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One of the most important early steps in a research project is the conducting of the literature review. This is also one of the most humbling experiences a investigator likely may have. Because the investigator is likely to find out that just about any worthwhile idea they have would have been thought of before, at least to some degree. It gives the investigator the overall view of the research that has been conducted in the field previously. It helps to avoid un-necessarily duplication of research and improves the bases for formulating hypotheses. In the words of, Mouly (1984), "It is a critical step which invariably minimizes the risk of dead ends, rejected studies, wasted efforts, trials and error activity - oriented approaches and even more importantly enormous findings based on faulty research designs." According to Best, (1978), "The research for reference material is time consuming but fruitful phase of the graduate program." Even though past researchers do show significance results obtained and provide valuable suggestions for further researches, the results are contradictory and beyond satisfaction. To obtain satisfactory results an independent research is highly necessary. The first step in the research is to search for related literature. Thus review of related literature is essential for making the study more effective. Therefore the investigator has also made an attempt to present review of related literature.
Understandably there has been a significant quantum of research work done in the discipline of education and related issues, but comparatively research attempts are less on Learning Organization, Leadership Styles, Organizational Culture and teachers' Personal Commitment . Within these limitations, this chapter makes a humble attempt to present a brief review of the variables of the study. These reviews were collected from survey of education, journals, dissertation abstracts, encyclopedias, internet and other reading material.
NEED FOR THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE:
Review of related literature, besides allowing the researcher to acquaint oneself with current knowledge in the field or area in which one is going to conduct the research, serves the following specific purposes.
It enables the researcher to define the limits of his field. It helps the researcher to delimit and define his problem.
It brings the researcher up-to-date on the work which others have done.
It helps to state the objectives clearly and concisely.
Researchers can avoid unfruitful and useless problem areas. They can select only the positive findings and his endeavor would be likely to add to the knowledge in a meaningful way.
The researcher can avoid unintentional duplication of well established findings.
It helps the researcher in understanding of the research methodology, tools and instruments which proved to be useful and promising.
So that ideas may change, develop and take on sharper edges.
To obviate the need for fresh research or to replicate a study.
To stimulate research imagination.
To see what methods have been used to address a particular problem.
The final and important specific reason for reviewing the related literature is to know about the recommendations of pervious researches listed in their studies for further research
The researcher has reviewed studies across the four variables and stated studies between 1985 and 2011.
Studies on Schools as Learning Organization
Patnaik, B. (2010). The specific objectives of this study were: To examine the nature and extent of learning organization in the reputed educational organizations in India, to differentiate learning organization practices in public and private undertakings, to examine the relationship between learning organization and the climate prevalent in educational settings. Questionnaire responses from employees were collected by using The Learning Organization Process (LOP) Survey and Motivational Analysis of Organisations-Climate (MAO-C). A total of 320 responses were considered in the study with 160 employees representing each of the sectors - public and private. Two-way ANOVA indicated that the public and private sector technological Institutes significantly differed in terms of extent of learning organization. Mean scores indicated that the extent of learning organization was higher in private sector Institutes compared to the public ones. However, compared to the norms, the extent of learning organization can be considered to be low in Institutes of both the sectors. In the private sector, learning organization was positively and significantly correlated with Achievement motive as well as Expert influence. Learning Organization was negatively correlated with Control and Affiliation motive but the correlation failed to reach the significance level. Extension and Dependency motives were not significantly correlated with learning organization. In the public sector, scores of learning organization correlated positively with Expert influence motive and the correlation was found to be significant. The correlation between Dependency motive and learning organization was negative and significant. The researcher concluded that the role of transformational leadership is important in the context of Indian Technological Institutes. Continuous improvement in all the major mechanisms of learning organization is the need of the hour as perceived in both public and private sector.
Najafbagy, R., Doroudi, H. (2010, May 5). The study is based on characteristics of Peter Senge's original learning organization namely, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning and systems thinking. The methodology was a survey research employed questionnaire among sample employees and managers of the Iran Broadcasting Organization. Findings showed that the Organization is fairly far from an effective learning organization. Moreover, it seems that employees' performance in team learning and changes in mental models are more satisfactory than managers. Regarding other characteristics of learning organizations, there are similarities in learning attempts by employees and managers. The Organization lacks organizational vision, and consequently there is no shared vision in the Organization. It also is in need of organizational culture. Findings also show that IBO needs a fundamental change in its organizational learning process. In this context, the general idea is to unfreeze the mind set of leadership of IBO and create a vision and organizational culture based on learning and staff development. Then gradually through incremental effective change and continual organizational learning process individual, team and organization levels engage in development and reinforcement of the necessary five skills should lead IBO to learning organization.
Samad, S.(2010, Mar). The purpose of the study was to determine the role of creative organizational climate on learning organization, a key component on knowledge management. The study investigated the relationship between creative organizational climate and learning organization and identified the differences in learning organization based on the selected demographic variables. The sample consisted of 500 middle and senior level management staff in Malaysian telecommunication companies. The results hypothesized that creative organizational climate are positively related to learning organization. The study also revealed that all of the creative organizational climate components played significant role on learning organization. Significant difference in learning organization was also reported between male and female and senior and middle management staff.
Moloi, K. C. (2010). The author has investigated the paucity in the study of learning organizations within the education sector and particularly in schools working in difficult socio-economic contexts. In this qualitative study evidence is sought from teachers, in one of the districts of Gauteng province, through in-depth, semi-structured focus group interviews to establish what a learning organisation is. Using data obtained through two in-depth, semi-structured focus group interviews with 16 teachers, themes were constructed to theoritise their experiences on, what a learning organisation is. The results showed that teacher commitment to personal learning enhanced student achievement. This study contributes to the understanding of theories on learning organisations from the experiences of these teachers working in disadvantaged townships schools.
Marshall, J., Smith, S., Buxton, S.(2009). How to become a 'learning organization', adapt and survive and improve organizational performance is the question raised in this study. The authors investigated a number of influences that may affect organizational learning at two Strategic Business Units (SBUs), operating in the UK, of two global companies, one American and one French. Two in-depth studies were undertaken to identify the learning climate and capability; the effects of different sub-cultures or communities in the same firm on learning; and the impact of learning on organisational performance. The research indicated that while learning practices and opportunities existed at both SBUs, a number of inhibiting factors were identified, including a mixed understanding of the drivers for improvement and learning; different and opposing perceptions of the current learning climate and capability; and the dysfunctional interactions of misaligned sub-cultures or communities. The study also found any link between learning and organisational performance unclear, and identified some of the difficulties of learning and knowledge-sharing across SBUs and the parent organisation.
Davis, J. Lee., Davis, H. (2009). The authors questioned should advisory committees be expected to assume more responsibility within educational institutions?, and to enhance effectiveness as change agents, should advisory committees in education be reengineered to follow the lead of business and industry and integrate the relatively new concept of the learning organization into their operating framework?, these are the two questions that are studied by the authors. The five disciples of learning organization given by Peter Senge, has been discussed in detail. Gavin's and De Vito's theory on learning organization is also discussed. They have concluded that using the fundamentals of Senge, Garvin, De Vito, and others, educational institutions can adapt the concept of the learning organization as the foundation for developing a basic framework for any of their advisory committees.
Cunha1, P., Neto, A. J. (2009). The researchers have investigated the role of ICT in building a learning school. The research was conducted in private schools belonging to the primary education in Portugal. It was intended with this work to actually study the potentialities of the practical use of the ICT by the teachers, by the 8th grade students and by their parents, trying to become another contribution towards the reflection on the use of the ICT at this teaching level. With this purpose and in a partnership with a group of teachers of different subjects of the 8th grade, the computer science platform 'A Turma do Vasquinho' was drawn and implemented. From the collected evidence there appeared indicators that allow them to infer that the ICT will actually see come true that aspect which, as they saw it, is their greatest pedagogic added value, while being a tool of educational innovation that may transform the way the education players learn, feel and live their school.
Bersin, J. (2008, May). This research addresses the question High impact learning organizations. Who are they? The research theorised 18 best practices for high impact learning organization: Organization's Learning Culture, Learning Integrated with Performance Management, Expertise in Career Development Programs, Strong Centralized L&D Organization, Ability to Share and Reuse Content, Ability to Blend e-Learning with Other Forms of Training, Expertise in Collaborative Learning Strategies and Programs, Expertise in Performance Consulting, Expertise in Coaching, Creating and Enforcing Content Development Standards, Ability to Build High-Impact e-Learning and Learning On-Demand, Ability to Globalize Learning Programs and Operations, Building a Business Plan for Learning, Strong Business-Driven Steering Committee and Governance, Adoption of Performance and Development Management, Business-Driven Chief Learning Officer, Have a Well-Functioning LMS and More Than 80% of the Organization Uses the LMS. Among the more than 800 companies that participated in this research, they found 81 that were exemplary and met our criteria for high-impact learning organizations.
De Villiers, W.A. (2008). The EFMD reports in their Survey Summary Service report that the topic of "The Learning Organisation" ranked in that year as the second most enduring idea about strategy and business, out of ten ideas most likely to last at least another ten years. Management literature contains a considerable number of references to the learning organisation and its characteristics. An instrument developed by Pedler, et al. (1991) to measure eleven characteristics of the learning organisation was used in this study to measure the degree to which respondents considered their own organizations to conform to the eleven characteristics ascribed to the learning organisation. The aim of this study is to report on the research and analyses being undertaken to better understand the factor structure and content of the construct, as well as the predictive and discriminatory validity of the same instrument. Item Analysis, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were used for this purpose. The predictive/discriminatory validity of the instrument, which has been proved to be uni-dimensional, was investigated by means of One-way Analysis of Variance, Stepwise Discrimination Analysis and Discrimination Analysis. The results indicate that the instrument can adequately distinguish between respondents from different economic sectors and organisations as well as differentiate respondents in terms of some other variables. The study is regarded as entirely applicable to the South African cultural and organizational environments.
Yekutiel, S., & Orthner, D. K.(2007, Oct). The authors state that one first step in implementing Organizational Learning is to assess the capacity and strengths of a school as a learning organization. Based on the conceptual and empirical work, such an assessment should include two key components for learning: the presence of a learning culture and a structure that supports learning. The cultural aspect of Organizational Learning refers to the school norms and values that support its exploration of new ideas and ways of operating more effectively. The school's culture is assessed along four dimensions: (1) innovation: beliefs that support getting, sharing, and using new ideas to promote organizational work, (2) safety: beliefs that promote freedom of discussion and the ability to test ideas that may or may not work out, (3) goal-centred: beliefs that encourage developing goals and setting objectives to achieve them, and (4) leadership: an administrative philosophy that encourages new ideas. The methodology that could be used for implementing organizational learning in schools as suggested by the authors are, formulate a learning question, assemble a learning team, gather relevant existing knowledge, formulate a tentative model, implement the model in practice and methodically improve it, formulate and share the evolving model and lastly formulate the next learning question. Does this process really work? The simple and direct answer is yes. In a quasi-experimental, longitudinal study of after-school programs in Israel and the United States, those organizations that implemented this methodology demonstrated
higher levels of staff morale and perceived effectiveness and exhibited fewer behavioural problems in their students than those that did not.
Bowen, G. L., William B. W, Roderick, A. R., Andjoelle, D. P. (2007). Using data from the population of employees in 11 middle schools in North Carolina and building on an earlier analysis, examined the reliability and validity of a new assessment tool for assessing schools as learning organizations- the School Success Profile Learning Organization. The results align with the conceptual model that informed the development of the measure, including support for the two hypothesized learning organization components: actions and sentiments. Implications of the study.Efforts at school reform require more than a focus on students-it requires that school employees work together in new and different ways, ways that promote and reinforce inclusiveness, collaboration, innovation, and support for one another. The second step in the evidence-based practice planning sequence-designing interventions to achieve desired outcomes-is the most challenging task. The nature of the interface between the school and the larger system must also be assessed, especially those exchanges that pose hurdles in the efforts by the school to function in new and creative ways.
Kelleher, M. (2007) developed a model of the learning organization, with its three dimensional approach, proposes strategies within the domains of individual learning, team learning and organizational learning. He concluded by saying if lifelong learning is to become a reality, it will become increasingly important to ensure that strategies and actions support the development of learning organizations. If overlooked, the world of work could well be that area of people's lives where learning is not explicit, supported and developed.
Moloi, K.C., Grobler B.R., & Gravett, S.J.(2006). The study outlines the principal findings that sought to provide a comprehensive understanding of schools as learning organizations in the Vanderbijl Park-North District of the Gauteng province of South Africa. The quantitative research methodology used was of major importance in obtaining data that were grounded largely on the theoretical framework of learning organisations as well as in the personal experiences of educators and principals. The purpose of the research was to investigate the essential features of learning organizations, the perceptions of educators in respect of these essential features and the guidelines that could be provided for schools to cope with the demands of continuous learning and adaptation in a turbulent environment. Questionnaires were distributed to educators in the Vanderbijl park-North District of the Gauteng province in South Africa. Schools were selected at random from an official address list obtained from the Vanderbijl park-North District. All educators from 20 primary and 30 secondary schools were sampled on all post levels. MANOVA and ANOVA statistical tests were used for analysis. A major finding was that the learning disciplines of personal mastery, mental models, a shared vision, teamwork and systems thinking were fundamental to two factors: namely, a collaborative culture and personal beliefs about educator commitment. The school can therefore function as a learning organization by cultivating a climate where a collaborative culture and beliefs that stimulate educator commitment can develop.
Cheewaruengroj, W.(2006). The author studied five factors that could influence a school to be a learning organization, they are: teacher and teamwork practices, technology and work systems, performance goals and feedback practices, motivation, executive and managerial practices. The study indicated that 1. All the respondents' opinion toward status of factors correlating with learning organization and learning organization of schools under the Congregation of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart of Jesus of Bangkok are high. 2. The administrators and teachers perceived a significant positive relationship at significance level 0.01 between factors under study and school learning organization. 3. Executive and managerial practices have a positive relation with learning organizations.
Agaoglu, E. (2006). The author says that an organization should adopt education as a life style and transform them to learning organization. This descriptive study, aimed to determine whether the schools of education have the learning organization features. The sample group of study is the academic staff of the school of education at Anadolu University. The data was gathered with the questionnaire of learning organization features. At the end of study, it was found that the academic staff believed the faculty had many features of learning organization, but some deficiencies about strategies.
Martoo, G. V. (2006). The focus of this study has been to connect the idea of developing schools as Learning Organizations with the notion of developing learning leaders and building school capacity for our knowledge economy. This action-inquiry self-study has examined the issues of curriculum reforms in the context of more general organizational reforms. It has explored the notion of schools being recultured or reconstructed to work as learning organization in a climate theta focuses on the improved social and academic learning outcomes of their students. The study captures approximately four years of professional snapshots. It has examined the practice of partnering, conversing, arranging and developing shared vision across two schools. It has recognized powerful reculturing mechanisms and affirmed that conversations about learning, shared belief, mission and vision, enabling leadership that reflects parallel learning relationship and enabling organizational arrangements are critical for sustainable reforms. It has explored the relationship between teacher learning, teacher leadership and a professional learning culture
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has been the main focus of this research. Six significant snap shot emerge from the analysis. The process of deconstruction and reconstruction of a school as a learning organization could be assisted by capacity building leadership. The study affirmed the establishment of parallel learning relationship, assess in the development of parallel learning leadership and parallel learning partnership. There should be a reconstruction of core beliefs and values which are reflected in the school culture. The findings of this study have theoretical, methodological and practical significance. It presents the reconstruction of a theoretical framework for schools working as a learning organization. The methodological significance is reflected in the study's emphasis on theoretizing through layers. The methodological contribution acknowledges a legitimate and rigorous form of practitioner research revealing self-study methodology at a level that is more than mere self-indulgence. The practical contribution is emphasizing the process involved in creating a culture of dynamic inquiry.
Firman, H. (2006, Nov). Two elementary schools, two junior high schools, one Senior secondary school in Hiroshima prefecture were the samples of this study. Data gathering techniques used were School and class observations, informal interviews with principal & teachers and document analysis. Certain facts of these schools have been discussed. Findings from the author's observations were summarized that Japanese Schools run innovation projects on teaching, Teachers are motivated to innovate their teaching, Teachers work for the innovation in a team, Students are practicing research projects, Peer observation and professional sharing ideas is part of school life, Schools are producers of practical knowledge on teaching. The author concluded that School in Japan is more than a place of instruction or a "knowledge distribution centre", rather a place where school community learn together to solve their problems and to reach their goals more effectively. Schools are functioning as a "learning organization" as indicated by: Providing continuous learning opportunities; Fostering inquiry and creativity, encouraging sharing ideas and collaborations; as well as interacting openly with their environment. The author has suggested some strategic elements for growing and maintaining a learning school, they are: School autonomy; Democratic school governance and supportive; school leadership; Possession of inquiry skills on teaching learning; open mindedness by school community members; Time to be allocated for teachers to talk, work, and reflect together for innovations; Financial support & technical assistance from Government/Private sectors; and appropriate incentive scheme for performed schools/teachers. The final conclusion is that Japan's schools perform as learning organizations. It plays an important contributing factor to the high quality of students learning outcomes in Japan. Growing and maintaining school as a learning organization need a number of facilitating factors, which are related with school management, individual quality of school personnel, and positive school cultures.
Giles, C., Hargreaves, A. (2006). The authors have addressed the question, Can innovative schools that self-consciously establish themselves as learning organizations and professional learning communities sustain their early promise of success in the face of the predictable cycle of the 'attrition of change'; of pressure and envy in the surrounding district, profession, and community; and of the historically specific and recent pressure of standardized reform? The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of these influences on three innovative schools and their sustainability overtime. It concentrates in particular on the promise and viability of one of these schools, which has been consciously modeled as a learning organization and professional learning community. The study concluded that the learning organization and professional learning community model may provide a more robust resistance to conventional processes of the attrition of change and of surrounding change forces, but much like other innovative schools, it also shows signs of defaulting to conventional patterns of schooling in the face of standardized reform.
Amidon, S. R. (2005, Dec). The author has pointed out that the marginalization of business writing as a discipline has been traced to a lack of research and to, the many in the field who teach in business departments that do not value the work of scholars in English studies. One way out of this position may be an act of disciplinary border crossing-aligning the field of business writing with progressive voices in business and management. The author describes a framework structured around key theoretical concepts from Senge's The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization in classroom and in research. Senge's text is surprisingly rhetorical, and he examined the associated framework in terms of its potential for invigorating both teaching and research in business writing, thereby building ethos for the profession. The author concludes that, the examples from the classroom and from research convinces him that the fields of management science and business writing can both be served by a measure of interdisciplinary boundary crossing.
Buck, M. A. (2004). The author conceptualizes the significant role played by mentoring in enhancing organizational learning. The study states that mentoring is considered as an organizational learning strategy that helps enhance the knowledge and skills of individuals through the implementation of collaborative and group learning activities within the organization. It shows that mentoring improves communication and interpersonal relationships among organization members as well as enhances individual learning. In addition, the strategy also promotes cooperation and openness between organizations and promotes career development.
Nylan, A., Gressey, P., Tomassini, M., Kellecher, M., Poell, R. (2004). The authors discuss the European challenge in building work organisations that are both economically efficient and good places to work and learn. The happenings in recent European research and development work dealing with the learning organisation and organisational learning have also been analysed and interpreted. A number of current criticisms of the learning organisation concept are outlined. The study also analyses dilemmas and tensions that have to be understood before beginning to tackle organisational learning and some key principles to be adhered to so that productive organisational learning can in fact take place. Two main conclusions were drawn from the study. 1. In order to build learning organisations, one has to ensure that: there is coherence between the "tangible" and the "intangible" dimensions of an organisation. 2.A need for boundary-crossing and interdisciplinary partnerships between the vocational education and training and human resource development communities has also been emphasized.
Sudharatna, Y., Li, L. (2004). In this study authors aim was to verify the relationship between Learning Organizations characteristics and an organization's readiness-to-change. On the bases of the review of the literature, there seems to be the competitive advantage of high readiness-to-change in today is economic business environment. The samples are the mobile service providers in Thailand. The results have shown a substantial relationship between readiness-to-change and the Learning Organization characteristics of cultural values, leadership commitment and empowerment, communication, knowledge transfer, employee characteristics, and performance upgrading. The study confirms that Learning Organization characteristics are correlated to an organization's readiness-to-change, suggesting that it is essential for organizations to develop into Learning Organizations in order to survive and/or prosper in a competitive and ever changing in business environment.
Boreham, N., Morganb, C.(2004, Sept). The study reports a three-year empirical investigation into organizational learning in a large industrial complex, with the aim of clarifying the practices of organizational learning and interpreting them within sociocultural learning theory. A sociocultural model is proposed by the authors which identifies dialogue as the fundamental process by which organizations learn, and relational practices as the social structure which embeds the dialogue and makes it sustainable in a potentially conflictual environment. Three relational practices are analyzed in detail: opening space for the creation of shared meaning, reconstituting power relationships and providing cultural tools to mediate learning. The study concludes - theoretical requirement that adult learning must be autonomous is reconciled with the concept of collective learning in pursuit of organisational goals by rejecting the notion of an individually-contained self in favor of a relational concept of the self, in which autonomy is achieved by building relationships with others.
Brandt, R. (2003).The author has discussed the 10 ways to tell if a school is a learning organization, they are: 1. Learning organizations have an incentive structure that encourages adaptive behavior. 2. Learning organizations have challenging but achievable shared goals. 3. Learning organizations have members who can accurately identify the organization's stages of development. 4. Learning organizations gather, process, and act upon information in ways best suited to their purposes.5. Learning organizations have an institutional knowledge base and processes for creating new ideas. 6. Learning organizations exchange information frequently with relevant external sources. 7. Learning organizations get feedback on products and services. 8. Learning organizations continuously refine their basic processes. 9. Learning organizations have supportive organizational cultures. 10. Learning organizations are "open systems" sensitive to the external environment, including social, political, and economic conditions.
Silins, H., Zarins, S., Mulford, B. (2002). The authors examined the concept of secondary schools as learning organizations as part of a research project involving South Australian and Tasmanian secondary schools. Learning organizations were defined as schools that: employ processes of environmental scanning; develop shared goals; establish collaborative teaching and learning environments; encourage initiatives and risk taking; regularly review all aspects related to and influencing the work of the school; recognize and reinforce good work; and, provide opportunities for continuing professional development. A survey of 2,000 teachers and principals was conducted. The discussion clarifies the characteristics and processes recognized as existing in secondary schools that relate to the reconceptualization of schools as learning organizations and addresses the usefulness of this approach.
Silins, H., Zarins, S., Mulford, B. (2002) provided a rich source of information on schools conceptualized as learning organizations. The LOLSO project focused on three aspects of high school functioning: leadership, organizational learning and the impact of both on student outcomes. This research has established a relationship between the system factors of leadership and organizational learning and student outcomes as measured by student levels of participation in and engagement with school. This research summarizes the reports on a study that empirically tests the relationship between students' participation in and engagement with school and student achievement using model building and path analysis. The importance of learning at the system, teacher and student level is discussed in the context of school restructuring.
Edmondson, A.C. (2002, Mar). The study considers the role of team learning in organizational learning. The author proposes that a group level perspective provided new insights into how Organizational learning is impeded hindering effect change in response to external pressures. In contrast to theoretical perspectives the author suggests that organizational learning is local, interpersonal and variegated. The study presents data from an exploratory study of learning process in 12 original teams engaged in activities ranging from strategic planning to hands on manufacture of products. This qualitative data is used to investigate two components of the collective learning process- reflection to gain insight and activities to produce change - and to explore how teams allow an organization to engage in both radical and incremental learning, as needed in a changing and competitive environment. The study concludes that team members' perceptions of power and interpersonal risk affect the quality of team reflections, which has implications for their teams and their organizations ability to change.
Mohr, N., Dichter, Alan. (2001). The study outlines the development stages that teaching faculties go through in the process of becoming learning organizations. It discusses the challenges of shared decision-making, or group management, in schools; Describes development stages, including the emergence of a sense of community, conflict and confusion about leadership roles, and the eventual creation of a learning community.
Tippins,, M. J., & Sohi, R.S. (2003). Many companies have developed strategies that include investing heavily in information technology (IT) in order to enhance their performance. Yet, this investment pays off for some companies but not others. This study proposed that organization learning plays a significant role in determining the outcomes of IT. Drawing from resource theory and IT literature, the authors developed the concept of IT competency. Using structural equations modeling with data collected from managers in 271 manufacturing firms, they show that organizational learning plays a significant role in mediating the effects of IT competency on firm performance.
Dill, D.(1999). The author addresses the question, "What are the organizational characteristics of an academic learning organization?" The researcher reviewed the adaptations in organizational structure and governance reported by universities attempting to improve the quality of their teaching and learning processes. The case study of twelve universities was analyzed, the analysis of the activities and architecture of these universities are reported. The analysis has suggested a number of elements that appear distinctive to the university sector: 1. Culture of evidence, 2.Improved coordination of teaching units, 3.Learning from others, 4. University-wide coordination of "learning", 5. Transferring knowledge. The results of this study provide further confirmation on the adaptive responses of universities to the new environment.
Crossan, M. M. L., White, H. W., Roderick, E.(1999, Jul). The authors identified renewal of the overall enterprise as the underlying phenomenon of interest and organizational learning as a principal means to this end. With this perspective they developed a framework for the process of organizational learning, presenting organizational learning as four processes-intuiting, interpreting, integrating, and institutionalizing-linking the individual, group, and organizational levels.
Gunter, H. (1996). The research report recognises the importance of a case-study school in understanding how externally imposed change is being internally implemented. The focus of the research was concerned with teacher perceptions of the appraisal process as they had experienced it during the first cycle in 1993-94. The positive and negative experiences of the teachers are presented by exploring whether appraisal is or can be a learning process which can enable a school to become a learning organization. The positive aspects of teachers as individual and collective learners is discussed and the key outcome is that while experiences so far have been positive, the potential to become a learning school is being hindered. The barriers to this development are more than a lack of resources to fund time and in-service education and training (IN SET), but are to do with the conceptualization of appraisal as a series of tasks within a rational biennial cycle which is installed into the school. The study concludes by identifying that teachers will only become conscious and competent learners if they not only do, but also design the tasks within a flexible and negotiated framework.
Sammons, P., Hillman, J., Mortimore, P.(1995, Apr). This review provides an analysis of the key determinants of school effectiveness in elementary and secondary schools. The literature review identified the following key correlates of effectiveness (1) Professional Leadership (2) Shared Vision and Goals (3) A learning environment (4) Concentration on teaching and learning (5) Purposeful teaching (6) High expectations (7) Positive reinforcement (8) Monitoring progress (9) Pupil rights and responsibilities (10) Home school partnership and (11) A Learning organization. Majority of the effectiveness studies have focused exclusively on students cognitive outcomes, but there is less evidence about school and classroom processes that are important in determining school's success in promoting social or affective outcomes. This review tells more about the correlates of academic effectiveness.
Fullan, M.(1995). The author begins by saying that Schools are not currently learning organization, and teaching is not yet a learning profession. This study identifies some fundamental reasons why schools and teaches are stalled in their efforts to become more learning oriented and then it describes some glimpses of the future. Site-based management is used as an example of how reforms are often not what they seem to be. The author has concluded by suggesting that we are at a very preliminary beginning, and that it remains to be seen whether the necessary changes will actually happen. For changes to happen we would require a radical re-culturing of the schools as an institution and a basic re-design of the teaching profession.
West, P. (1994). The author opens up the debate surrounding the wisdom of the attempted implementation of the learning organization approach to deal with environmental uncertainty and examines some potential problems and barriers within traditional organizations. The study discusses cultural, structural and socio-structural factors which have an impact on the individual's sense of identity with the organization, and focuses on the required realignments to these interrelated variables if the approach is to gain momentum. The study considers the view that the process of learning will also necessitate the unlearning of previous behaviours cultivated within former established systems. The author argues that the prospect of generating internal confusion, together with a sense of organizational amnesia, might reduce rather than increase stability for some companies. The study concludes that, on the basis that cultures and socio-structures cannot be manipulated at the discretion of managers, alternative strategies to organizational learning may be more appropriate for future survival, but warns that those managers inspired to implement the approach within their organizations, should be aware that the process is lengthy, high in resource implications and not without risk.
Kilgore, S. B., & Pendleton, W.(1993). The research was to understand organizational effects on the acquisition of knowledge by clarifying and elaborating the concept of the opportunity to learn and by introducing a theoretical framework oriented by the actions within the technical core of schools. A general model for Organizational Effects on Learning was structured by the researchers. The opportunity to learn is conceived of as having two major dimensions: the amount of exposure, which includes enrollment, rate, and length, and the quality of exposure, which includes intensity and accessibility. Teachers and students make decisions about these dimensions, which are affected by the organizational inducements and information flows embedded in the organizational context. Organizational and individual resources set constraints on these decisions, and individual resources also affect the preferences of actors within the technical core. The data used in this analysis are from the High School and Beyond (HSB) longitudinal study of high school students in public and private schools. The sample is representative of students at both a regional and national level. The 1980 and 1982 student surveys; the 1980, 1982, and 1984 surveys of administrators; and the 1984 survey of teachers were used in this analysis. This initial analysis of the organizational context of students' enrollment in academic mathematics courses, suggests that; inducements, information flows, and resources influence students' decisions to enroll. Effects differ by gender. Enrollment patterns in academic mathematics courses illustrate this framework.
Dodgson, M.(1993). Organization theory, industrial economics, economic history and business, management and innovation studies all approach the question of how organization learn. A number of branches of psychology are also revealing on this issue. The author assesses various literatures by examining the insights they allow in three main areas: the goals of organization learning, the learning process in organization and the ways in which organization learning may be facilitated and impeded. The search contents that which the various literature are revealing in particular aspects of organizational learning, a more complete understanding of its complexity, requires a multi-disciplinary approach. The contribution of the different approaches are analysed and some areas were suggested where the transfer of analytical concepts may improve understanding.
Kathleen, C. (1992, Feb). This study has explored the impact of personnel turnover on an organization's ability to learn, and hence on its ultimate performance, for organizations with different structures and different tasks. A model of organizational decision making is presented where: (1) the organization is faced with a continuous sequence of similar but not identical problems; (2) each problem is so complex that no one person has access to all of the information nor the skill to comprehend all of the information necessary to make the decision; (3) individual decision makers base their decisions on their own previous experience; and (4) there is personnel turnover. Using simulation the impact of turnover on the rate and level of learning for hierarchies and teams is examined. This research suggests that while teams in general learn faster and better than hierarchies, hierarchies are less affected by high turnover rates particularly when the task is non-decomposable. The study concluded that Institutionalized memory, as embodied in the memories of distributed individuals and in the advisory relationships between individuals, determines the consequences of personnel turnover.
Weick, K. E. (1991). The author has reviewed two possibilities, either organizational learning is an infrequent event, or it occurs frequently but takes a nontraditional form. The two Intellectual Strategies to Pursue Organizational Learning as suggested by the author are: Retain Traditional Definition and Replace Traditional Definition. The author has concluded that he sees potential non-learning sources of change in organizations as well as novel forms which learning itself might take. And these discoveries, in turn, intensified the need to examine the phenomenon of organizational learning itself more closely.