This essay discusses factors influencing motivation, learning & the issues that I anticipate in my group work & my address to these issues. Firstly it gives the brief idea about my motivation to do a master degree from Bangor business school, the second is about my intention and third is the approach towards learning & issues that I anticipate during my learning experience in the group and it also mention the way to address those issues. Finally it offers some conclusion.
At first motivation was only limited with the strength and behaviour and it was defined as the 'psychological concept related to strength & direction of behaviour' (Torrington& Hall 1991). However the definition of motivation got change from generation to generation as the economic conditions and social values change. So after going through various literatures I come to know that fear & money are not the only ways of motivation. There are five natures of motivation and they are individual, intentional, multifaceted, contextual and dynamic nature of motivation. But here I will talk only about the individual nature of motivation and it can be defined as 'a decision making process through which the individual chooses desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to acquire them' (Huczynski & Buchanan 1991 p. 64).Further I come to know that human beings have reasons for the things that they do, behaviour is purposive but we are proactive rather than reactive. We naturally think of our behaviour as related in meaningful ways to these experienced motives. But to see the motives is in its own right or not we have to sense our behaviour, so my sense of motivation is a social process that involve influence & thus the definition through which I can connect my motivation theory is 'motives are learned influences on human behaviour that lead us to pursue particular goals because they are socially valued' (Huczynski & Buchanan p. 57).
So my learned influence on human behaviour comes from my previous experience. I was in my final year of graduation and with my group I was working on the project called 'Street light manipulation system' and I was the group leader, the basic idea behind the project was to cut down the amount of power used by the street light and the amount of residual power we got can be used in the home appliances or either for the industrial purpose, as my city was dealing with the power cuts because of the power shortage before two years from this project ,but now the project will help my city to overcome from the power cuts. My project was not for the rich peoples who can afford inverters or even the generators but the project was for those middle class people whose son or daughter used to study in the candle light when there was no power at their home. So what I learned after completing this project was nothing can be happier than making others happy. So that day I think to do something for the humanity.
My project cost was very less and large number of people will get benefit from it. So this motivated me to be an entrepreneur who not only earn the profit by his new ideas but also satisfy his consumers and from that day entrepreneurship has become a pilgrimage for me, that day my intentions were very clear, I want to serve the people, it can also be done by joining the politics but after that I will not be able to earn my own profit, so thus how I want to be an good entrepreneur, whose first step was my project and the second to join the master programme in business which would help me to know about the behaviour of the corporate sector.
According to Abraham Maslow this type of motivation comes into the esteem needs for high self evaluation based on capability and respect from others and thus if I will satisfy my esteem I will think that I am useful and necessary in the world. I will feel myself as the self developer. According to the Michael Maccoby (1988), the new generation of self developer will not be motivated by praise from father but by the opportunities for self expression and career development combined with a fair share of profits.
I choose to do my post graduation from UK as I think UK is the gateway to Europe ; there are many routes into education system in UK ,so chances of accessing to European systems are high .It is a belief in my family that the education system in UK has the best to offer in the whole world .This belief arises out of the history of many great leaders who studied from UK .There are many nationalities in India who studied from UK, for example the current prime minister of India Dr. Manmohan Singh studied from UK, influenced me to select any university from UK to do my post graduation. To calculate the strength of my motivation based on my influence there is a theory called expectancy theory of work motivation by Victor H. Vroom in 1964. Vroom used the term subjective probability for the individual expectation that would lead to a particular outcome. Expectancy theory states that 'the strength or force of the individual motivation to behave in a particular way' is
Where F=motivation to behave
E=the expectation (the subjective probability) that the behaviour will be followed by a particular outcome
V=the valence of the outcome
This is called the expectancy equation (Huczynski & Buchanan 1991 p.65). It is the subjective probability because it may vary between 0 and 1, from no chance at all to absolute certainty, for example I am influenced by Dr. Manmohan Singh, so it is totally depend on me, if my strength of motivation is strong I will try hard to be a great man, so that according to the expectancy theory my outcomes will be 1 or otherwise vice versa. Thus how an individual expected work of motivation is measured, and I selected to study in UK.
I browsed extensively through web pages & discovered that the courses offered by the Bangor University seemed to match with my areas of interest in Banking & Finance & I felt that under the guidance & training of the expert faculty of the university I would able to achieve my dream & ambitions. So thus how I thought that being in an intellectual environment of Bangor University my unused talents will get some chance to come out. My thirst for an university that would help me pass beyond the tenets of finance, management & banking and give me freedom to explore new line of approach in my field of interest led me to the doorstep of the Bangor University because this was the only university to offer the specialization to the fresher's not having any work experience, so my focus to select the university is only based on its course & either they are offering the specialization. According to Abraham Maslow 'Specialization is a small task makes people very proficient' thus how I choose to do the specialization in Banking & Finance so that I could get proficient. And as the university that boasts of vast library, state of art facilities & desirable infrastructure Bangor is certainly a centre of excellence .So I was sure that in such an environment I will be able to bring out the best in me & help me scale new heights.
'Learning is the process of gaining knowledge through all the experiences either the good or the bad one, which leads to a change in behaviour and thinking'. Basically there are three approaches of learning, surface, deep & strategic approach of learning (Biggs 1989).
The first approach, surface learning, the person who adopts this type of learning is having the intention to do work in easiest way. They want to copy others work write it down in their own language i.e. they are reproduce type of learners. These types of learners are having an extrinsic type of motivation. In this type of motivation they get influenced from other people but these people are those who got a success after doing a hard work. Surface type of learners gets influenced by their work, by their name or by their fame, their intentions are clear i.e. to reproduce the work but they never try to be different. So according to their intentions their process of learning is very narrow, they try to memorize, they don't try to understand. Their way of gathering the information is also based on the reproduction, so the outcome of these types of learners is usually bad i.e. most of the times they have to go through the failure. This type of learners can never change their style of learning they always be a surface learner.
The second approach, deep learning, the person who adopts this type of learning are having the intention to do work in researched manner. They like to understand the particular concepts in deep fashion, these types of learners are motivated by their own interest. There process of learning is also deep, their aim is to acquire the knowledge do the research & examine it personally. These types of learners are quite innovative, in this approach of learning they gathers the information based on their sense and intentions and thus the judgement is based on their thinking and the feeling from the information they gathers.
These types of learners are always the pioneers in their field of interest ,so thus the outcome of their hard work always comes out to be positive and holistic .This type of learners can never change their strategy to learn because it is completely depend on their interest.
The third approach, strategic learning, the person who adopts this type of learning are having the intention to succeed at every point of time. People are having this type of intention because their motivation is to achieve goals or good grades and compete with other people. So the process of learning comes between deep learning & the surface learning, sometimes they acquire a deep knowledge and sometimes they only have the narrow. These type of learners gathers the information from there sense & intention but the understanding they gain is not totally deep because there aim is to succeed so these type of learners only want the information which is point to point. Based on their information their judgement is based on there thinking & feelings & sometimes it is manipulative. The outcome is always varied, sometimes they get a clear success & sometimes they only able to pass. The orientation is always constant i.e. winning .These type of learners can change their strategy of learning, they can change their strategy from strategic to deep or to surface learner but it totally based on their outcomes because their orientation is only to succeed & nothing else.
So after studying various approaches, I can connect myself to one approach of learning. My intention is to be a good entrepreneur; people of my society motivated me to think so, as many people would somehow get some good things from my project, the sense in which this type of motivation is defined is called the social process of motivation which involves influence. As my intention is to be a good entrepreneur whose first step is to satisfy the consumer in all needs which would require a deep knowledge in all the fields like consumer psychology, production of goods its cost and demand then only the consumer can get satisfied. As Albert Einstein said that "Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them", so I have to go one step forward from others and for that I have to create an understanding and deep knowledge for the consumers and if I will able to do these things then the outcome will be positive and holistic as my orientation is meaningful for me & for other people. Thus I connect myself to a deep approach of learning.
The group is defined as "number of people who communicate with each other, psychologically knows each other and perceive themselves to be a group". (By Schein 1998) There are two types of group, formal and informal group. Formal groups are the group which are task orientated. Informal groups are the group which are self orientated.
I am having a group which is task orientated, so the group type is formal and my group consist of six members. In six, three of them are the Chinese and other three are Indians. So my group is a multicultural group.
Some are from different country & some are from my country but my way of thinking is different from other five people, no matter that they are from my country or not, there culture is same or not, but the way of thinking is different .So I think that I am going to anticipate many issues in the group work.
Based on Allan R. Cohen, Stephen L. Fink, Herman Gadon and Robin D. Willits, Effective Behaviour in organization (fourth edition), Irwin, Homewood, Illinois, 1998, p. 144 there are some issues facing in any work group & they are as follows
Atmosphere and relationships
Goal understanding and acceptance
Listening and information sharing
Handling disagreements and conflict
Evaluation of member performance
Division of labour
Attention to process.
According to me the issues which I am going to anticipate in my group work are listening & information, handling disagreement & conflict, decision making, evaluation of member performance, division of labour, leadership & attention to process.
I think that the basic issue I will anticipate in my group would be listening & information. In my group three members are from India and the other three are from China. So many times three members would talk in their domestic language, so the medium to share any information will be slow, first they will discuss it within themselves and then they will share it with others. If the information is related to only one concerned member then also it will take time to reach the correct member, this can happen because lack of communication or mixing of the group members. So listening & information sharing is one of the issue that I will anticipate in my group work .This problem can be solved if there is a shared communication network, every member should communicate with every other member so that the aims & purposes of the group are exchanged which would help to satisfy some social needs & thus enforce the standard of group behaviour.
The other issue I can anticipate in my group work is the conflict between the group members, if there is some conflict between the Chinese member and Indian member then it might be possible that they can leave the group & my group will get break. If there is an internal conflict between the Chinese members or between the Indian members then it will be quite difficult to handle the situation, it might be possible that the group will not break but the outcome of this internal conflict will be dangerous. We will not be able to take or finalize any decision and the result will be negative. My group will be there but with zero growth. This type of situation will adversely affect my group. So conflict is one issue that I will be anticipating in my group work. This problem can be resolved only if there is proper understanding between my group members and members should not act like an individual acting independently but only act like the other member of group. So to cope up from this problem a greater level of communication would required with each other, they must believe that they are both members of and participant in the group which itself is distinctive from other groups.
The other issue I can anticipate in my group work is the decision making, we are six in numbers and three from one country and if there is problem between my group member it will be very hard for us to come on a particular decision and it will be very hard to adopt the process of voting .So decision is one issue that I can anticipate in my group work. This problem can be overcome only if the goals are shared & only achievable by the members working together and not as individual. They must be obliged to contribute to the attainment of the shared goal.
The fourth issue I can anticipate in my group is evaluating the members performance, it is same as the decision making and it will be very difficult to evaluate a particular member performance, everyone appraise anyone else, no one will take a responsibility if anything goes wrong .So evaluating a performance is one issue that I can anticipate in my group work. To cope up from this problem we have to evaluate our group performance, but not an individual performance and doing so it can also boost the individual performance towards group.
The fifth issue I can anticipate in my group work is division of labour, it is easy to assign task but if anybody is not authorized to assign, then the individual group member will choose on his own interest but the problem comes when the two members are having the same interest and it will be very hard to assign the task to one person. So division of labour is one issue that I will be anticipating in my group work. The only way to overcome this problem is by sharing goals, no individual will work on that particular task, the goal concerned is shared and only achievable by the members of the group but not by the single individual.
The sixth issue I can anticipate in my group work is about the leadership, it is difficult to choose the leader among the members. So this is the major problem that I will be anticipating in my group work .This problem can be solved only if the leader is appointed from outside. And if there is no leader I have to anticipate with one more issue in my group called as attention to the process, we would not be able to improve our own process and it will be very hard to manage the group and no one will be able to understand the other member and there will be conflict among the group because of the lack of management. This type of issue can be resolved only by the leader.
To conclude, this essay has identified factors influencing motivation to learn & intention to serve the people with the deep approach of learning & critically evaluating the issues occurring in a group & some key features about the behaviour of individual in a group. However, it is true that factor like fear & money are not the only way to motivate the people but these can demotivate the learners. Whatever is the method, intentions or goals every individual will provide some innovative way of developing knowledge & skills.