Music And Fine Arts Education Essay

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"If Music and Fine Arts are not elements in education as a core subject, then much of what we know as civilization has been a mistake" (Harvey, 2002)! Curricular integration has become an increasingly important component for many school reform initiatives, particularly at the elementary school level (Barry, 2008). Why is this so? This is because many of the elementary schools and some high schools have encounter problems with students achieving learning and making Adequate Yearly Progress, a statewide school report card system. Currently, the nation is implementing national legislation designed to teach every child to read, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (U.S. Department of Education, 2002). According to Darrow (2008) the magic of music can entice a child to practice various reading related tasks, often without the child even being aware of the learning. In Elementary school students nationwide it can be found that the students are falling short in achieving both reading and math literacy. Therefore, music is believed to be the first of the multiple intelligences that becomes functional in a child (Lee, 2007).

In a study performed by Rauscher, Shaw and Ky (1995), they found that listening to complex music helped to elevate scores on a concurrent test of spatial reasoning. A number of researchers have found that music can and does influence the learning of core subjects. Some of the studies revealed that although having music in the background while studying did not distract the learning but had neither a negative effect as well. Other researchers have found that music is motivational in learning across the curriculum. According to Tucker (1981), he reported that using music in teaching reading may enhance motivation and abilities of children, whether or not they are musically talented or intellectually above average. Yet, another researcher found that popular music benefited students in that the reading of lyrics of the songs inspired middle school students to embrace reading in a positive way (Cohen-Taylor, 1981). But today one may find many of the students listening to Rap music.

Because of their familiarity with the beats of rap, one can only imagine the power of motivation to introduce the students to beautiful poetry and of outstanding poets. And if this is true for the reader, one can only picture what influences it can have in learning Math and other subjects. Since more educators are becoming more aware of the many aspects of how music integration can enhance academic learning they are beginning to explore its many possibilities. According to Gullatt (2008) art teachers and non-content teachers should be given time to plan together to ensure that the integration of the arts into the classroom is successful and meaningful to the students.

Problem Statements

Music is a powerful tool and resource that can be used for implementing learning strategies in the classroom today. Many teachers believe they are not qualified to teach a number of related musical ideas in their regular classroom settings. According to Brogla-Krupke (2003) music plays a significant role in schools today; however, musical activities that have no focus, except to entertain students, fail to use music as an integral component in the teaching of classroom academics. According to Barry (2008) a concern and pitfall of having well meaning attempts to implement art integration may result in being a useful tool for teaching other academic subjects, but the value of music education totally disregarded. Music Specialist may be found entertaining the students and not feel comfortable teaching outside their areas of disciplines when it comes to integrating music with other subjects. Over the past decade there has been an increasing speculation about the potential cognitive and academic benefits of music for children's development today (Črnčec, Wilson, & Prior, 2006). This is because the new developments in music integration has created an interest among parents, educators, administrators and politicians alike, as to its recent research studies and possibilities of enhancing and increasing learning achievement.

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 has created a great debate among educators, politicians, and the public regarding the ability of music integration to improve the quality of education for the nation's youth and create academically achieving students (Spohn, 2008). Whereas, researchers Gouzouasis, Guhn, and Kishor, (2007) discusses very little research has been conducted and found to examine the relationship between achievement in music and achievement in core academic courses. Therefore, Does Music Integration enhances Academic Learning?

Purpose for Literature Review

The purpose of this literature review is to gather clear understanding of related topics for music integration and academic learning. Hopefully in sharing and examining the current researched literature reviews, the theories, discussions and concerns that lie within the realm of education for music integration in cross curriculum learning will be clarified for future research. In this review one will find related materials that support theories of spatial reasoning, how educators feel about teaching integrated subjects, and research facts and studies that examines the different instructional methods used and results from music integration and academic learning for K - 12 classroom learners.

This literature review will present current research for its readers on strategies and methods used that have been researched using music integration. These research studies range from integrating with Math, Reading and Foreign Language learners and other core subjects that has been tested and proven to improve academic learning. By looking at current research reviews, this allows the reader to gather information that may or may not support the benefits of music integration in the regular classroom. Other researchers like Brogla-Krupke (2003) state the music curriculum in the education of children integrated in the school's academic areas have been found to be encouraging. In the following literature reviews one will find brief discussions on the studies and research presented to support the benefits of music integration and how improvement in the achievement of academic learning was successfully obtained. The Arts Integration strategies provide opportunities to include multicultural perspectives in the curriculum, and to link a school with the larger community (Martorelli, 1992, p. 44). The author of this literature review wants to present relevant information for future research investigation on the topic of music integration and academic learning. So what roles and benefits come from music integration?

Roles and Benefits of Music Integration

Long before the academic effects of arts-based became a focus of public attention, a widespread belief existed that art experiences contribute to individual moral and emotional development (Brouillette, 2010). Research in the arts and brain development have found related connections in the areas of music, dance, visual arts and theater in helping students become focus and more attentive while learning. What is Music Integration? Although there are many definitions it can be simply defined as music blended with another subject of learning area. According to Lim and Chung (2008) Integration arts education, of which music education is a part, is subordinate to other purposes: improving expressive ability and developing creativity and communication. The Fine Arts are defined by Gouzouasis, Guhn, and Kishor, (2007) as dance, drama, music and visual arts, which are identified as the core subjects. Music has been associated with feelings of being safe, accepting and trustworthy relationship and, as such, can be a substitute for relationships (Laiho, 2004). According to Barry (2008) he describes integration as a two way model in which music and other subject areas are included and honored in a meaningful that provides a rich, comprehensive learning experience that cross cultural and individual differences, resulting in a productive and motivating experience for learners and for teachers. Why music?

According to Wiggins (2007) based upon the thoughts of specialists in the field of music and literacy, the integration of music into literacy learning settings may aid in language development while promoting musical development at the same time.

Music is all around us. Music influences our feelings and emotions, makes us happy or sad or prepares us for a celebration of life or death. Being able to teach any subject with an integrating theme provides an opportunity to apply what has been taught or learned. On the other hand Cheong-Clinch (2009) brings out the point that when it comes to young people, just listening to popular music can influence their adolescent needs. By this it simply means that it gives meaning to the young adolescent's everyday life when they are trying to just cope with everyday experiences.

Music and Academic Learning Literature Reviews

All of the following articles have been researched and written within the past five years. In proceeding to investigate the strengths and the weaknesses, and comparing the similarities and differences of methods and the philosophies, one will find that all of these research authors may agree that music has some form of benefits when integrating with other academic curriculums. According to Regelski (2009) the failure of music education as praxis to make a pragmatic difference for individuals and society that is noticeable and notable thus creates a "legitimation crisis." This simply means that the claims on music presented within the schools have very little influence on the effects and benefits that many claims are weakened. Although music is available for listening, people do not only benefit from listening to music and find this to be valuable but most people attend concerts, operas and engage in the learning and practice of music are found to be ordinary common people (Peterson & Kern, 1996).

However, the doctrine of Classical music's autonomy from life its contemplation apart from daily life at rare and reserved times, particularly in concert halls and the like (Regelski, 2004 p. 133-89) creates a gap between it and the music of everyday life where, as mentioned earlier, 'appreciation' is seen empirically in the uses or functions served by music of any kind (or, of many kinds) in the life well-lived. Given the uncritical belief in the need to understand before one can properly contemplate and appreciate good music traditional teaching methods and materials used in the music classes are thus predicated on a structure of the discipline curriculum model that teaches the elements of music concepts and other technical terms, and background information from music history, theory, and literature is somehow believed contributes to properly inform and develops appreciative listeners (Regelski, 2004).

The philosophy behind this is that people learn through their experiences. Good teaching cleverly involves students experientially in musical problem solving at novice levels and in ways that promote ongoing paraxial knowledge and skill (Regelski, 2004, p. 76). In looking at the relationship of music and personal social needs music a can be concluded as being of value and profitable to learning.

Authors Heilig, Cole, and Aguilar (2010) discuss the historical evolution and devolution of visual arts education from Dewey's progressive era pedagogy. As this is read one will find policies that focus on arts integration and how the talk of integrating more with core subjects. Policy considerations are offered for arts education and its future standing within the public educational curriculum (Heilig, Cole, & Aguilar 2010). This might be debatable with the No Child Left Behind Act 2001 wants to focus only on Reading and Math.

The author and research Gruhn (2006) takes a different approach to looking at why one should consider a new foundation for instructing and understanding music. He agrees that the social impact is an important piece in schools today and that they play a valid part in the learning environments. School always reflects fluctuations in society caused by the ethnic diversity created by immigration (Gruhn, 2006). Because of the social issues within schools Gruhn (2006) feels the need to reform that of music education in the schools. This poses the question what is music?

Music being categorized as a noun, according to the researchers Adorno (1970), Eggebrecht (1995), and Molienhauer (1990) defines music as immaterial and traditionally, it has been described as an aesthetic experience in the musician and the listener that adds an incommensurable qualitative moment and gives music important subjective qualities. The author of this literature review goes on to say that music should be viewed, as have three parts. The three sections identified music as a process that depending on the following: 1) appearance in the course of history, 2) on the perspective of the listener and 3) on the function of that music retains in cultural memory (Gruhn, 2006). His illustration of a choir practice show that the choir member needs of the behaviors of a singer, in understanding that of knowing the importance of warm ups, being able to perform various styles of music, being on time and other areas. It is discussed how performance is key to learning. Music is considered an action. Therefore, according to Gruhn (2006) so in music, too, acting musically in a communicative musical context manifests and further develop musical understanding. This is not like using words but an expression of non-musical ideas when it comes to this type of understanding. According to Gruhn (2006) many cultures do not have common identities, because there are a number of musical works people have not even heard of.

A weakness revealed by Livingstone and Bovill (2001) was that television will replace reading and that digital media are already increasingly important: 80 percent of children have access to a computer and the Internet. Before looking at an integrated music education program it is suggested that we look carefully at the music so that it does not become stereotype in presentation. From what we know today, then, we cannot generalize that music enhances intelligence or causes long term benefits in academic achievement (Gruhn, 2006, p. 13).

In our next researchers' literature review by Darrow (2008), the author looks at music and literacy. He reflects on the issue that literacy is a concern of all educators whether in the classroom as a non-specialist or arts specialists. It is widely believed that music learning, music reading, and music participation enhance academic achievement, especially reading and math (Tucker, 1981). This person suggest that parallel skills in music and reading include phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, sight word identification, orthographic awareness, cueing system awareness, and fluency (Darrow, 2008).

While the summarization and comparison of skills required for both literary reading and music reading make music and reading a natural fit, there is not yet a significant amount of evidence to glean why or how this transfer of learning may occur (Burtin, Horowitz, & Abeles, 2000: Butzlaff, 2000). In a recent study, researchers found that a musically designed curriculum assisted second graders and students with specific learning disabilities in reading to significantly improve their skills in word decoding and word knowledge (Register, Darrow, Standley, & Swedberg, 2007).

Author Carmen Cheong-Clinch (2006) addresses the topic of how one can engage young people in the academic using the tool of music. She references the stage of adolescence as a time young people are discovering who they really as they deal with much life changes and challenges. Again, the question comes up why music? The meaning and importance of music to young people seem to be correlated to their psychosocial development (Laiho, 2004: Larson, 1995).

According to Cheong-Clinch (2009) young people can identify with popular music. Many times young people are found to be listening to music more so than watching television. Other studies performed by Cheong-Clinch (2006), Standley and Hughes (1997), Bygrave (1995), and Wolfe and Hom (1993) support the relationship between music activities and the development of learning processes, reading, listening and other general associated language skills. The methodology used in this research took place in two learning environments. One was specifically geared to service young immigrants who were in high school just coming into the country and the other those who were found to be at risk, because of drugs, behaviors and school dropouts.

Based on the observations made by the author Cheong-Clinch (2009) and the music therapist while conducting both program, there was an indication that the students made progress in their social and learning behaviors. Not only did the program help in social skills but it also showed to provide confidence for the students in their language abilities through songwriting, singing and the engaging conversations about their songs (Cheong-Clinch, 2009, p. 54).

The next review is an experimental study written by Robert Legg (2009) the strengths and weakness discussed here are centered the influence of music and language learning. Although the Mozart effect has been researched and studied before it is still indicating that music has a great influence on the achievement the children can make. Cross curricular work of this sort was viewed as an excellent means of raising the profile of music amongst staff and students, and, it was hoped of encouraging pupils to value singing as a worthwhile, everyday activity (Legg, 2009).

According to Legg (2009) the tool used to test the achievement of the subjects was developed by the investigator in consultation with the Modern Foreign Language department: it was used before the inventions started, as a pre-test, and afterwards, as post-test. The students were given nineteen phrases to learn and fifteen minutes to complete their exams. The test only used a few questions and they were not the traditional standardize test. Having more questions was thought by Legg (2009) would have added more validity to the research that was performed.

Researcher Kelley (2009) discusses the importance of experiencing the learning of musical form. He states that Fink's integrated course design provides a way to put hopeful theory into the reality of practice (Kelley, 2009). In a dissertation review by Brogla -Krupke (2003) describes how the use music strategies can be used to enhance and improve academic learning. With Collins and Platz (2010) they approach their research from that of the arts and learning from the 21st century perspective. They discuss how the students are provided through the teaching of arts with fresh creativity, opportunities for becoming critical thinking and having better understanding of communication while collaborating with others.

Yet other researchers like Moore and Ryan (2006) describes how an unconventional experiential classroom intervention gave rise to a variety of learning insights and experiences for a group of management students. The emphasis in this research was about the training the students received. The observations allowed these researchers to identity areas of learning that needed more training. The literature on educational development in general and on management education in particular contains increasing calls for the introduction of new innovations and active learning experience with formal classroom settings (Moore & Ryan, 2010). In fact, they argue that the under explored activities using rhythm-involving music may just help to engage students in learning and learning achievements. The research study discussion was on the high school level of academic learning and achievement, as well as, the relationship with music participation.

Gullatt (2008) is similar in research to the researchers Gourouasis, Guhn and Kishor (2007) in that he too presents his literature review from the relationship between exposure to the arts and student achievement within the academic disciplines but focuses more on the subject of math. He also discusses the effect of the economy and how it has affected education with the budget cuts and its impact on the attention given to the arts as a meaning for increasing learning.

While researcher, Lee (2009) presents her study from the viewpoint of the young student learning English through the teaching of songs and music activities. She feels music should be encouraged for all students' learning. The motivation for her study was to help them direct the instinctive behavior into something more meaningful that will help them understand the development of being intelligent through music (Lee, 2009).

This literature review in, the authors investigate how the significance of expressiveness through artistic experience, including music, physical movement, and visual art, is reflected in the purposes of Korean early childhood education, which aims

at strengthening young children's abilities and attitudes necessary for daily life in the areas of physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and language development

(Kim 2005; Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development 1998).

Researchers Lim and Chung (2008) stated artistic expression signifies not only children's development of communication through various art forms, but also their development of creativity through art activities. The national curriculum states that "the young children have a better command of expressing their feelings and emotion through the various art forms-music, visual arts, dance, movements, drama than through verbal communication" (Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development 1998, 86). Integration is another factor for teachers to select the songs with limited aesthetic quality because the title and text are given priority over the music (Lim & Chung, 2008). We urge teachers to mediate the children's musical learning by supporting children's efforts. Lim (2005) suggested implementing the following conditions: (a) facilitates the mediation process with tools and interaction with other people; (b) study a small repertoire of music in-depth rather than many pieces of music; (c) build continuity between the musical activity settings; and (d) teach musical elements in relation to the musical whole.

Researcher Brouillette (2010) discuses that in performing arts, the emotional element is often apparent, whereas the emotional component of a visual art lesson may

not be clearly identified. However, when looking at this aspect of how the arts helps develop students socially, this author believes that there is still a large gap in ones understanding and knowledge of how the interpersonal interaction of art activities affect the evolution of the children's social scripts in interaction with peers. How does one go about providing support for or against the fact that arts, especially music integration enhance academic learning? Some of the following methods may help in finding answers. According to Collins and Platz (2010) the scientific method and peer-review process that the researchers use to conduct their studies strengthen the quality of the results.

In looking at researchers Pearman and Friedman (2009), they discuss that developing the ability to visualize and closely focus on and listening aided the students in many subject areas, besides language arts and music. Listening to music selections were found to be valuable because it allowed the students to visualize the shape of the music. Having the opportunity of sharing increased interest in music instruction and proved to be one of the most beneficial gains of this project (Pearman, & Friedman, 2009).

An experimental study by researcher Robert Legg (2009) ventures out to discuss the strengths and weakness of the influence of music and language learning. Although the Mozart effect has been studied and researched many times there is some discussion that listening to music has a great influence on the student's achievement. Cross curricular work is viewed as an excellent means of raising music learning and recognition amongst staff and students and found valuable in everyday living (Legg, 2009). A more recent example is a longitudinal 3-year study of "Learning Through the Arts" (LTTA), a Canadian school wide arts education approach. This study of more than 6,000 students and their parents, teachers, and principals revealed that 6th grade LTTA students scored significantly higher on tests of computation than students in control schools (Smithrim & Upitis, 2005).

The arts are often viewed as enrichment activities secondary to reading, writing, and math (Rabkin & Redmond, 2006). However, if there are identifiable benefits and supports for the academic curriculum within arts education, it is much easier to see the connection and enhancement of the arts to teaching and learning (Gullatt, 2008). Miller (2010) looks at the research of integration from a qualitative study with emphasis on the curriculum and art performance. The research in this literature review looks at students in the integration performance and the students' understanding of integrated learning. The authors here argues that the students' familiarity with scholastic behaviors, understood by students as "doing school," impacted the students' capacity to perceive the cohesiveness of the academic curricula and recognize the integration of these behaviors and activities in the arts courses.

Researcher Kelley (2009) discusses the importance of experiencing the learning of musical form. He states that Fink's integrated course design provides a way to put hopeful theory into the reality of practice (Kelley, 2009). In a dissertation review by Brogla -Krupke (2003) describes how the use music strategies can be used to enhance and improve academic learning. With Collins, and Platz (2010) they approach their research from that of the arts and learning from the 21st century perspective. They discuss how the students are provided through the teaching of arts with fresh creativity, opportunities for becoming critical thinking and having better understanding of communication while collaborating with others.

Yet other researchers like Moore and Ryan (2006) describes how an unconventional experiential classroom intervention gave rise to a variety of learning insights and experiences for a group of management students. The emphasis in this research was about the training the students received. The observations allowed these researchers to identity areas of learning that needed more training. The literature on educational development in general and on management education in particular contains increasing calls for the introduction of new innovations and active learning experience with formal classroom settings (Moore & Ryan, 2010). In fact, they argue that the under explored activities using rhythm-involving music may just help to engage students in learning and learning achievements. The research study discussion was on the high school level of academic learning and achievement, as well as, the relationship with music participation.

Gullatt (2008) is similar in research to the researchers Gourouasis, Guhn and Kishor (2007) in that he too presents his literature review from the relationship between exposure to the arts and student achievement within the academic disciplines but focuses more on the subject of math. He also discusses the effect of the economy and how it has affected education with the budget cuts and its impact on the attention given to the arts as a meaning for increasing learning. While some worry about budgets others look at plain fact of being held accountable.

The researchers Mishook and Kornhaber (2006) look at the accountability piece in the area of arts integration. Although the arts have their own discipline area it is questionable as to what standards they are being held accountable for? In this research the authors looks at the way integration is affected by the accountability. According to Mishook and Kornhaber (2006) accountability and testing have caused fears in the community of arts education that schools will be required to invest more time and resources on the tested areas of the curriculum, which include math and reading. The reason for this is because the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) 2001 Act has placed its concerns on the achievement of reading and math. Perhaps this leaves one with a question, should the arts be held accountable for what they teach even when it comes to integration?

On the other hand, researchers like Diseth (2007) discusses and want to know more about Students' evaluation and perception of the learning environment are considered to be important predictors of students' approaches to learning.

While Severiens, & Wolff 2008). These variables may also account for variance in academic outcome, such as in examination grades, but previous research has rarely included a comparison between all of these variables. This article investigates the factor structure of an inventory measuring evaluation-perception of the learning environment. These factors were compared with scores on the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and with the examination grades of 248 undergraduate psychology students. Exploratory factor analysis produced a measurement model comprising five evaluation-perception factors (workload, presentation, perspective-integration, lecturer, and effect). Structural equation modeling gave moderate supported to a model, in which evaluation-perception predicted students' approaches to learning, which subsequently predicted examination grades. Hence, evaluation-perception affected examination grades indirectly, via "approaches to learning". Additionally, the factor "workload-demands" contributed independently, as a predictor of examination grades, together with "surface" and "strategic" approaches to learning. These results, finally, gave a basis for recommendations for curriculum design and lecturing.

Kelley, B. C. (2009

Fink's integrated course design provides a way to put hopeful theory into the reality of practice. The author describes how this model helped him use more active learning experiences that not only deepened students' understanding of musical forms but also enabled students to creatively play with those forms. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

While researcher, Lee (2009) presents her study from the viewpoint of the young student learning English through the teaching of songs and music activities. She feels music should be encouraged for all students' learning. The motivation for her study was to help them direct the instinctive behavior into something more meaningful that will help them understand the development of being intelligent through music (Lee, 2009).

This literature review in, the authors investigate how the significance of expressiveness through artistic experience, including music, physical movement, and visual art, is reflected in the purposes of Korean early childhood education, which aims

at strengthening young children's abilities and attitudes necessary for daily life in the areas of physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and language development

(Kim 2005; Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development 1998).

The researcher Brouillette (2010) discuses that in performing arts, the emotional element is often apparent, whereas the emotional component of a visual art lesson may

not be clearly identified. Salcedo (2010) however, when looking at this aspect of how the arts helps develop students socially, this author believes that there is still a large gap in ones understanding and knowledge of how the interpersonal interaction of art activities affect the evolution of the children's social scripts in interaction with peers. How does one go about providing support for or against the fact that arts, especially music integration enhance academic learning? Some of the following methods may help in finding answers. According to Collins and Platz (2010) the scientific method and peer-review process that the researchers use to conduct their studies strengthen the quality of the results. Evidence has suggested that music can improve behavioral performance in several domains, including intelligence (Moreno, 2009). So what are some of the theories behind the purpose for music integration?

Theories Behind Music Integration

At the turn of the century, John Dewey was beginning his research at the University of Chicago, experimenting with a new approach to education that would become known as progressive education (Goldblatt 2006). Dewey (1938) theorized that children need education that is authentic and allows them to grow mentally, physically, and socially by providing opportunities to be creative, critical thinkers. "Many times teachers do not perceive theory taught in education courses as particularly relevant to the reality of teaching. Theory is even sometimes seen as contrary to the needs and reality of practice. There exists in the minds of students therefore, a dissonance between teacher education and teacher practice" (Dolloff, 2003, P.23). The dominating theoretical framework for studying children and music is cognitive psychology. (Samuelsson, Carlsson, Olsson, Pramling, & Wallerstedt, 2009). Dewey (1938) theorized that children need education that is authentic and allows them to grow mentally, physically, and socially by providing opportunities to be creative, critical thinkers. Dewey believed that arts are indeed experience, and that access to arts education opens processes of inquiry that expand a child's perception of the world and create venues for understanding and

action (Goldblatt, 2006).

This article is structured in the following way. Firstly, we will review the research

literature on children and music, poetry and dance. This review will clarify how our

theoretical perspective differs from that of the majority of previous research in the

field. Secondly, the theoretical framework of developmental pedagogy will be

presented. We will clarify and exemplify those tools that are useful to analysts in the

study of children's learning and to teachers in facilitating children's learning. Thirdly

we will describe how we have worked in our project. Next, we discuss how the frame-

work of developmental pedagogy and our empirical studies may contribute to

children are learning within the arts. The dominating theoretical framework for studying children and music is cognitive psychology. All the theories connected to musical development involve not only psychological research on the individual's behavior and learning per se, but also the influence of contexts and social dimensions (Samuelsson, Carlsson, Olsson, Pramling, & Wallerstedt, 2009). In the well-known spiral model of musical development by Swanwick and Tillman (1986) musical thinking embraces the four layers of materials, expression, form and value for discussing children's compositions. Gardner (1990) reduced the development within the arts to three steps: pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional.

While other researchers like Brogla -Krupke (2003) discuss that emotional intelligence, and people skills, the importance of not merely learning basic facts but how to use the information learned, and the necessity of observing connections between the disciplines provide support for integrating music in other academic areas. Because of the vast amount of attention and interest in understanding the role of music integration many have turn to investigate findings by Howard Gardner Researchers Gardner and Hatch (1995), theory of multiple believe that the intelligences prompted increased popular and academic interest in the possible benefits of an interdisciplinary curriculum by expanding the definition of human intelligence beyond the traditional emphasis on reading, writing, and mathematics, to include a variety of intellectual competencies: linguistic, intelligence , musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence and the personal intelligence.

Researchers Rauscher and Shaw (1997) indicated that music could enhance spatial reasoning ability. Dooley (2010) states that contrary to the old, simplistic notion that art and music are processed in the right hemisphere of the brain; with language and mathematics in the left, recent findings along with colleagues that music is distributed throughout the brain. Another theory discussed by Owens and Sweller (2008) were that of cognitive load theory. Cognitive load theory discussed by Clark, Nguyen, and Sweller (2006) and Sweller (1988, 2003) is an instructional theory which enables us to use the knowledge of human cognitive architecture to assist in the design of instruction. What methods were used to gather data and ending results and giving clarity on the process of these studies?

Methods

One interesting study qualitative study examined the integration of arts and academic curricula at a performing arts school by focusing on the curriculum as it is understood and perceived by the students (Miller, Bender-Slack, & Burroughs, 2010).. This study is unique in that it centered on five students at an arts magnet school that had a vast range of art classes. Their findings showed that their students were not able to identify what integration was in relationship to the academic classes. Therefore, it validated that teacher-centered instructional and music strategies were used in the class work permitting the students to understand what they learned versus how they learned it which was also reflected in their behaviors.

Regelski (2002) discuses the method of instruction being that of the traditional, where the focus does not centered on what the student has learned or able to do through the learning instruction. The attention is given more to the details that were presented in the instruction. According to Regelski (2002) the main curricular question facing "school music"educators is whether it is "the music "that is to be served that perpetuated for its own sake, or whether music in the sense of a conceptual category that includes many music's and hence, music education exist to serve the various social needs that bring both into existence in the first place. A qualitative four-stage time series study was designed to assess the effectiveness of an arts partnership course in delivering the integrated arts in teacher education revealed that the role of the arts specialist was critical in enhancing preserves teacher's arts learning and confidence in teaching the arts in their classroom (Andrews, 2006).

In a more current study by Andrews (2006) reassess the effectiveness of arts partnership course in delivering the integrated arts in teacher education. The information gathered was by buildings and looking at the various aspects of ideas employed. The results found that the teachers valued observations and peer learning activities because it developed more confidence in teaching art in their classes. An inters testing statement found was to operationally the integration of theory and practice, the author developed an arts instruction model (AIM), in consultation with the specialist arts teachers, to provide internal consistency to the arts teaching and learning across several sections (Andrews, 2006, p. 451).

The research by Owens and Sweller (2008) method involved seven boys from a high school, ranging in ages of 11 and 12, took part in this project. The reason they were chosen is because they had experienced some form of music outside of their school setting. This allowed those doing the research to analyze the students' understanding to complete the problem they were evaluated on. The students were given five minutes total to study and complete the problem. A written test given within another phase of the process that had 50 problems was given 3 minutes to complete. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with orthogonal planned contrasts was used for all phases to test the primary theoretical prediction that the instructionally efficient integrated and dual- modality conditions would prove superior to the split-attention condition (Owens & Sweller 2008). This research was experimental.

Lim and Chung (2008) researched method involved looking at the policy for early childhood. Interviews were held with the teachers, directors, and college professors. They also visited classroom for Kindergartners and early childhood centers.

Moore and Ryan (2006) method was different in that they conducted a workshop for 17 representatives. The use of drumming circles, or similar approaches to introducing music and rhythm, has the potential to increase teachers' repertoires of pedagogical techniques, and to create novel, satisfying learning experiences (Moore & Ryan, 2006). The results of this experience was positive in that the drumming circles produced untapped learning for promoting students to express their feelings and emotions and give everyone an opportunity for having a power of voice.

The methodology that Cheong-Clinch (2009) used her programs was with English speaking students who were in high school. The first group of students attended school from a minimum of six month to a full twelve months. The second group differed in the sense; these young high school students The objectives of the programs in both learning environments were similar: the primary aimed to increase self-esteem and self-expression, and to build peer relationships, although only the first program aimed to improve participant's language skills. The first study program provided evidence that progress was accomplished within five weeks.

The method for this project was composed of six children grouped together in small ensemble groups for the study observation. The students although grouped, had the played the same musical instruments. The instruments that was in each group consisted of a tambourine, a triangle, castanets, and medium-sized crash cymbals. The rhythm patterns played by the students were played together with the same song patterns. By being aware of and observing the young children's ability to construct and reconstruct their learning experiences, the teacher's lesson is based on children's universal, linear, and ordered development; therefore, the children's musical experiences are limited to playing simple instruments (Andrews, 2006). The project integrated arts by including visual art, music, drama, and movement for young children to As an integrated arts education in partnership with music, visual arts, plays, and movement, early childhood music education fails to draw on cognitive and artistically challenging aspects of experience.

Whereas, Brouillette (2010) looked at the impact arts integration would have on students in grades one through four socially. Interviews were conducted with the teachers to identify what social impact had occurred with using art integration. According to Brouillette (2010) when asked about the nonacademic effects of arts integration, teachers tended to begin with observations about how the arts lessons had affected the classroom culture. There are some commonalities in the above mentioned methods of research. Although the procedures may vary, one can know that through quantitative and qualitative study and research common patterns are clearly identified in the research experiences.

Although the methods varied in the above research one can see that most of the above methods were similar in gathering their data. The methodology that was consistent for these researches was composed of interviews, observations and based on some type of performance in evaluating the music aspect of the integration. In wanting to understand and clarify why this might be the case throughout these studies, it might be helpful to look at the history of integration.

History of Integration

As Dewey (1902) argued, the knowledge of the subject matter and young

children's lived experiences are not two separate entities, but a continuum. In order to appreciate the role of the arts in the present PK-12 academic curriculum, one must

note the role that the arts have played in the history of education (Gullat, 2008). In general, research on music in early years education can be 23conceptualize in terms of

research on 'music for children' or research on 'children's music'. Traditionally,

research on songs for children has dominated and this research mirrors the strong adult

influence on children's musical activities in preschool (Jordan-Dearborn and Nelson

2002). Darby and Lateral (1994) cite two chronological events that led to modern thinking about the arts in education. First, researchers began their perspective with Horace Mann in the late 1800s, stating that Mann demanded that visual arts and music be taught in the common schools in Massachusetts as an aid to the curriculum and an enhancement to learning. Second, they noted that Dewey posited the correlation between instruction in the arts and cognition to be positive, which had a profound

effect on curriculum decisions of the time in many locations. Social issues on learning in music have historically been conceptualized from different theoretical standpoints. Within this framework one distinction is made between 'vertical interaction' (between children/pupils and adult/teacher) and 'horizontal interaction' (among peers) (Olsson 2007). Researcher Kratus (2007) states it so clearly when said "Music education must find ways to both keep up with the changing musical culture and preserve the best of our musical past"

Variables for Music Integration and Academic Learning

Although teachers are acutely aware of variance in students' literacy needs, many are unsure exactly how to support these needs in the dynamic classroom (Tobin, & McInnes, 2008). This research project reports discusses evidence from Grade 2/3 classrooms in which teachers differentiated instruction in a variety of ways to benefit all students. In particular, teachers provided additional scaffolding for struggling literacy learners by offering a menu of tiered work products, expert tutoring and additional supports.

Some variables that can be considered are as follows. Can music influence student learning? Is there some magic connection that can help improve academic scores and learning? Can Non-Music Specialist, as well as, Music Specialist be confident to teach music integration and cross curricular lessons? Does the emotional aspect of music integration develop social connectors for learning? What does this music integration mean to all involved? Does Music affects the behavior and causes an effect to better learning? Can good communication and collaboration skills be essential to an integration program?

Summary

Music has always been a part of the human's everyday world. The known phrase that Music is Universal tells the reader that music is an integral part of the human culture (Salcedo, 2010). .Its influences capture our emotions, inspire running and movement to a funky beat, and yet motivates in away that requires no thinking. This powerful tool is still being researched and studied, it affects are clearly supported in improving academic learning. Nationwide concerns about useful and helpful ways for academic reforms are intentionally looking at the possibilities of music integration for improving academic scores. In order to appreciate the role of the arts in the present K - 12 academic curriculums, one must note the role that the arts have played in the history of education (Gullatt, 2008). Also researchers Heilig, Cole, and Aguilar (2010) were able to connect the No Child Left Behind Act 2001 back to Dewey as the thought of music integration has evolved in the education arena.

Learning through the arts provides students the opportunity for constructing meaning of content related material through the use of the visual, dramatic, and musical arts while learning in the arts gives students the exposure to specific skills gained through instruction in these art forms Gouzouasis, Guhn, and Kishor (2007).

Although there are many music teachers who may regularly integrate content areas within their classrooms, they may or may not attempt this form of integration with purpose to do so. This conflict between intrinsic and instrumental or integrated curricular approaches has become a dominant issue in art education that deserves attention from many perspectives (Brewer, 2002). But the fact remains that K - 12 students all across they nation is failing to become literate in math and reading. This has become evident in our assessments and the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that requires every child to become literate in math and reading. Educators realize that the intellect draws from many experiences and research supports the fact that music could enhance and enlighten many academic disciplines (Brogla-Krupke, 2003). According to researcher Samuelsson, Carlsson, Olsson, Pramling, and Wallerstedt (2009) teaching and learning for children in preschool, kindergarten and primary school have relied upon the creative subjects in making children aware of the world around them and of their own creative and artistic competences - even though emergent reading, writing and mathematics have lately been seen as more important.

The articles above all support some form of music integration as having some benefits to enhancing learning. If they do not, they also mention that there were no negative findings from the integration used in their instructional process. The majority of the research articles in this literature review deals with music integration and academic learning achievements in the learning of a language and cross curriculum learning. With the research that has been done on integrating the arts we raise questions on how effective this process will be. Music alone can empower students with real world communication advantages (Salcedo, 2010). We may find arguments that there is no hard evidence to prove that integration works. But one can one conclude that music integration in this literature review found support that enhance academic learning? As an educator of the 21st century learning time is of essence to become creative, concerned collaborators and devoted professionals that are willing to go the extra mile to motivate and produce strong academic learners using whatever tools it takes. Even though a variety of researchers may find integrated learning to be a weak link to connecting subjects, research supports music as a vital connection between the academic (Brogla -Krupke, 2003). The many researches and investigation on the curriculum and instructional time for arts education revealed that music and visual art education for kindergarten to fifth grade remained generally the same since 2001 (Spohn, 2008). But in taking a look at music integration and academic learning the classroom teacher and music specialist both play an important role in presenting effective integration program. According to Brouillette (2010) states that every teacher may not master the technical skills of each arts discipline, but all teachers should be able to use arts based strategies to foster their students' social emotional development. Therefore, integration of the arts into the academic disciplines may be one avenue and experience that prepares students for academic success and the workplace of tomorrow (Brogla -Krupke, 2003).

According to the authors Young and Kim (2010) the current educational reform policy discourse takes for granted the central role of using data to improve instruction. In conclusion these literature reviews have a common thread of focus, that is, they are centered on the influence of music in our lives in some form. This validates that Music integration can be considered as a factor in enhancing academic learning. Whether one looks at the understanding of music practice and the benefits of being exposed to it, our social connections, the need to reform its foundations to influence learning, to engage those who are at risk or teaching and learning language to one finds that there is one tool that can connect the common threads together and that tool is Music.

In conclusion these literature reviews have a common thread of focus, that is, they are centered on the influence of music in our lives in some form. This validates that Music integration can be considered as a factor in enhancing academic learning. Whether one looks at the understanding of music practice and the benefits of being exposed to it, our social connections, the need to reform its foundations to influence learning, to engage those who are at risk or teaching and learning language to one finds that there is one tool that can connect the common threads together and that tool is Music

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