Sale (1956) defined stress as the non specific response of body to any demand made upon it stress can be expressed emotionally, behaviorally and one's response to stress tend to be typical reaction in similar situations determined by one's personality, structure, previous experience and coping mechanisms. In this study stress is defined as the self perceived difficulty in relapsing, easily upset, irritable, impatience, nervous kraal according to the stress component of Depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) lovebird and lovibond1995).
Work stress means a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand or resource related to what individual closures and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.
Stress has increased these days because of globalization as there are many organization or companies doing same kind of work and they compete with each other in order to get benefits out of it and the second reason can be its privatization because in private sector they want to earn more and more profits and in order to get more and more profits they overload the people of that company with work. The stress has also increased because in every industry they want the person with multi kills so that they of working hours has also been increased in the organizations which poses as stress for workers . These are the various reasons which has increased the stress of workers these days in the organization. The stress is being studied in order to do stress management in the organization and so that we can improve the performance of employs in the organization so that our organization can grow. Because the workers in organization is main element of organization, if we don't consider them than our organization can't grow to grow organization we have to do stress management in.
Causes of stress in an organization
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There are various reasons which courses stress to workers in an organization, The reasons are as under %
The environmental uncertainty in the organization create street to workers in the organization. There are 3 types of environmental uncertain unities economic, political, and technological.
Is created when there is change in business cycle. For example% people become anxious about their job security.
Political uncertainty Is created in the organization due to some political reasons which Amy cause stress to the workers working in the organization.
Technological uncertainty Is created in the organization when some new technology is introduced in the organization and the workers working in the organization don't know how to use the technology. This may cause stress to the worker. Like introduction of computers etc.
The shortage of workers in the organization may cause stress to the other workers working in the organization as the demand of work from the other people will increase which will intern create stress for the workers. The demand from worker will increase and this demand can be of 3 type's%
Rebates to the tasks done by the person in the organization. When there is shortage of workers in the organization, the person is expected to do more work for the organization which makes the person stressful.
Role demand Relate to pressures placed on the persons as a function of particular role, person plays in the organization. Role overloads is experienced by the worker when the employees .is expected to do more than time permits.
Interpersonal demand Are pressures created by other employess. Lock of social support from collages and poor interpersonal relationships can couse stress among people with high social need.
The stress can be caused by personal factors of the worker working in the organization. This personal factors can be his family issues, economic problems and inherent personality characteristics.
Family and personal relationships ie marital difficulties, the breaking off the relationship and discipline troubles with
The stress can be caused by pesrsonal factors o the workers working in the organisation. This personal factors can be his famil issues,personal economic problems and inherant personality characteristics.
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Family Problems - Family and personal relationships i.e. marital difficulties , the breaking of the relationship and the discipline problems with the childen ar examples of relationship problems that create stress for the employee i.e working in an organisation as whil working he will be there with his problems only.
Economic Problems - This is created by individual overedending their financial resources in another set of personal probems that can create stress for employees and this distracts their attention from their work. Even thoug when they are working they are still thinking of the problems.
Personality - some people have an inherent tendency t accentuate negative aspects of the world in general. The individual factor that influences stress is the person's basic disposition. So the stress which origions out o work may be because of the personality of the person. The stress depends on person to person i.e personal differencs i.e. how person's
Perception of the person-perception will moderate the relaionship between a potential sress condition & enployees reaction to it for eg. One person's fear that e will lose his job because hi company is laying of personalle may be perceiced b another as an opportunity to get a large allowence & its own business so,stress don't lie in situation , it lies in employees intepretation of tose conditions.
Experince of te person - when person is experienced , he feels less stress as compared to the person who is new to th organisation. As a person becomes experienced in an organisation he becomes familiar to the job and he knows everything abot the work so he feels less stressed whereas the peson who is new in the organisation he feels more stress in the organisation as he is new , he is nort familiar with the work & is not familiar with the organisation.
Social support to the person - if there is social support in the organisation the person workin in the organisation wil feel less stress in the work as he is getting support of his co workers If this support is not being there with the person wrking in the organisation he will feel more stressfull as compared to the person who is getting the support of his co workers.
PROS & CONS of Work Strress
Work stress is not always taken in a negative way it can be taen in both ways. Infact the level of stress is necessary for the growth of the erson in a job . The stress to a particular level for growth is called "eustress" & when this particula level exceeds its limtits then it becomes destress or strain.
Pros of Work Stress
If it is used to a particular level then
- it increases the efficiency of the persons. The person workn in an oranisation will work with more efiiciency if this much level of stress is maintained in an organisation.
- it motivates the person as if the work is being assigned to the person . He will be motivated to do that paricular job as he will feel responsible for the work being assigned to him.
- it is necessary for the development of the person. As if no stress or litle stress is given to the person he will not have any improvement in him . If we give some stress to the person then only he will improve otherwise he will remain as it is.
- I is necessary for change in the person. If no stress is given to the person there will be no change in the person. He will be there only as he was there years ago. There will be no chandge in him.
The relatinship between stress and performance is as strs increases the performanc also increases. At the optimum stress level , performance has reached to its maximum level. If stress continuos to increase into the distress region , performance quickly declines.
When the stress increases for the particular level then it becomes distress & then the productivity of the workers working n the organisation decreases then eustress converts into distress.
Cons of Work Stress
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When the stress increases from a particular level then it gives rise to the disadvantages of stress i.e. distress . The worker when feels overstressed then it gives rise to :-
Physiological symptoms - in these symptoms due to stress the atabolism changes, increse in heart and breathing rates , increase in blood pressure , bring on headaches and also heart attacks could come . This may be happen to the person who is working on the organisation under the conditions of stress in the oranisation.
Psychological Symptoms - stress can cause dissatisfaction , it may create tension , anxiety , irritability , boredom and procrastination If t he person feels disstisfied from their job then he will have to face these Kinds of problems which disturb his work in the organization and this lead to the decrease in efficiency of the person who is dissatisfied form his work in the organization. The stress may cause in efficiency of the person working in the organization.
These include changes in productivity, absence and turnover as well change in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, rapid speech, fidgeting and sleep disorders. These are know as behavioral symptoms in the person. The person who under stress due to job then he may face these rings of symptoms which changes the behavior of the person working in the organization.
Impact of stress on employees
High labour turnover :-
If stress is more in organization than there will be high labour turnover.
Reduces productivity :-
If there is stress in the organization, employee will not work comfortably and his productivity reduces.
Where there is more stress in the organization than the employees will not like to go to organizations and they will be on leave most of the times.
Where there is more stress in the organization then person will suffer from health problems which will intern leads to low effected of employees.
In order to tackle the problems of stress in an organization we can do stress management in the organization in order to make the growth of the organization. It can be done at 2 level:-
The employee can take personal responsibility for reducing the stress for his work. Which he is doing in an organization. The things which he can do reduce his stress that can be physical exercise, Relaxation techniques and expanding social support network. The person can do swimming, cycling, person will do all these things than he can able to remove stress from his work and he can do his work efficiently in the organization.
The organization can also do something to reduce the stress of the person working in the organization. The organization can redesign their jobs, the organization can set goals for the person so that he may get motivated. Then training can be given to the person which will enhance his efficacy and then it will lead to better performance of the person in the organization. The works which organization can do are:-
- Redesigning Job
- Setting of goals
- Increasing employee involvement
- Organizational communication
These will help person who is under stress in the organization.
The stress can be measured. One way of measuring is through the use of Holmes and rahe stress to rate stressful life events. Change in blood pressure and galvanic skin response can also be measured to test stress levels and changes in stress levels. Then a digital thermometer can be used for measuring changes in skin temperature, which can indicate activation of fight drawing blood away from the extremities.
Stress Management done in Organizations (NTPC)
According to survey done in NTPC (National thermal power corporation Limited) which was farmed in 1975.
According to this survey 62% workers in the organization feel stress which working in the organization.
And inorder to reduce stress in the organization survey is done to reduce stress in the organization. So that they can graw in future so different methods reducing tress was posed in front on workers
- Physical exercise and yoga 75%
- Meditation 77%
- Spending time with family 79%
- Improving working conditions 82%
- Rational allocation of work 66%
- Financial motivations 55%
- Relaxation 80%
These much percentage of people of organization feel that by using these above techniques we can reduce stress in NTPC. So, this helped NTPC to improve working conditions and making NTPC a less stress poser for the workers. This increases potential of the organization and this help the organization in being aware of the stress of the workers in the organization and by this NTPC. Improved its working conditions in the organization and this lead to the growth of both worker as well as the organization.
Stress in Postal Sector
In postal sector stress occur. According to survey done in this sector causes of stress in this sector is
There are 2 main causes of stress ie bad management and second is too much work load in the organization.
This lead to de crease in efficiency of the employees in this sector.
- 24% of people got health problems because of stress
- 56% of people sleep poorly at night
- 73% of people feet tiered
- 61% of people got imitable
Stress Management done to reduce stress
Employee assistance programmers has been started inorder to reduce stress in the sector this will counsel, advice, specialist treatment and support the employees which inturn lead to increase in efficiency of the workers. Which has earlier being decreased because of stress. And also the working conditions has been improved which motivate employees and make them efferent in their work.
Stress in Banking sector
The stress is also there in banking sector. As according to the survey done there are various seasons of stress that accured in the sector which makes persons working in the organization full of stress. According to survey done is
These are the main reasons in the banking sector which makes the employees working in the organization full of stress which effects their performance and efficiency.
If stress is there in the organization then it is good for the concern but when the stress exceeds its limit then it becomes distress and then it becomes harmful both for the worker as well as for the organization. So, it is necessary for every organization to do stress management so as their organization can grow and it will also help at the individual level of the workers. As the stress causes various kids of hazardous to the worker as like impatient, frustration, health problems and also the worker becomes dissatisfied from their job which reduces the efficiency of the worker. So the efficiency of the worker will affect the growth of the organization. So, to reduce stress, study of stress management is necessary for the organization.
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