North Cyprus education is the fastest developing area

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This chapter presents a review of literature on the development of MI theory, its applications in various educational contexts, arguments for and against it, and the relationship between multiple intelligences and career preferences.

2.1 North Cyprus Education System

In North Cyprus, education is one of the fastest developing area. It aims at developing the abilities of individuals of all the age groups both for their personal and for society benefit. There is a full time education, which is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5 and 18.

The general structure of the North Cyprus Education System consists of three main parts as Basic Education, Secondary Education and Higher Education.

Basic Education consists of three main periods; a) Pre-School Period: is composed of pre-school class (age of 5-6) and play-class (age of 4-5). Basic education covers the period between the play-class and the last grade of the Secondary School Period. Compulsory education begins from the pre-school class. b) Primary School Period: is composed of the 1st-5th grades; It is the period between the ages of (6-7) and (10-11) c) Secondary School Period: is composed of the 6th-9th grades, begins from the age of (11-12) up to (14-15).

Secondary Education: is composed of the 10th-12th or 10th-13th grades. It lasts for 3 or 4 years depending on the programs.

Higher Education: It defined as all post-secondary programs. The system consists of universities (state and foundation) and non-university institutions of higher education (police and primary school teacher academy). The Higher Education System is regulated by the Higher Education Planning, Accreditation and Coordination Council (YODAK) (Department of Educational Planning and Program Development, 2005).

2.2 Roles of the Technology in Education

Technology can be used in various settings, for various purposes, for various ways, and for various times. Young and Bush (2004) developed a starting point for teachers to consider how technology should be used and should not be used in teaching.

Technology should;

Work to validate individual students and empower their ability to achieve academic and "real world" success.

Supplement and enhance instruction and, in effect, work almost transparently and seamlessly with content instruction.

Supplement and enhance traditional print/literature/media materials.

Provide additional resources and create wider access to them.

Expand students' means of expression and broaden their opportunities to reach meaningful and authentic audiences.

Deepen students' understanding of complex issues and enhance their ability to make more global connections.

Expand and enhance the definitions and dimensions of literacy (critical, digital, media and otherwise).

Facilitate an open forum for discussion that allows for more opportunities for free and democratic participation and dialogue (p.12).

Technology should not;

Replace complex language and developmental goals with more simplistic "learn technology" goals.

Replace teachers or pedagogy.

Complicate or supersede content instruction or become the content focus of instruction itself.

Replace or overshadow traditional print/ literature/media materials.

Limit appropriate resources or access to them.

Disrupt or complicate normal classroom community efforts and objectives for addressing audience.

Diminish students' ability to participate or contribute by favouring students with advantaged access to technology.

Deepen social, racial, gender, and economic inequalities.

Stifle creativity or opportunities for using the imagination or multiple intelligences.

Completely replace teacher-student and/or student-student "face-to-face" communication and interaction (p.12).

While using technology in teaching environment what should be done and what should not be done could be evaluated by looking at Young and Bush's (2004) recommendations. Indeed, technology's role in education can take many forms. It can be classified as a tool, a tutor, a learner (tutee), (Taylor, 1980; Heid & Baylor, 1993), and as a catalyst (Heid & Baylor, 1993).

Technology as a Tool

Technology as a tool needs some useful capability programmed into it to allow users opportunities to process or reorganize information more quickly and efficiently. As a tool they have immediate and practical utility, for that reason they have been developed for business, science, industry, government, and other application areas, such as higher education (Taylor, 1980). In this mode, computer provides a service that the consumers need and more or less they know how to use.

For example, the main use of computers in education as tool is the word-processing and desktop publishing. Writing a term paper or a thesis requires a word-processing program and some expertise on it. In addition, many language teachers and students make use of computers as tool while preparing their presentations, writing their papers, or worksheet for their classes.

Technology as a Tutor

Computers may have a similar role as tutor comparing to a teacher has. The computer presents lectures, student responds, computer evaluates student's responses, from the results of the evaluation, determines what to present to student next. With well-developed software, the computer tutor may tailor its presentation to accommodate a wide range of student differences (Taylor, 1980). Well developed software may require too much time as Taylor (1980) stated, "tutor mode typically requires many hours of expert work to produce one hour of good tutoring, for any or all of several reasons" (p.243). Computers as tutor provide the learners with different activities which are appropriate to the subject aimed by the learners: drill and practice, tutorials, simulations, and games. This mode generally called as CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction).

Technology as a Tutee (Learner)

In this role, computers are learners themselves. Computers are taught to perform their tasks that the user wants. Computers understand special languages which are called machine languages (such as Pascal, C and Delphi) and programmers write special codes for the computers to understand. These codes are turned into programs which we use today (such as Microsoft Word and PowerPoint). With these codes, computers can understand when, what and how to do the thing instructed.

Technology as a Catalyst

Finally, technology can be used for exploring the knowledge on interested subject. It is a catalyst for the extension of learning beyond the direct instruction given by the teacher. If guided properly, the technology can engage students' thought processes that may not have been triggered through a traditional means (Heid & Baylor, 1993), and allows students to feel an ownership of their discoveries once they have arrived.

2.3 Technology Integration Strategies for Foreign Language Instruction

In USA twelve national education associations' leaders established an alliance to explore the most effective means of accomplishing effectively preparing teachers to use technology (Bell, 2001). They defined technologies that could be used in English lessons:

Internet publishing,

Electronic journaling and discussion groups,

E-mail,

Web sites,

Electronic portfolios,

Internet research,

Applications for communication to self and others,

Videoconferencing for cultural communication exchanges,

Text creation through word processing, graphics, and numerous other applications, and

Word processing (p.524).

Ways of using technologies for English language teaching could be defined roughly as Bell (2001) indicated, similarly Pope and Golub (2000) defined seven principles as touchstones for infusing these technologies into English teacher preparation programs,

introduce and infuse technology in context;

focus on the importance of technology as a literacy tool;

model English language arts learning and teaching while infusing technology;

evaluate critically when and how to use technology in English language arts classroom;

provide a wide range of opportunities to use technology;

examine and determine ways of analysing, evaluating, and grading

English language arts technologies projects; and emphasize issues of equity and diversity (p.90).

According to them (2000) after achieving these principles, teachers will no longer be the dispenser of information; teachers and students together will be learners.

The technologies pointed out by Bell (2001) and principles stated by Pope and Golub (2000) might be combined in a variety of technology integration strategies for foreign language teaching in Turkey. For example, Roblyer (2006) summarized some strategies as follows;

Support for authentic and written practice,

Support for practice in language sub skills,

Presentation aids,

Support for text production,

Virtual field trips for modified language immersion experience,

Virtual collaborations,

Productivity and lesson design support for teachers.

2.4 Technology Use in Language Learning

The global popularity of Internet over the past decade has brought about the innovative use of the Internet in education and in foreign language learning and teaching, as well. Many studies affirm that learners consider Internet a useful material to discover and learn new vocabulary (Alshwairkh, 2004; Johnson & Heffernan, 2006; Ma & Kelley, 2006; Koçak, 1997) and to supplement in-class instruction (Kung & Chuo, 2002).

Web can add a valuable dimension to face-to-face language teaching by offering interactive and meaningful tasks in authentic settings (Felix, 1999). Similarly, regarding the advantages of web-based teaching and learning, Johnson (2005) found that convenience, mobility, flexibility are common notions used by students to describe web-based classes. Students are found to be more enthusiastic in this environment, which offers more motivation. Similarly in another study, although students had different opinions about the benefits of it to English learning, most of them liked and approved of learning English through Internet and believed that it can promote and enhance language learning by the blend of synchronous and asynchronous communication tools (Yang and Chen, 2007). When use of technology in education emerged nearly thirty years ago, a major concern was that the unavoidable infusion of technological devices into our educational system would kill off some of the educators, and that the computer would make the classroom obsolete, through the years it has been experienced that the corresponding developments in technology and interactive processes, lead to success by enriching teaching-learning process. In fact, computers and Internet, with Rice's (1984, as cited in Chou, 2003) definition the "new media", has allowed or facilitated the provision of the important feature interactivity in educational applications in order to enhance learning potential. Regarding this, Borsook & Higginbotham (1991, as cited in Chou, 2003) claim that "the computer's interactive potential makes it unique in the history of educational/instructional technology and sets it apart from all other instructional devices" (p, 267). For instance, studies indicated that students who are shy in face to face discussions and seem to be low achievers in language learning became more active participants in computer-assisted classroom discussion (Beauvois, 1992; 1995; Kelm, 1992, as cited in Young, 2003).

After perceiving the aforementioned facilities of computers and Internet, and seeing the advantages of them such as interactivity which is very significant in language teaching, language teachers have recently been exploring new ways of integrating new technology into their teaching to make it more motivating and effective.

2.5 E-Learning

2.5.1 What is E-Learning?

E-learning is an education method offered using electronic delivery methods such as personal computers, CD-ROMs, video conferencing, digital television, P.D.A.s and mobile phones, websites and e-mail. It is often used in distance-learning programs [1,2].

E-learning may also be used to support distance learning through the use of WANs (Wide Area Networks), and may also be considered to be a form of flexible learning where just-in time learning is possible. Courses can be tailored to specific needs and asynchronous learning is possible. Where learning occurs exclusively online, this is called online education. When learning is distributed to mobile devices such as cell phones or PDAs, it is called M-learning.

2.5.2 Supporting Learning Online

Some view e-learning as a means to effective or efficient etc. learning, due to its ease of access and the pace being determined by the learner. Others point out that e-learning software developers tend to limit their focus on course delivery and content, while online education institutions require a much wider range of educational services.

Others are critical of e-learning in the context of education, because the face-to-face human interaction with a teacher has been removed from the process, and thus, some argue, the process is no longer "educational" in the highest philosophical sense. However, these human interactions can be encouraged through web-conferencing programs.

Further, continual advances in technology allow a wider range of learning experiences such as educational animation to be made available to support online learning. E-learning systems such as Moodle often work towards a student-centred learning solution, building upon a social-constructivist pedagogy [2].

2.5.3 Pedagogy of E-Learning

One important point is to help teachers organize their pedagogical perspective.

More recent approaches focus on dialogue, interaction and collaborative activities - courses still contain content but it is of secondary importance or is generated by the students. An open source course management system that makes this approach easier is Moodle. This advocates Social-Constructivism as a pedagogical perspective, whereby learners construct their knowledge through discussions, thereby enhancing their thinking skills [2].

2.5.4 Student Centered Learning

Student-centered learning is an approach to education focusing on the needs of the students, rather than those of others involved in the educational process, such as teachers and administrators. This approach has many implications for the design of curriculum, course content, and interactivity of courses.

For instance, a student-centered course may address the needs of a particular student audience to learn how to solve some job-related problems using some aspects of mathematics. In contrast, a course focused on learning mathematics might choose areas of mathematics to cover and methods of teaching which would be considered irrelevant by the student [2].

2.5.5 Teacher Centered Learning

Teacher Centred (TCL) learning styles offer distinct advantages to lecturers in situations where they desire tight control over the learning process and greater predictive capacity over assessment. Furthermore, TCL allows lecturers to control and systematise the structure, content and pace of unit delivery in a way that gives primacy to knowledge base of the lecturer [4]

2.6 Web 2.0 Technology

Learning technologies were developed to help increase learning outcomes in educational settings (Appleton, 2003). Learning technologies at the beginning of the twentieth century were such tools as chalk and a chalkboard; however, by the end of the twentieth century, learning technologies had expanded more and more into the use of electronic means for adding to the learning experience. As the twenty first century has emerged, learning technology has relied more and more on computers and the internet (Ankolekar, Krötzsch, Tran, & Vrandecic, 2008). Nowadays, most popular education technology is web 2.0 technology.

2.6.1 What is Web 2.0

2.7 Summary

In this chapter, some basic literature on MI theory has been reviewed. The impact of the MI theory on teaching and learning has been found to be enormously beneficial in spite of the criticisms regarding the validity of the theory. Also, Multiple Intelligences Theory plays an important role in students' life while they are selecting their future careers. MI theory helps students know themselves better in terms of their strengths, weaknesses, and interests and this information helps them to choose more suitable careers.

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