPS

A group which is formed by the manager of any organization to achive certain organizational objectives and goals . a specific task is assigned to them which they have to perform. It consist of proper organizational structure which consist of supervisor and direct subordinates .they do all such task which is above the capabilities of individual . they create better and efficient ideas which is good for organization .(7)

They coordinate with interdepartmental efforts and implement various action plans. They also do social work like train new comers and trainees and make the environment happy and friendly for them. So that they feel homely atmosphere .they also satisfy the needs of affiliation and reduce the feeling of insecurity and powerlessness in an individual . provide different solutions and tact's for solving personal and interpersonal problems.(7)

INFORMAL GROUPS

This kind of group is formed by the inputs of individuals .so , that their personal need gets satisfied which is not being done by formal organization .an informal group is a combination of various individuals who tend to achieve an objective of mutual interests (7)

MY EXPERIENCE AND OPINION

I did under graduation in hotel management from India. So, I am having hotel industry experience as it sounds hotel industry every thinks . it so glamorous , lavishing and amazing industry but as we all coin has two sides head and tail same applied on hotel industry also. It looks amazing from outside but when you worked there you came to know about reality what exactly hotel industry is. What all incentives you get and what all consequences you have to face . As I did hotel management so , I also worked in hotels also. I worked as a front office assistant in hotel Ashok .which is well known five star hotel of India . it is located in capital of india. Which is Delhi .as I am front office assistant my job rule is to guest handling, look after arrivals and departure, making confirmations of bookings, arranging mails coordinate with front office manager

If there is any delegation or any conference. In my job role I have to work individually and in group . I had pretty good and bad experience while working individually and in group .once my manager told me that today I have to look after all arrivals and departures due to lack of staff members and my manager was bussy in oraganising and supervising a great event which was going to be held in our hotel . so , he could not help me out. While I was performing my job role. I felt very stressed out due to over load of work and no one was there to help me out . whole day I was feeling quite low because I was not able to get support or helping hand from any one and I had to look after every thing on reception and if something went wrong every one will going to criticize me . I performed my job role with full honesty and loyalty but I was not happy at all mentally in the end of the shift . I was physically fit and fine while I was doing my work. I also worked in groups during my job period . There was a group of 25 Chinese tourists who came to India for traveling and they were staying in our hotel. So, we had to look after them my manager made a group of 5 staff members who will going to look after them regarding there wake up calls, break fast calls, taxi and bus services, etc. we all staff members have to coordinate among themselves regarding which dutie was performed by whom . my duties were to make wake up calls and break fast calls early in the morning every day. We worked and coordinate pretty smoothly because we were working together for last one year that's why we knew each other very well that how we had to coordinate. but I had some bad experience also as I came to this university I was all new to this culture ,people and place in starting I faced problem in communication because every one has different accent and it was not easy to understand . in our tutorial class our lecturer gave us a task to make a presentation on something and she made 5 groups which comprises of 6 members in each group in my group there were two Nigerian , one British , two Americans ,and one Indian that's me. While we were working on presentation every one was feeling hard to understand each other accent and every one expecting that each member should gave his best input so,that we could get good output . I was facing problem to interact with them due to different accent and different culture. but as the time passed we started understanding each other and we divide our work according to our capabilities and potential and we gave our best in the end of that presentation . so,I learned allot here while working here in group , I came to know about different culture ,different way of thinking and their exceptional point of view and knowledge . how to adapt themselves according to different environment ,culture ,people and in what all way we can achieve our goals .According to me working in group can be psychologically rewarding and potentially demanding in comparison to working alone or individually because while you are working in a group you have some kind of supervision and expectation which is expected from you in where as you don't have all such direct things when you are working alone or individually . working in a group you have to coordinate and follow certain norms, rules and take unanimous decision where as all such things are not mandatory when you are working individually .but in the end you learn allot more while working in group in comparison to working individually in my point of view I am in favor of working in group rather working alone or individually because certain thing and work which can not be complete or achieved individually.

CONCLUSION

Working in a group is far more beneficial and good idea ,you came to know about so,many things which you can never imagine in your life because as we all knows that every one is not perfect or best in every thing and every one can not know about everything which you came to know when you work in a group . when every one shares their knowledge , experiences and potential while working in group. It is psychologically rewarding and potentially demanding but in the end its worthy enough when you achive your goals and targets in given period of time,

REFRENCES

1. Realigning organisational variables to support workplace behaviour

http://leeds2.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet;jsessionid=CB45DB625F0EF91182C0A073E3FBC2CC?contentType=Article&Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0240201201.html

V. Hanna, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK

N.D. Burns, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK

C.J. Backhouse, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK

( accessed on march 9, 2010)

Mc Graw-hill Ryerson

ndividual behaviour, values and personality (pp 32-36)

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/18729175/individual-behaviour-values-and-personality

( accessed on march 10, 2010)

3 . MANAGEMENTAND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

LAURIE J. MULLINS

7 th edition( pp 56-63)

4. http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Articles/0790510202.html

The Authors

Itzhak Harpaz, Itzhak Harpaz is Director of the Center for the Study of Organizations and Human Resource Management, Graduate School of Business, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Article Type: Research paper

Keyword(s): Telecommuting; Teleworking.

Journal: Work Study

Volume: 51

Number: 2

Year: 2002

pp: 74-80

Copyright © MCB UP Ltd

ISSN: 0043-8022

(Accessed on March 12, 2010)

5. http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/MARS_model_of_individual_behavior

(Accessed on March 11, 2010)

6. source- BELBIN ,R.M,Beyond the team ,Butterworth-henimann,(2000)

7. MANAGEMENT AND ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR BY WENDY BLOISI , CURTIS W.COOK/PHILLIP L.HUNSAKER 2ND EUROPEAN EDITION (CHAPTER 10 PP 441-467)

8 Behaviour modelling, instruction and exploration training approaches in group and individual

contexts

G.E. Truman*

GTDNGT IT Consulting, Massachusetts, USA

Behaviour & Information Technology

Vol. 28, No. 6, November-December 2009, 493-524

9. GROUP PROCEES BY MARVIN R. GOTTLIEB ,published in 2003 chap-1 pp-17)

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