This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
Oral health means being free of chronic mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral sores, birth defects such as cleft lip and palate, periodontal (gum) disease, tooth decay and tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that affect the mouth and oral cavity (WHO, 2007). As a result of various surveyed conducted in school going children, it has been found that an urgent need for the oral health awareness is needed to save young children from pain and trouble in the future. According to School Dental Service data(2002) 42% of 5 year old children experienced dental decay, 75% of which was untreated (DHSV, 2003).On the basis of the same survey's report, a need to raise anawarenessoforalhealthissues at an early stage starting from preschool and also to support various children's services to overcome the oral health problems. In order to educate young children and promote oral health it is important to educate parents, preschool teachers, and community members dealing with children. The lesson plan outlined below is a first step on behalf of the institute to plan the promotional strategies and techniques to promote oral health and implement those techniques.
â€¢ To educate various members within the department on how to promote oral issues in children between the age of 0-6 within the community.
â€¢ Develop understanding on the importance of promoting oral health and various strategies and approaches to be used in this process.
â€¢ Educate and improve the ability of members on the communication skills to deal with community members of various age groups and cultural background.
â€¢ Improve the capacity and capability of department members to deal with behaviour and concerns of the community members; and overcome the cultural, religious and other concerns to oral health importance.
A list of main content points:
What is oral health?
What are the issues in oral Health?
Why there is a need for the oral health promotion?
2 Promotion of Oral Health
What are the promotional methods that can be used?
Where, when and how to promote and whom to target?
What are the important aspects that are to be promoted?
3 Resources and policies
Ministry of health New Zealand policies regarding oral health.
Write, monitor and implement policy within the community.
Oral health plan
Where to gain additional resource information?
Brief description of the main content points:
2 Promotion of Oral Health
Involving Children services
Involving parents and carers.
Distributing pamphlets and hold information sessions.
Establish attractive and informative displays.
Adding information in school and community newsletters.
3 Resources and policies
Creating an oral health plan for children
Regular dental visits
Follow the dental policies as outlined by the Australian and New Zealand Society of Paediatric Dentistry
A list of activities with brief descriptions
Pre information survey to be completed to determine the knowledge of the participants about the current need for the promotion of the oral health along with other issues within the community related to oral health and various policies related to it.
Session outline- Describing when what is going to happen and the time frame usually with a very little information about the expectations and is generally prepared on the basis of the pre information session.
Presentation slides - The presentation will be done using Microsoft power-point and may include some promotional ad links, videos links related to oral health or its promotion, case studies etc.
Task breakdown - In the task breakdown as different individuals present in the group according to their roles and will be assigned tasks accordingly.
Group activities on devising a plan and other important aspects of promotion using a butcher paper.
Presentation of individual group about their section of the plan so that all the participants can see the bigger and clearer picture from others perspective.
Discussion of the plan sections as prepared by different groups and work as a team to formulate the institutional plan as a whole. This will also include what to do, when to do and how to do. Another major factor is the roles and responsibilities of members of the tem.
Evaluation and feedback that will be provided by the participants and would also make me improve other lectures for the future.
Pre information survey
Session outline, introduction and presentation slides
Task and Group activities
Presentation of each group and discussion of the plan sections
Evaluation and feedback
Completed a week before the lesson.
While planning my lesson one of the decision to be made was the approach to deliver the lesson effectively. Before finalising the approach a study of different approaches was significantly important. As suggested by Taylor different approaches need to be continually investigated in an effort to find better ways of understanding the nature of transformative learning (2002).
The aim of my lesson is to design a plan for oral health promotion and in order to achieve this aim I need to promote communication, co-operation and a sense of common purpose in the class by exposing participants to a variety of learning materials and teaching aids such as posters, books, pamphlets, brochures, videos, picture cards and games. Thus I have to utilise both interactive and resource based approach. But the question was the method of delivery and the approach that would comply with the need for the aim of the lesson. After a thorough study of different approaches I decided to deliver on lesson using a student centered approach including strategies like small group discussion and co-operating the pre knowledge and the specific qualification of various participants as the backbone of my lesson. In order to deliver my lesson in an effective and efficient way, I also decided to use various audio visual aids including videos, power-points, and pamphlets. I selected this student centered approach as 'learning is understood as the process of using a prior interpretation to construct a revised interpretation of the meaning of one's experience in order to guide future action'(Mezirow, 1996 pg 162). Student centered approach is a step that canincrease student participation (Kelly, 1985), tries to develop confidence in students (Dandoulakis, 1986), to foster the intellectual development of students (Burke, 1983), to enable students to build multiple historical perspectives (Ogawa, 2001), to improve students' understandings of historical ideas and concepts (Stout, 2004), to shift the learning responsibility to students (Passman, 2000).
Besides the above mentioned reasons I choose this approach as I will be dealing with adult and as Stephen Brookfield (1995) wrote that adults focus on self-directed learning as they can take control of their own learning, in particular how they set their own learning goals, locate appropriate resources, decide on which learning methods to use and evaluate their progress. Thus this approach will be able to fulfil the aim of the reason. Adding further Brookfield also signifies the importance of critical reflection in adult learning as adults have capability to embed logic, dialectical thinking, working intelligence, reflective judgment, post-formal reasoning and epistemic cognition and so adults come to think contextually and critically. Besides experience plays a significant role in adult learning and is said to be culturally framed and shaped (Brookfield, 1995) and so, this approach is the best to deliver the lesson to the adult students at my work place.
The aim of the lesson is to design and implement strategies to promote oral health in the community and the participants belong to various fields and with specific qualifications. So the purpose is to create an environment an effective and efficient environment to strengthen their abilities and minimise their weaknesses and being adult learners, all the participants will have their individual plans and in order to do so the teacher will pose problems to students, lead a critical dialogue in class; students will select their own topic to suit their job criteria and this will enable me to create a supportive classroom climate (Njoroge, 1998).
The small group discussion mode will be the basis of the lesson and to achieve the aim as a teacher, I will initialise the purpose by providing background and the aim for the lesson first, as suggested by Passman (2000), and then the students will be working in small groups, either by choosing a question on their own or are from the set questions provided by me for stimulation, students then will research and discover the answer, prepare a report and give presentations in class; they will also search library, internet and classroom resources. In order to plan the participants will use computers and have project-based activities to develop and design the promotional technique (Means & Olson, 1995). In the selected approach and the plan the participants will analyse and interpret historical documents, working in teams and present their interpretations and will make comparisons (Stout, 2004). As a result students will lead discussions while working in small groups (Spurlock,2001) and will take turn in creating a response based on their line of specialisation and as a teacher I will interact among various small groups by asking open-ended questions, initiating conversations and high level evaluations (Seidenstricker, 1999).
Student centered approach was preferred when comparing to others as in this particular approach as students will explore authentic issues, self-select inquiry topics, generate and research their own topics through various online and office sources, create multimedia presentations. They will also use computers for individual, group and whole class activities (Luke, 2004) and as an instructed. I will be able to accomplish my aim by using problem-solving, collaboration, multiple intelligence, real world applications and technology (Haruta & Stevenson, 1999). Alternatively within the planning of the lesson, the student centered teaching approach took the form of group-discussion and active reflection (Katz,1981) and this turned the focus on peer-orientation and peer-evaluation method (Delaney,1980) by in-cooperating learning; technology; pair, group and class discussions; and turning the lesson into contextualized and project-based learning (Keller, Russell &Thompson, 1999).
This kind of approach helps the instructor to cater the needs of all accomplices by assigning them tasks, on the basis of their strengths and weaknesses, analysing the material; conducted interviews, class room observations and writing task having discussions, analysing , synthesizing, and evaluating related information (Ogawa, 2001) by engaging in small-group, self-directed learning format with a problem-based learning curriculum (Deretchin, 1997) and these discussions lead to working in small groups (Spurlock, 2001).
Another major factor for selecting this particular approach to deliver the lesson was the past conducted research as the research concluded that with this particular approach students gave very impressive and sophisticated presentations on topics they chose (Passman, 2000). The teaching approach enhanced student work, increased student motivation and self-esteem (Means & Olson, 1995). As a result of this approach, students were able to work collaboratively to develop deep understandings of content, to negotiate difficult primary source text and direct connection to the learning objectives (Stout, 2004). The learning environment promoted the students' self-esteem (Wilkinson, Treagust, Leggett & Glasson, 1988). Students demonstrated high levels of engagement and compliance with the intended content; the peer teaching approach was effective in developing participants' knowledge of lower complexity content, not effective in developing their higher order content knowledge (Wallhead, 2004).
Another approach that could be used was the teacher centered but was not a suitable approach to deliver this type of lesson. From the research conducted in earlier years it was concluded that in the teacher centered approached lesson, students were seen to be passive and were unable to respond critically and when the lessons were too teacher-centered, it labelled teachers to be dull and less creative (Kaur, 2003; Kumar, 2004).
The researches and the literature suggest that adult students preferred student centered approach and the research reckoned that students felt this particular approach was more interesting and favoured the group dynamics method. Researches also inferred that adult students believed that they learned more as reflected by their final grades and reflected a higher achievement (Rada, 1975). As this approach is self-motivated and students will participate more and will be able to learn much about themselves (Njoroge, 1998) and others and this will help in building strong team skills which plays a significant role in promotion of oral health plan. This approach will also give the appearance of increasing the students' personal power without affecting social power (Wood, 1990). Students will be able to gain higher achievement on performance-based and student-centered activities (Erwin, 2004).
Brookfield. S (1995) Adult learning: An overview in A. Tuinjman (ed.) (1995). International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford, PergamonPress.
Dandoulakis,G.(1986).Towards a student-centered teaching of English literature. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED274200).
Delaney,M.C. (1980).A comparison of a student-centered, free writing program with a teacher-centered rhetorical approach to teaching college composition. (Doctoral dissertation, Temple University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41,05A,1985.
Deretchin, L.F. (1997). Changing the curriculum, changing the culture: Are there differences between products of a traditional and a hybrid medical school curriculum? (Cognitive behaviours, problem based learning) (Doctoral dissertation, University of Houston, 1997). Dissertation Abstracts International, 58,08A,2983.
Erwin, S.L. (2004).Improving instruction of motion and energy through a constructivist approach and technology integration.(Master's thesis, Michigan State University, 2004).Master's Abstracts International,43,02,386.
GurnamKaur,S. (2003). Literature in the language classroom: Seeing through the eyes of learners. In Ganakumaran,S. & Edwin, M. (eds.). Teaching of literature in ESL/ EFL contexts. Petaling Jaya:Sasbadi Sdn.Bhd.,88-110.
Haruta,M.E. & Stevenson,C.B. (1999).Integrating student-centered teaching methods into the First Year SMET Curriculum: The University of Hartford model for institution-wide reform. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No.ED440977).
Katz, N. (1981).The interactive effects of occupational therapy students' learning style with teaching methods (lecture vs group-discussion),on their problem-solving skills, achievement, study time and attitude: An aptitude-treatment interaction (ATI)study. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California, 1981).Dissertation Abstracts International, 42,06A,2526.
Keller,B., Russel,C., & Thompson,H. (1999).Effects of student-centered teaching on student evaluation in calculus. Educational Research Quarterly (23)1,59-73.
Kelly,J. (1985).Student-centered teaching for increased participation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED260033)
Kuehnle,D.S. (1988). Problem approach effects on student oral behaviours. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1988). Dissertation Abstracts International, 49,07A,1686.
Luke,C.L.(2004).Inquiry-based learning in a university Spanish class: An evaluative case study of curricular implementation. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65,03A,817.
Means,B. & Olson,K. (1995).Technology's role within constructivist classrooms. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED383283).
Mezirow,J. (1996).Contemporary Paradigms of Learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 46,158-172.
Mezirow,J. (2000) Learning to Think like an Adult .In. Mezirow and Associates (eds.) Learning as Transformation (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass),pp.3-33.
Njoroge,F.K.R. (1998).Using student-centered theory and pedagogy to teach basic writing at a community college. (Doctoral dissertation, Washington University, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 60,02A, 0318.
Ogawa,M.(2001). Building multiple historical perspectives: An investigation of how middle school students are influenced by different perspectives. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 62, 09A, 3010.
Passman,R. (2000). Pressure cooker: Experiences with student-centered teaching and learning in high-stakes assessment environments. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED440116).
Rada,R. B. (1975).Utilizing the group process in community college health instruction. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED124267).
Seidenstricker,L.S. (1999). The comparative effects of small group peer-led discussion and large group teacher-led discussion on the strategic reading comprehension, literary interpretation and engagement of seventh-grade readers. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 1999). Dissertation Abstracts International,60,12A,4367.
Spurlock,H,L. (2001).The impact of student-centered pedagogy and students' feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness on motivation: Implications for test motivation and test performance. (Doctoral dissertation, Howard University, 2001). Dissertation Abstracts International, 63,01A,88.
Stout,M.J. (2004).Students as historical detectives: The effects of an inquiry teaching approach on middle school students' understanding of historical ideas and concepts. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland College Park, 2004). Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 11A, 4095.
Suriya Kumar,S. (2004). A study of the motivational factors that influence the learning of literature among upper secondary school students in Negeri Sembilan. M.A. Practicum Report. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
Taylor, E. W. (2002). Using still photography in making meaning of adult educators' teaching beliefs. Studies in the Education of Adults, 34(2), 122-139.
Wallhead,T.L.(2004).A didactic analysis of student content development during the peer-assisted learning tasks of a unit of sport education. (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 2004).Dissertation Abstracts International, 65, 07A, 2540.
Wilkinson,W.J., Treagust,D.F., Leggett,M., & Glasson,P. (1988).The teaching-learning in a student-centered physics classroom. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED292619).
Wood S. B. (1990).The therapeutic element in student-centered writing instruction (Rogers). (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Alabama, 1990). Dissertation Abstracts International, 51,09A, 3005.
WHO (2007) Fact sheet NÂ°318 retrieved from www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs318/en/index.html.