Online Educational Games For Young Children Education Essay

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Nowadays, most of the schools are increasingly encouraged the student for using the internet and the web-based technologies at home and in the classroom. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate how parents consider their child's opportunity to gain new educational and interpersonal experiences from online educational games, to examine the differences in parent's attitudes to the online educational games whether that can affect their children's day-to-day social and educational activities, and how parents involve in reducing children risks on playing online educational games. By using the data from the variables parents' attitudes, parenting style, and parents' IT Knowledge background, we can see how parents reduce the risks of their children playing online educational games.

Keywords: Online educational games for young child, Parenting style, Parent's attitude, Online education games usage.

Introduction and Background Information

The internet surfing of primary school children at home is higher than surfing at school (Livingstone & Bober, 2004). For decades, traditional learning system moved to computer-aided learning system. Although the first generation of computer and video game were introduced in 1951s, it was not for educational purpose. Over 1960s, many researchers have examined that the relationship between game behavior and learning (Hong, Cheng, Hwang, Lee and Chang, 2009). Most people realize that children could attain personal growth and effective learning via games since 1968 (Smilansky, 1968).

In the past few years, e-learning has been popular in the educational institution. Most e-learning systems include pedagogically sound features such as student tracking, online assessment, and community features which can cause various typical e-learning problems such as lack of motivation to continue studying, students who shy to speak in foreign language, etc. Several approaches have been used to solve the e-learning problem and multimedia environment try to capture the attentions of the students in learning process and increase the motivation and the quality of learning experiences by using computer and videogames as an education medium. The use of educational games in the learning environments is an increasingly relevant trend (Moneno-Ger, Burgos and Martínez-Ortiz, 2008).

Nowadays, the role of computer game is an important part of most children's leisure lives and powerful education tool. In the past, people thought computer games can distract from more important activities, such as homework or playing outside. But, now schools are increasingly encouraging students to use the internet and web-based technology at home and in the classroom and trying to support student's learning with computer games that achieve a balance between fun and education value. (Moneno-Ger, Burgos and Martínez-Ortiz (2008) and Papastergiou (2009) stated that, there are many positive outcomes in mathematics, science, and languages by using the electronic games (e.g Pirate treasure Hunt). Ke & Grabowski (2007) mentioned that educational computer games have been reported to better improve primary children's academic achievement than traditional teaching methods.

Parental role is related to get the better child success and important in their children's education matters (Huntsinger, 2009). In developed countries, the internet used is mainly a home based activity. For instance, up to 91.2 % of primary school kids have accessed to the internet at home (Lee & Chae, 2007; Mumtaz, 2001; Calcke, Schellens, Can keer, & Gerarts, 2010). In the UK go online research on the children 9-19, 70 % of children used the internet for playing games.

Problem Statements and justifications

Some researchers emphasized on the parental mediation of video games and assessed the educational values of digital games. They rarely researched on parent attitudes toward online educational games. Most parents believed that there is a relationship between the online usages (such as internet surfing, playing online games, etc.) and their children's behaviors (Lee & Chae, 2007). Valcke, Bonte, Wever & Rot (2010) stated that 86.3 % of primary school children have unsafe internet surfing. In addition, children (92%) are more convinced in using internet than their parents (62%). Livingstone & Bober (2004) argued that parents do not amply the risks of internet. For these reasons, there is no research on how parents involve in reducing the risks on using online educational games.

Literature review

Online educational games are used as the effective tools for teaching hard and complex procedures because they can be used to create personal motivation and satisfaction, accommodate multiple learning styles and skills and provide interactive and decision making context. (Kebritchi & Hirumi, 2008).This section is to provide an overview of studies that had done, specifically based on parenting styles, positive and negative attitudes related to their involvement towards online activities, attitude toward outcome of playing educational games and parent's IT knowledge. Based on this information, this study aimed to identify which types of parents and how parents' involve in reducing risk on using online educational games.

Demographic

Frank Voon (2003) stated that the risks of the internet activities may vary depend on the proficiency level of the parents' English proficiency.

Parenting style

Nikken and Jansz (2006) stated that the parental mediation for children's watching TV is generally distinguished into three groups such as restrictive mediation, active mediation and playing together with their children. They also stated that parents use to employ restrictive and active mediation to avoid negative behavioral effects and playing together with their children to gain positive social-emotional effects of game. Walrave (2008) stated that a few percentage of children received controls by their parents. Parental demand is more restrictive than parental involvement. Parental demand includes time limitation for using online, using filtering software, etc. Parental involvement includes discussion about surfing the internet and gives suggestion which site is suitable and which site is unsuitable. Valcke (2010) stated that, the general parenting style includes parental demand and parental involvement.

It can be classified the internet parenting style into four groups such as the permissive parenting style, the laissez-faire parenting style, the authoritative parenting style and the authoritarian parenting style (Valcke, 2010).

The permissive parenting style - high involvement, low demands (low controls)

The Laissez Faire - low involvement, low demands (low controls)

Authoritative - high involvement, high demands (high controls)

Authoritarian - low involvement, high demands (high controls)

Parents' IT knowledge

Parents' IT knowledge affects their children's online activities such as playing online games, surfing the internet, etc. If parents lacked of IT knowledge, they cannot demand and involve in their children's online activities. Most of the parents are not clearly known the differences between the technologies for entertainment (playing online games and surfing the internet) and technologies for learning (learning something from educational games). Hollingworth, Allen, Kuyok, Mansaray and Rose (2009, p-42) stated that, parents should have the following IT knowledge factors. They are

Parents have to know the "harmful" aspects of technological usages.

Parents have to know the trend of technology and how to use it.

Parents should think that playing online games are the independent learning. A concern with enabling independent learning.

Parents know the differences between 'accesses and 'usage of technology particularly the internet.'

Parents' understandings and knowledge of the educational value of different technologies.

Attitudes Related to their Involvement towards Online Activities

Positive Attitudes

Serene Luo (2009) stated that some parents supposed widely accept that their child is better at home and online rather than outside with bad company. Parents allow their children more freedom in online rather than offline. It showed that parents feel more secure for their children rather than playing outsides with other children. Kuhlemeier & Hemerk (2007) stated that the higher internet usage become improve the children's reading skills and get high-grade marks rather than the children who hardly use the internet. It is one of the effective learning methods and persuasive teaching methods for children. "Young People, New Media" survey pointed out, 95% of parents (middle class) agreed that the usage of computers and online have positive effects on their children (Livingstone, 2007) and enhances the academic achievements (Odabaúı , 2005). Middle class parents are busy with their works and housework. They do not have enough time to spend on their children's learning activities. Squire and Steinkuehler (2005) found that, educational online games also enhance their information seeking behaviors. They can improve their knowledge and get information from their environments.

Negative Attitudes

Parents have difference attitudes and perspectives in learning activities by using the online educational games. Hollingworth, Allen, Kuyok, Mansaray and Rose (2009) stated that some parents thought that the learning activities through educational online game are only waste of time. Parents believed that extreme usage of computer and internet affect on physical, social and psychological problems.(Meizi, Leonard, Charlene and Stewart, 2010) stated that the risk of playing games such as "there were many concerns from parents and teachers relating to possible addictive behaviors or problems of social isolation as an effect of its use. There are many possible negative issues on playing online educational games. Parents are worried for their children communication between their friends and family members. Playing online educational games lead not only physical and mental health problems but also deteoriate friendship between their friends. Children can feel depression, social isolation, mood swings, repetitive strange injuries, and etc. (Vorderer & Bryant, 2006) stated that, the aggressive behavior and personality development are the effects of online games.

Research Objectives

The general objective of this research is to examine how parent's involvement to reduce risks on using online educational games.

We investigated how parent's behavior and involvement are affected based on the following factors.

1. Attitude towards online activities

2. Type of involvements (Parenting Styles)

3. Parents' knowledge toward IT

4. Parents' behavior and involvement

The following illustration is the areas of this study.

Attitude

Positive attitude

Negative attitude

Behavior/ Involvement

Choice

Location

Time

Supervision

Communication

Parenting Style

Knowledge

Fig: Research Framework

Methodology

Data Collection

This study had conducted questionnaire with the parents of primary school children. Participants completed the questionnaires with one-week interval during Novenber. Participation was voluntarily. All statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS statistical package. These surveys are conducted from the volunteers of public area (in front of Jurong Community Club, City Hall Peninsula Plaza, Jurong Point and relations). Participants were guaranteed confidentiality about their participations. In this study, the basic statistical methods are used to analyze the frequencies and percentages of the participants. Then the correlation is calculated between the parent's demographic data, attitudes and parenting styles and the behaviors of educational online games.

Participants

There are almost equal amount of male and female participants (Male 50.9 % and Female 49.1 %). The most participants (49.1%) are holding the Bachelor's degree. The primary level and junior college are very few percentages (1.8 % and 3.6 %) respectively. The percentages of age groups are 18.2 % in <30, 32.7% in (30 to 35), 25.5 % in (36 to 40) and 23.6 % in (>40). The most participants of English are good (54 %).

Attitude

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly

Agree

Total

1.

I am completely confident at using online games as an educational tool.

2 (3.6 %)

5(9.1 %)

16(29.1%)

24(43.6 %)

8(14.5 %)

55 (100%)

2.

Playing online games with children can improve the relationship among family members.

1(1.8 %)

9 (9.1%)

19 (34.5 %)

25(45.5)

5 (9.1 %)

55(100 %)

3.

Online educational games can enhance children's academic achievement.

1(1.8%)

3(5.5%)

17 (30.9%)

28 (50.9%)

6 (10.9 %)

55(100 %)

4.

Online educational games can help children develop computer knowledge.

1(1.8%)

3(5.5%)

11(20.0%)

30(54.5%)

10(18.2%)

55(100%)

5.

Online educational games can help children develop logical thinking skills.

1(1.8%)

0

15(27.3%)

28(50.9%)

11(20.0%)

55(100%)

6.

Online educational games can help children develop reading skills.

1(1.8%)

5(9.1%)

17(30.9%)

22(40.0%)

9(16.4%)

54(98.2%)

7.

Online educational games can enhance children's information seeking behaviors.

1(1.8%)

2(3.6%)

18(32.7%)

26(47.3%)

8(14.5%)

55(100%)

8.

Playing online educational games promotes independent learning.

2(3.6%)

6(10.9%)

17(30.9%)

23(41.8%)

6(10.9%)

54(98.2%)

9.

Playing online educational games can enhance children's IQ level.

0

2(3.6%)

18 (32.7%)

24(43.6%)

11(20.0%)

55(100%)Result

Research question: (1) to determine parent's attitude towards on online educational game

To determine parent's positive attitude towards on online educational game

The attitude section comprises fifteen questions to analyze the parents' attitude toward online educational games; the nine questions (Q1 to Q9) are positive attitude towards the educational games and the rest six (Q10 to Q15) questions are negative attitude towards it. It is based on the data survey, 63.6% of parents accept the online educational games as studies purposes. Moreover, 50.9% of parents trust that the online education can lead the children to interest in their studies and leads to be outstanding students. The development of computer knowledge is initiated by online game based on the survey data (54.5%). Logical thinking skill will also develop as the facts of 50.9%.

On the others hand, some parents worry for children physical development and game addiction which are mentioned by 52.7% and 47.3%.

Attitude

Strongly

Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly

Agree

Total

10.

Playing online educational games can lead children to aggressive behavior.

1(1.8%)

9(16.4%)

21(38.2%)

15(27.3%)

9(16.4%)

55(100%)

11.

Playing online educational games can affect children's physical health, e.g. children obesity, short eye-sight, sore back and so on.

1(1.8%)

5(9.1%)

6(10.9%)

29(52.7%)

11(25.5%)

55(100%)

12.

Playing online educational games can cause social isolation.

0

7(12.7%)

19(34.5%)

21(38.2%)

7(12.7%)

54(98.2%)

13.

Playing online educational games can lead to game addiction.

0

3(5.5%)

14(25.5%)

26(47.3%)

12(21.8%)

55(100%)

14.

Playing online educational games can reduce concentration on other school activities, e.g. reading.

1(1.8 %)

7(12.7%)

16(29.1%)

22(40.0%)

9(16.4%)

55(100%)

15.

Playing online educational games is wasting time.

4(7.3%)

18(32.7%)

18(32.7%)

11(20.0%)

4(7.3%)

55(100%)Parents have strong attitude towards all nine positive questions. On contrast, there are four strong negative attitudes out of six questions. Although there are some strong attitudes on negative attitude questions, the positive attitude is out weighted to negative attitude questions. Hence, we can assume that parents have strong positive attitude towards online educational games.

Research Question: (2) what is the result of the parenting style in their children playing online educational games?

2.1 To determine the parental involvement in educational online game

Parenting style

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Total

16.

I always do online activities together with my children.

1(1.8%)

12(21.8%)

22(40.0%)

16(29.1%)

4(7.3%)

55(100%)

17.

I always help my children with their homework when they need help.

0

2(3.6%)

9(16.4%)

28(50.9%)

16(29.1%)

55(100%)

18.

I regularly do physical exercises with my children.

0

2(3.6%)

21(38.2%)

27(49.1%)

5(9.1%)

55(100%)

19.

I always give my children reasons why they should do something.

0

2(3.6%)

7(12.7%)

30(54.5%)

15(27.3%)

54(98.2%)

20.

I always attend parent-teacher meetings.

1(1.8%)

2(3.6%)

19(34.5%)

23(41.8%)

10(18.2%)

55(100%)

21.

I always attend my children's school activities.

1(1.8%)

3(5.5%)

19(34.5%)

25(45.5%)

7(7.7%)

55(100%)

22.

I exchange educational information with the other students' parents.

1(1.8%)

3(5.5%)

29(52.7%)

17(30.9%)

5(9.1%)

55(100%)

2.2 To determine the parental demands in educational online game

Parenting style

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Total

23.

I only let my children use search engines that are especially designed for children to prevent the risks of internet browsing.

0

6(10.9%)

18(32.7%)

24(43.6%)

7(12.7%)

55(100%)

24.

I always set rules for my children. (E.g. internet usage rules, watching TV, studying, etc.)

0

7(12.7%)

11(20.0%)

26(47.3%)

11(20.0%)

55(100%)

25.

My children will be punished if they do not follow my rules.

1(1.8%)

11(20.0%)

15(27.3%)

25(45.5%)

3(5.5%)

55(100%)

26.

I always determine how my children make friends.

4(7.3%)

8(14.5%)

17(30.9%)

22(40.0%)

4(7.3%)

55(100%)

50.9% of parents help in their children's' homework. 49.1% participates in their child's physical exercises and sports. Parents are reluctant to exchange the educational information with other parents as data mention 52.7% as neutral. 47.3% of parents like to give guidance to their children. the female parents spent more time than male parents to demand and involve their children's homework and online activities. The result also shows that only 20% of parents do online activities together with their children, but 80% of parents guide their children while they are doing homework. Parents also pointed out the reasons what they should not do something (bad behaviors, playing too much online games and so on).

The analysis pointed that parent are more enthusiastic in involving education activities than online activities. In order to get educational information, most parents attend parent-teacher meeting. Only a few parents exchange the educational information with other students' parents. From the result, about 5% of parents don't participate in their children education activities.  Half of the parents from the survey control their children to use search engine for children and determine how their children make friends. 67% parents set the rules such as internet usage rules, watching TV, studying in order to improve their children education and 50% of parents punish their children if they did not follow their rules. The result pointed that parents involve in their children activities rather than demand on their children.

In parenting section, there are eleven parenting styles. The most of the parents usually give the reason upon their guidance based on the question number nineteen's strong positive survey result (81.8%) which is the highest percentage in this section. Most parents also help their children homework when they need their helps as showed on the survey result (80%). Parents set rules for their children time management including internet exploring, watching TV, studying and so many as based on the strong positive attitude result (67.3%). As based on the data survey, parents like to control and guide to their children benefits including online educational gaming but there is strong neutral parenting style for exchanging educational information with others students' parents.

Research Question: (3) Parent's behavior

3.1 To determine the parent's behavior on choice of online educational game

Choice

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Total

27.

I choose games according to my child's age.

2(3.6%)

4(7.3%)

9(16.4%)

30(54.5%)

9(16.4%)

54(98.2%)

28.

I choose games from the teachers' recommendation.

2(3.6%)

3(5.5%)

19(34.5%)

23(41.8%)

8(14.5%)

55(100%)

29.

I choose games according to what my children want.

5(9.1%)

8(14.5%)

17(30.9%)

22(40.0%)

3(5.5%)

55(100%)

30.

I always choose the online games that will motivate my children to learn.

0

1(1.8%)

13(23.6%)

33(60.0%)

8(14.5%)

55(100%)

31.

I always check the online games before I permit my children to play.

0

2(3.6%)

23(41.8%)

27(49.1%)

3(5.5%)

55(100%)

32.

I discuss with other students' parents about online educational games.

0

2(3.6%)

22(40.0%)

27(49.1%)

3(5.5%)

55(100%)

Male parents of high level education have strongly disagree in choosing games according what their children want. Parents used to choose the online games that will motivate their children's learning (74.5 %). Participants strongly agree that online educational game will motivate their children's interests in learning (60.0%). Some parents chose the online game based on their child age (54.5%). On contrast, some parents always check the online games before permitting their children to play (49.1%). Sometimes, parents discuss with others parents for the online games (49.1%). As based on these facts the percentage of data sampling of checking games and discussing with others parents are same.

In choices section, there are six questions, mentions the parents' choices which are age, recommendations, wants, motivations, checking and discussions. Among these, parents emphasize on the game which will motivate the children willingness for studies. The second highest percentage group on positive attitude is choices based on children ages. Choices which are chosen by teachers' recommendation is the third highest percentage group on positive attitude. In addition, there are same two groups with same positive attitude percentages which are checking online games before permission to play the online educational games and discussing with other student parents about online educational games.

3.2 To determine the parent's behavior on time limitation of online educational game

Time

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Total

33.

I allow my children to play online educational games on weekends only.

0

13(23.6%)

15(27.3%)

21(38.2%)

6(10.9%)

55(100%)

34.

I limit the amount of time (duration) my children spend in playing online educational games.

1(1.8%)

5(9.1%)

3(5.5%)

35(63.6%)

10(18.2%)

54(98.2%)

35.

I allow my children to play online educational games as much as they like.

9(16.4%)

20(36.4%)

17(30.9%)

7(12.7%)

1(1.8%)

54(98.2%)

36.

I allow my children to play as much as they like if they have finished homework.

3(5.5%)

14(25.5%)

16(29.1%)

15(27.3%)

7(12.7%)

55(100%)

Parents like to limit the children's time consuming on online educational games according to sampling data (63.3%). Only 15% of parents allow their children playing educational game as much as they like and most of them are male parents. 82% parents limit the time of playing educational games. However, 40% parents allow their children playing games if they have finished their homework. Half of the parents allow their children playing only on weekend.

In spending time section, there are four questions. The survey data shows significantly that parents like to control the duration of playing online educational games and they do not want to allow their children to play online educational games as much as they like.

3.3 To determine the parent's supervision of online educational game

Supervision

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Total

37.

I install software to monitor my children's online game playing activities.

1(1.8%)

12(21.8%)

18(32.7%)

22(40.0%)

2(3.6%)

55(100%)

38

I install filter on the machine to control my children's online gaming activities.

2(3.6%)

9(16.4%)

12(21.8%)

27(49.1%)

55(100%)

39.

I don't allow my children to play online games without my presence.

1(1.8%)

15(27.3%)

19(34.5%)

15(27.3%)

5(9.1%)

55(100%)

Parents agree to install filter on the machine to control their children's online gaming activities (58.2 %). The result is not much difference in allowing their children to play online game without their presence. Parents agree to discuss with their children what they are doing on the internet (61.8 %) and discuss about the people who they meet via internet (61.8 %) rather than playing together with their children (49.1 %).

Under supervision section, there are three types of supervision which are monitoring by software, by filter and by the presence of parents. Most of the parents like to control by installing filter for children's online gaming activities. From the data survey, the parents attitude of agreement and disagreement towards allowing the children to play online games without presence of parents are same.

3.4 To determine the parent's behavior on choice of online educational game

Communication

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Total

40.

I play online educational games together with my children.

0

5(9.1%)

23(41.8%)

24(43.6%)

3(5.5%)

55(100%)

41.

I talk with my children about what he/she does on the Internet.

1(1.8%)

2(3.6%)

18(32.7%)

30(54.5%)

4(7.3%)

55(100%)

42.

I talk with my children about whom he/she meets via the Internet.

0

1(1.8%)

20(36.4%)

28(50.9%)

6(10.9%)

55(100%)

Parents like to discuss verbally about their children activities on the internet (54.5%) and their social dealing on the internet (52.7%).

In communication section, there are three types of communications on the online educational gaming which are playing it together with their children, taking with their children about what they do on the internet and about the strangers whom they meet via internet. As based on the survery, the positive agreement on the talking about what they do on the internet and about the people whom they meet via internet are the same.

Research Question: (4) To determine the parent's IT knowledge

Knowledge

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Neutral

Agree

Strongly Agree

Total

43.

I have enough knowledge to guide my children's online activities.

0

3(5.5%)

18(32.7%)

17(30.9%)

17(30.9%)

55(100%)

44.

I have enough knowledge to guide my children regarding online games play.

0

3(5.5%)

20(36.4%)

22(40.0%)

10(18.2%)

55(100%)

45.

I know the risks that my children can encounter on the internet.

0

3(5.5%)

14(25.5%)

21(38.2%)

17(30.9%)

55(100%)

46.

I know different games with different educational values.

0

0

17(30.9%)

29(52.7%)

9(16.4%)

55(100%)

40% of parents mention that they have enough online knowledge to guide their children's online games play, moreover, 52.7% of parents believe that different online educational games have different educational values. Parents believe that they have knowledge concerning with playing online educational games and using the internet. They mentioned that they have knowledge to guide their children's online activities (61.8 %) and game playing (58.2 %). They also agree that they know different games with different educational values (79.1 %).

Correlation

Choice

Columns

Childs' age

Teachers' recommendation

Children want

Motivate to learn

Check the games

Discuss with others

O (Positive)

-0.186

-0.215

0.099

0.081

0.000

-0.013

V (Negative)

0.317

0.304

0.338

0.300

0.287

0.159

AD(involvements)

0.031

0.118

0.320

0.105

0.052

0.472

AI (demands)

0.578

0.548

0.326

0.419

0.347

0.220

B (Gender)

0.274

0.185

-0.073

-0.189

-0.043

-0.056

C (Age)

0.145

0.255

0.059

-0.031

-0.184

0.042

D (Education)

-0.087

-0.044

-0.223

-0.071

-0.076

-0.037

E (English)

-0.086

-0.170

-0.081

0.026

-0.035

-0.055

On the base of the analysis of variance, we can see how the some relationship between parent attitude and parent's behavior on choosing game. Parents who have negative attitude towards on online educational game are positive relation with choosing games according to their children's age (r= 0.317), choosing games from the teacher's recommendation (r= 0.304), choosing games according to their children want (0.338) and choosing game to motivate for their children's learning (r= 0.300).

Parental involvement is positive relationship with parent's behavior on choosing game from discussing with other student's parents (r= 0.472).

Parent's demand is relationship with choosing games according to their children's age (r= 0.578), choosing games from choosing games from the teacher's recommendation (r= 0.548), choosing games according to their children want (r= 0.326) and choosing game by checking before permitted their children to play (r= 0.347).The other variables are not significantly related with parent's behavior on choosing games.

Time

Columns

Allow weekend only

Limit the amount of playing

Allow playing as much as they like

Allow playing if they finish homework

O (Positive)

-0.176

0.151

0.040

0.106

V (Negative)

0.376

0.413

-0.114

-0.012

AD (involvement)

0.158

0.277

0.206

0.060

AI (control)

0.222

0.300

0.128

0.211

B (Gender)

-0.120

0.085

0.001

0.309

C (Age)

0.038

-0.121

0.256

0.191

D (Education)

-0.137

-0.011

-0.190

0.005

E (English)

-0.441

-0.235

-0.189

-0.107

According to the result of analysis, there is a relationship between demands and the limitation of time on the educational games at weekends only (r= 0.376). Parents also limit the amount of time (duration) on playing online educational games (r= 0.413). It stated that, parents are strongly made limitation of time.

The analysis of data pointed that, parents are strongly demand on playing online educational games (r= 0.300). There is also a relationship between the parents' gender and allow their children to play online educational games after they have finished their homework (r= 0.309). There is a negative relationship between the parent's English proficiency and allow their children to play online educational games at weekends only (r= -0.441).

Supervisions

Columns

Install the software

Install the filter

Don't allow playing without my presence

O (Positive)

0.111

0.034

-0.079

V (negative)

0.078

0.297

0.356

AD involvement)

0.263

0.342

0.291

AI (demands)

0.129

0.178

0.402

B (Gender)

-0.045

-0.119

0.220

C (Age)

-0.070

-0.108

0.136

D (Education)

0.036

-0.039

-0.078

E (English)

-0.114

-0.263

-0.386

Parent's involvement is relationship with using filter on their children to control their children's online gaming actives (r= 0.342). Parent's negative attitude is related with allowing their children to play online games without their presence (r= 0.356). Parent's English proficiency level is negatively related with allowing their children to play online games without their presence (r= -0.386).

Communication

Columns

Play together with my child

Talk with my child about what they do on internet

Talk with my child about whom they meet at internet

O (Positive)

0.014

0.079

0.122

V (Negative)

0.445

0.146

0.159

AD (Involvement)

0.288

0.352

0.396

AI (demands)

0.295

0.287

0.312

B (Gender)

-0.086

-0.112

-0.099

C (Age)

-0.158

-0.059

0.044

D (Education)

-0.100

-0.109

0.099

E (English)

0.115

0.143

-0.050

The parents' negative attitudes towards online games has positive relationship with parents play online education game with their children (r=0.445). Parents' involvement has the relationship with on parents talking with their children what he/she does on the internet (r=0.352) and on parent talking with children about whom she meets via the internet(r=0.396). Parental demands has the relationship with parents talking about the person whom their children meet via the internet (r=0.312).

Gender and Education

In this study, generally there is no gender differences in positive attitudes but there are some difference in Q 4 (Online Educational game can help children develop computer knowledge) and Q 7 (Online Educational Game can enhance children's information seeking behaviors). According to the following bar graphs, we can conclude the female parents are more agree on information seeking behavior and children developing of computer knowledge than the male parents.

Figs: There have differences perspective in playing online educational games (gender on parental demands).

Fig: Male parents are more agree to punish their children if they do not follow their rules than female parents.

Attitude and Communication

There are strong relationship between the parents' attitude and communication as based on the chi-square test result which is p= 0.003 that mention between the analysis of the attitude towards the online educational game and the communication between children and parents. The more positive parents' attitude towards the online gaming, the more they communicate with their children for their online educational gaming.

Positive * Communication

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

193.950a

144

.003

Likelihood Ratio

107.273

144

.990

Linear-by-Linear Association

.400

1

.527

N of Valid Cases

55

a. 171 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.

Attitude and Time

On the other hand, some parents have negative attitude towards the online educational games. As the analysis from chi-square test, the parents who have negative attitude like to control their children's online educational gaming duration. The relationship between negative attitude and time spend for online educational gaming purpose is p= 0.001 which can mention that the relationship is strong. The parents who have negative attitude towards online educational gaming control the duration of time consuming on online educational games.

Negative * Time

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

212.343a

150

.001

Likelihood Ratio

137.650

150

.756

Linear-by-Linear Association

4.861

1

.027

N of Valid Cases

55

a. 176 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .02.

Discussion

According to the survey result, we have found that how parents can reduce the risks on playing online educational games.

The parents who have negative attitude towards the online educational gaming control and reduce the risk of online educational gaming by limiting time. They thought that playing online educational games have the negative effects on health, time and others.

The parents, who have positive attitude on online educational games, have better communication with their children. Hence they reduce the risk by building the strong communication and discussion with their children. Female parents spent more time than male parents to demand and involve their children's homework and online activities. Parents also pointed out the reasons what they should not do something (bad behaviors, playing too much online games and so on). The analysis pointed that parent are more enthusiastic in involving education activities than online activities. In order to get educational information, most parents attend parent-teacher meeting. Some researchers showed that, parents strongly demand on their children to reduce risks on their children. Only a few parents exchange the educational information with other students' parents. This result pointed out, how's parents are reduced the risks of online educational games effects.

This paper pointed out that the affects of general involvement in their children's daily activities and how these are related with the usages of online educational games. It stated that the parents attitude (positive, negative) are how to influence to choose, allow their children playing online educational games. According to the result of the analysis, it shows that female parents are worried for their children's mental health problem, time usages and others. They are not encouraged in playing educational online games rather than male parents. Parents (Male) think that online educational games can enhance their children's education. However, it has the positive attitudes for young children; most of the parents believe that the online educational games are harmful for their children.

Future Studies, Limitation

There are some limitations in this research as the limitation of time and parents' participations. During the survey period, we have encountered many difficulties; it may take two weeks and above to get the permission from the authorized person of primary school and library. According to the time duration, we have collected the survey at the outside of the libraries and public spaces (parks, playgrounds). Most of the parents do not want to participate in our survey research; we have got only 55 parents. The result of analysis may be unrepresentative because of the small number of participants.

As a result of this study, the future research might comprise for a larger participants in this research. Also, research field should be focused on the specific nationalities (Singaporean, Malaysian, etc) to get the specific data in research. In this research, we have based on theoretical model. Future research should be done by using the interview and observation methods because questionnaires cannot be extracted the specific perspective of the parents.

References

Carol S. Huntsinger , Paul E. Jose(2009). Parental involvement in children's schooling:Different meanings in different cultures. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 24, 398-410

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