Education is related to awareness learning and knowledge. It enhances proficiency of individual .Due to the development of information technology it is possible to use various teaching tools. The impact of these teaching tools has resulted in a complete meta-morph sis of education. Imparting and disseminating knowledge through these technological tools ensures rise in educational quality. Thus teaching becomes an active process connected to real life experiences.
The investigators discuss basic aspect of education, its relation with curriculum and lastly different teaching methods, which are used in LIS education. Modern technological tools like Screen casting, Blogs, wikis, RSS and pod casting can be effectively used in teaching. This results in shifting education from teacher - centred pedagogy to learner centred process.
The revamp of exiting teaching method definitely will ensure a deliverance of quality knowledge and skills to learner to achieve higher degree of proficiency.
Key Words : LIS Education , Conventional Teaching method ; Technological tools; Bolgs; RSS; Screen Cast; Pod casting.
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*Professor Dept Of Library and Information Science University of Pune - 411006.
"Beyond the conventional teaching: Optimising technological tools in promoting LIS Education."
Education is related to awareness, learning and knowledge. The aim of education is to help individual to achieve highest degree of proficiency in self-development. It has to build competency amongst the learners. The right to education is the fundamental right of all human being. In today's environment of technological change, globalisation, growth, development and social change, education has also undergone metamorphic change. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become an essential part of education system which is used to facilitate teaching learning process. In order to make education significant, real life related, stimulating and accessible to all, education should be linked with technology, where the technology will be a tool to deliver information to the student.
An appropriate use of ICTs can act as catalyst and will bring paradigm shift in both content and pedagogy. Use of technology makes learning more dynamic and interesting. (Rao, 2010)
In Indian culture eminent position is given to Guru (Teacher) as
Gurur Brahama, Gurur Vishnu GururDevo Maheshwara Gurur Sakshat Parabramha Tasmay Shri Guruvey Namaha
Since ages teacher's role is not restricted to teaching learning process but as
Pioneer in inculcating moral value in student for better social reform,
A guide with scientific attitude who can motivate student in all possible way in the process of learning.
To perform this dynamic role of mentor, creating men of clay , like a potter creating beautiful pots on a wheel.
As today virtual culture is gaining more prospective in network based environment. Hasty growth of technology has led us to new paradigm shift. Tecnology can offer many alternatives in the teaching and learning environment in different subject field .ICT can really turn the unmotivated student into an interested and active participant.Tecnology applied to learning can facilitate communication, encourage critical thinking, support the discovery process and build community (Willams, 2007).
Library and Information Science Education
Education prepares and equips society to face the challenges, opportunities of changes of modern times .It promotes economic, social and cultural development of the nation It has to be flexible and versatile work force, which is constantly learning and up grading the skills of the individual.
India has witnessed a slow and steady growth of Library and Information Science (LIS) education. The foundation of LIS education in India dates back in 1911 when W.A.Borden (1853-1931), an American disciple of Melvil Dewey, for the first time started a short term training programme in library science at Baroda under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao III, Gaekwad of Baroda (1862-1939).S R Ranganathan's eminent contribution gave a new impulsion to the spread to LIS education in India. (Singh, 2003)
Objective of Library Schools
The objectives of the course in Library and Information Science have been, by and large , to provide a balanced and well- rounding training, integrating theory with practicals and covering with equal emphasis all aspects of professional work. It has been the intension of library schools that the courses offered should reflect the needs of the various types of library (Sahay, 1991)
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
The role of LIS education is not same as any other academic subject â€¦emphasis should be on the methodology of deducing practices and viewpoints from fundamental laws. (Chatterjee, 2006)
Thus one can say that responsibilities of the LIS schools plays a vital role to equipt a librarian in the working environment The familiarity with how learning occurs and what factors facilitate learning are fundamental in planning a curriculum and teaching it. To overcome the challenges posed, librarian has to equip him to face the emerging challenges.The responsibility of disseminating information lies on the shoulders of librarian, this again is the responsibility of library schools to produce well-trained librarians.
Required Skills from the Library Professional
The LIS education aims at providing skilled manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and knowledge centres. which, These centres over a period of time will undergo changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered, as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Application of ICT has revolutionized the whole concept of libraries, Therefore, the objectives of LIS education also need to be redefined.
The students need to be more practical oriented and should apply logical tools and methods taught to them in curriculum.
Students need to be given adequate knowledge of ICT with adequate practical exposure to handle these technological devices
In order to meet the requirement of the society the curriculum has to update and secondly the teacher should adopt variety of teaching methods.
Conventional Teaching Methods for imparting LIS Education
Methods of teaching play a vital role in inculcating interest amongst the students. It is due to the method that the student grasp the subject knowledge. Some of the methods are mentioned below.
Lecture method: It is the most conventional method adopted and followed in all the discipline especially in social science and humanities. This method comes from philosophy of idealism. Lecture method is easy to create, it puts emphasis on oral presentation of the contents. This method is straightforward method, it is useful when the number of student in a class is large. Lecturer is the only source of information who has a control over what is taught and also remains the central focus in the entire class session.
Even though this method is popular in LIS but sometimes could be monotonous and fail to stimulate and create interest of the students. As this method has least participation of audience but a good orator can, with the help of knowledge and sense of humour can create pleasant environment This method encourages the habit of cramming and unintelligently reproducing the same in the examination This method deprives students from the benefit of self supplementary reading and self developing subject knowledge. Most for all the papers this method is used. But it is well supported by providing assignments. Emphasis is laid on practical work orientation in support of lecture method.
Observation method: The student the student observes the thing with doing it by himself. This gives him better perception of the subject rather that theoretically reading .Library can be laboratory for the students. So there is a need to show the student actual working of the library.
Case Study method : The student is expected to thoroughly study a single topic with multiple dimensions .This gives him exhaustive understanding of that topic.
On job training method : Hands on training is very much effective in the process of learning. After completion of certain topic in the class the student should go to the library to have the live experience of doing it . Due to this student is enabled to understand the topic in better way.
Discussion method : This method is based on mutual give and take policy. This method is beneficial as student and teacher are equally involved in it. Students get the freedom of expressing their opinion and problems and plays active participation .This method crystallises their thoughts and excel further developments. This method will be effective while discussing their project work or new trends in LIS. Assignment method : In this method students are assigned certain topic. They are expected to gather and organised the information on that particular topic and compile their own assignment and submit in written. This information is available to them by variety of sources. This is an exercise to make them acquaint with the professional work they will be doing in future.
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Project method : This method helps to build intellectual ability of the student The student is expected to make a purposeful study of real situation. All the activities involved in preparation of project teaches the students . Basic skill of research is build to some extent while preparing a project.
Mock Interview: This method prepares the students to face the real time situation in the market . Due to this the student get a feel of facing interview and could be prepared well for the future.
Tutorial : Tutorial slot provides an opportunity to the student to meet individual teacher s in order to have informal discussion , clarification interpretation, so that the problem of individual student can be solved. (Jaiswal,2002)
Group teaching and Practical Works: The class is divided into sections or small batches.To benefit the entire student community of a class. In this pattern of grouping which is common in classes where the practical's are in the curriculum, The teacher get indulge in creative and intelligent study teacher can transfer and trans fuse his intelligence to student with less strain. In LIS for Knowledge Organisation, Document Description and Information Technology Application this method is used
Seminars Through seminars student gets an opportunity for active participation. In teaching in this method teachers and students are put to make extensive reading on the particular topic. Free exchange of ideas helps a lot to get a better perception on a subject exchange of ideas helps a lot to get a better perception on a topic. Self thinking and self assertion is developed among the student. Student gets opportunity to put the things in logical manner, their communication skills is enhanced, It creates an habit of social interaction amongst the students and also cultivates the habit of presenting oneself in a crowd and convince them with the facts
Field Work: as a part of curriculum students are expected to visit different libraries and study the functioning of those libraries, this gives them exposure to live working pattern of Libraries.
In spite of above motioned methods Creative method s of teachings like Brainstorming, role-playing and synthetics problem solving method is also used in LIS field.
Brain storming Method : It is a group creativity technique designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. No one can criticize other The group consist of 5-10 members. The environment in this is informal. All idea generated from this session if recorded without editing later on it is rigorously evaluated giving solution to the problem This method increases creativity amongst students.
Today LIS discipine is in precarious position. As the role of conventional Libraries is diminishing due to the incredible advancement in ICTs, the change of libraries is indispencible. The role of librarian has also changed demanding some essential skills and competenties which are specifically required in the web based environment. The revamp of exiting LIS curriculum with effective teaching tools will definitely ensure a deliverance of quality knowledge and skills to LIS learner to achieve higher degree of proficiency at their workplaces. If we are failing to embrace the challenges to this new role it will inevitably direct to obsolescence.
Modern teaching tools
The internet has revolutionized the concept of information. Ten years ago, finding information was a lengthy, convoluted process. Today, not only do individuals and computers produce thousands of gigabytes of information a minute, but this information is also networked collectively, which further increases the amount of information produced. Web 2.0 tools can lead to a powerful paradigm shift. Beyond the obvious technological hangs, Web 2.0 causes us to reconsider the creation and development of information and knowledge based on the five Cs of participation: Community, Collaboration, Creativity, conversation and Control. In order to fully appreciate the potential of Web 2.0 tools, there is a need to look beyond the techno lust and the focus on technology to start to engage more with the implicit sociological changes.
2. Web 2.0 - Opportunities and Challenges for Higher Education
Obviously, there are both pros and cons to using Web 2.0. The advantages of Web 2.0 are as follows :
â€¢ reduction of costs;
â€¢ flexibility, as far as the possibility of choosing technologies is concerned;
â€¢ easier and faster access to information, when and where it is needed;
â€¢ the integration of a variety of Web 2.0 technologies in the teaching-learning activities; bookmarking services;
â€¢ possibility to control access to resources by authenticating users;
â€¢ sharing accumulated experiences (blogs, microblogs, wikis, flickr, youtube) and resources;
â€¢ independence from the platform (a computer, with browser and Internet connection is enough);
â€¢ compatibility with the elements of the educational field and the existing contextual dynamics;
â€¢ the low level of complexity needed for use (minimum skills in using the Internet);
â€¢ reliability in continuous usage, over an extended period of time;
â€¢ redistribution of effort, so that less and less time and energy are spent during search and information management
â€¢ the increase in number of modalities of use and the heterogeneity of didactic practices and of types of formation,
due to the diversity of the new technologies;
â€¢ the possibility to test the existing didactic practices, without great changes in the current modus operandi;
â€¢ the major focus on didactic innovation, and not on the technology per se;
â€¢ creating digital content (especially media, podcasting, videocasting).
â€¢ an Internet connection is required (especially a broadband connection);
â€¢ it hides behind it a sum of technologies and concepts which are still insufficiently defined;
â€¢ it determines variations of interpretation between types of browsers;
â€¢ it offers free things, in open-source structures, with a rather vague significance;
â€¢ it leads to a low quality of the actual content, with sites which struggle in deep informational mediocrity;
â€¢ it promotes amateurishness by invaluable contents generated by users;
â€¢ it gives everyone the opportunity to complain, thus creating a community without rules;
â€¢ it has monetary quantification (the Internet as a business - Google);
â€¢ it is a kind of second-hand Web, a medium for persons with low digital abilities;
â€¢ it has limited security;
â€¢ the speed of programs is incomparably lower than the one of desktop programs;
â€¢ it doesn't mean anything per se, it is just electronic junk;
â€¢ the extremely diversified offer of technologies which can be used and which exist on the market at the moment,
make the actual selection process difficult;
â€¢ time and knowledge invested in the Web 2.0 technologies. (Grosseck, 2009)
Some Tools of Web 2.0 can be used in LIS Eduaction.
Screen casting: creating online video tutorial on different topic using technology has become very easy now a day's software rich with editing features smaller learning curves and multiple file option have made it much easier and less time consuming to produce good tutorial. There are three basic steps involved in creating screen casting
To record a video
Capture the relevant screen part/ screen
Cropping the video
Narration can also be added to a screen cast using microphone. Certain part, which needs to be omitted, can be removed and the file can be edited. Screen casting has gained ground with the addition of some new interactive software features such as text entry area, click zones and hotspots further engage end-user by prompting them to perform certain skill-testing tasks at various points throughout a screen cast. In addition to viewing (and listening) rich on screen demonstrations, screen casters can now inject learning simulation into their movies to get their audience actively involved. These advancements in technology, especially the new interactive component of screen casting will no doubt help to increase the popularity of as a tool of instruction.
Software required for Screen casting is available at: www.camstudio.org which require a window platform and is available free of cost.
Blog as a teaching tool:
Weblog is a website which is arranged by time .It is a online dairy or frequently updated personal web pages It is an online chronological collection of personal commentary, thoughts and web links It is an established communication tool. Tim Berner- Lee, the father of World Wide Web is created with precursor to the blog December 1997 .The term Blog is coined by Peter Merholz in 1999. (Natarajan, 2007)
Web blogs in countries like USA, UK, Australia are regularly used by teachers as a teaching tool They are noticing the effect of webblog on their students learning as it creats conversation with students behyond the boundaries of class room.
Blog in LIS Education There are two main uses of web blog in a classroom in libray education.Use by the insructor as personal journalising space, discussion space to be used by instructor and students, electronic portfolio of written work by students.
Personal Journalising Space
It can be used as a personal journalising space by the instructor. One can posts regular entries regarding announcements, course documents, new events, developments and trends in the field related to course,comments on assignmentsand quizzes done by students etc.
Blog can offer an extension of class discussion. If the discussion had to end due to time, then it can be continued online long after the school is over.This allows students who did not get a chance to discuss, as well as the new student can join the conversation . Students can post certain comments about certain topics and other student and teacher can respond or start new ones. (Lihitkar, 2010)
Wikis are websites where visitors cannot only read content but also add their own content or edit the content added by others through a web browser .Both wikis and blogs are web browser are web tecnologies that greatly reduce technical barrier to web content creation. Both provide an editable and interactive web environment where visitors can easily create and contribute online .
A primary goal of many wikis is to encourage many authors to participate.Every one can contribute by adding ,changing or commenting on the content. The collaborative nature of wikis promotes reflective,collaborative and constructive learning as they enactb knowledge building with and for others, with the focus being on the community rather than on the individual learner. (Husain, 2010)
Wikis in LIS Education
Social interaction and discussion among the students and teacher can take place
Can be used by students to share information and enhance the content, a record of these transactions archived for further reference.
Subject guides and subject gateways can be created by wikis
Examples ofwikis are wikipedia, e-Gyankosh
RSS means :The term RSS has three different meanings RDF ( resource documnt frame work ) site summary , rich site summary or really simple syndication RSS uses XML- formatted file to push content to subscribers. Each time the RSS file is updated, the subscriber is notified that new contents are available for viewing.
There are several advantages for users in subcribing to RSS feeds
One does not need to send ones email address to any body
Spam like publishing is impossible with RSS feeds . If a feed becomes annoying, one can cancel the subcription with only a few clicks of the mouse
One does not need to send an 'unsub' e-mail message as with most e-mail listserve or go through a complicated process an any web site.To cancel a subscription, simply delet the feed from the list of feeds followed.
RSS feeds identifies the newest updates and additions and one can set feed readers and connect aggregatores to give an alert when new content has arrived. In essence they provide an instant 'current awareness service to the users' (Pandey, 2009)
RSS in LIS Education
News outlet : The latest information about the library science education , announcement can be given
Courese material can be integrated by RSS.
Podcasting is the method of distributing multimedia files, such as audio programs over the internet using RSS feeds.Although designed primirily for personal mobile devices, desk tops, an iPods. The combination of Video and Audio is called Vodcasting.
Podcasting in LIS Education
The entiire lectures can be recorded.The seminars given by student can be recorded. The
i-Pod is required for this .It is help ful for learner who prefer auditory mode of learning .
Adoption od these modern technological tools is the need of an hour These tools when used logically will definitely enhance learning.
ICT if used in teaching properly will definitely act as a catalyst in learning process. The revamp of exiting teaching method definitely will ensure a deliverance of quality knowledge and skills to learner to achieve higher degree of proficiency. The basic role of ICT is it is just a tool for making education meaningful, exciting interesting and life related. Technical awareness no doubt provides enormous opportunity to express in varity of way but it is a fact that the learning does not occures in vacculum. There is a basic requirement of betterment of society . Hence the role of teacher is indispensible in virtual classroom.