Multi Media Learning Resource Education Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Why do trainee teacher need (CK and PCK) to be given the MMGE learning resource? Ape faedahnya MMGE diberikan kepada guru2 pelatih?

The availability, affordability, access and relative simplicity of use of these technologies and devices mean that it is realistic to suggest they can now be used by any teacher, and that the technology is now at a point where it can indeed be used to dramatically enhance many of the activities within PE (Elbourn and Cale 2001; Koh and Khairuddin 2004; Wood 2005).

PE teachers, both pre-service or in-service, play important roles in delivering effective teaching and learning to students which is emphasised since Initial Teacher Education (ITE) courses. However, {{287 Capel, S. 2005}} found that many physical education teachers have not changed the way they teach physical education by using traditional approach. The inertia against change is observed despite numerous innovations in the curriculum, including the introduction of National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) in England in 1992.

According {{79 Webb, P. 2005}} most teacher still find it more convenient to apply the traditional approach in teaching games. According {{82 Georgakis, S. 2005:51}} the traditional approach involves technique-based approaches using drills with the teacher or coach dictating to the students. He also agreed that skills in the traditional approach were taught in isolation without allowing the players to think and apply the techniques to the situations required in the game. Consequently, the students who had never played the particular sport will not understand what they are doing and why.

Therefore, MMGE learning resource provides an alternative use of pedagogical innovative approach visualized in DVD form. This learning resource comprise of NCPE element, Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), Sport Education (SE) and invasion game (handball). Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) is one of the pedagogical innovations and it is central to the Sport Education model {{266 Hellison, D.R. 1991}}. It is a game-orientated learning process to acquire the skills, to enhance understanding place of them in the game {{79 Webb, P. 2005}}. Both of innovative pedagogical approach will be highlight in the learning resource to assist trainee teacher understand the principle of play invasion game using handball. The learning resource will focus on visual cues which show the videos of attacking and defence around understanding and learning the tactical (strategic) aspects of handball behind SE framework.

This work aims to integrate ICT with hybrid SE-TGfU as an innovative pedagogical approach. According {{197 Hastie, P.A. 2006}}, in order to be successful in delivering hybrid SE-TGfU unit, potential teacher trainees should possess superior content and pedagogical content knowledge. Following that, {{167 Mohr, D.J. 2002}} found that teachers who use SE are engaged in the process of enhancing their PCK. Tactical Games models make games more understandable for teacher trainees in developing robust and more complex PCK as compared with traditional teaching methods {{167 Mohr, D.J. 2002}}.

The learning resource is important element in PE to cater for the needs of each trainee teacher in terms of building on their Content Knowledge (CK) and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) as prior knowledge {{289 Gower, C. 2004}}. This knowledge will be varied according to their experiences {{290 Capel, S. 2000}}. Moreover, there is some transfer of their knowledge of other sports and activities {{289 Gower, C. 2004}}.

{{181 Shulman, L.S. 1987}} defined PCK as transforming subject matter and representing it to students in a comprehensible form. Meanwhile, CK are "analogies, metaphors, examples, demonstrations, simulations" that would be able to build a bridge between the teacher's comprehension and that desired for the students. It is most valuable if the knowledge about practical activities comprises of skills, tactics, rules, practices and materials which enhance their practice of teaching {{193 Hayes, S. 2008}}.

The pervasion of ICT which has impacted education in general has the potential to make more impact in the teaching and learning of PE than almost any other subject area (Stratton & Finch, 2001; Kibble, 2005). {{245 Tearle, P. 2008}}, highlight the needs of relevant ICT learning resources for teaching and learning in PE. Furthermore, {{248 Elbourn, J. 2001}} has found the use of ICT in PE initial teacher training is also currently far less developed and researched than ICT use in other subject areas.

From researcher point of view, the learning resource will provide an alternative for new pedagogical approach in order to enhance teacher understanding of learning and teaching of invasion games. This learning resource will provide an opportunity for trainee to access, practice and use the content for their professional development.

In the present research, handball game was selected for the MMGE learning resource for a number of reasons. Handball is acknowledged as a court invasion game with techniques and more patterned tactics than soccer involving frequent offensive and defensive changes {{122 Siedentop, D. 2004}}. Handball can be played indoors or outdoors with very little equipment and it is an international sport {{122 Siedentop, D. 2004}}. It has similarities with other sports with respect to basic skills, hence providing opportunities to be transferable to other games {{165 Griffey, D. 2007; 122 Siedentop, D. 2004; 93 Remy, C. 2003; 133 Wilson, G.E. 2002}}. Within England and Wales, handball received tremendous support from the government especially at school level {{211 Neilson, S. 2008}}. Moreover, the researcher is a former PE teacher and handball is a major game the researcher played. As an experienced handball player, the researcher is more comfortable, familiar and has a solid background with the game to undertake this study.

Research question

How does the pedagogy (i.e. of using a multi-media learning resource in physical education) affect teacher trainee's professional development?

Bagaimana pedagogy MMGE boleh mempengaruhi perkembangan professional guru2 pelatih?

Use ICT in learning

Use ICT to learn and teach

Engagement with the training process (learning to teach)

(menumpukan perhatian).

Rapid changes in education means that students must learn to develop and apply knowledge creatively, not only remember what they have been told. This goal requires a shift from traditional lessons based on transmitting information toward approaches that help learners build robust and flexible understanding. To meet these demands, teachers need professional development opportunities to support them in the transformational process {{237 Stone Wiske,Martha 2001}}.

Any teacher training program should help teachers see past the technology to the pedagogical and educational gains that the technology will bring to the classroom {{244 Thomas, A. 2006; 270 Hawkins, R.J. 2001}}.

Therefore, it is important for future teachers to be equipped with what is needed to help them integrate ICT in teaching {{308 Bakar, A.R. 2008}}.

Technology must be seen as a way to facilitate learning and improving interaction with the students (Thurnburg and Hill, 2004).

The research design


research paradigm reflects a general agreement on the nature of the world and how to investigate it {{288 Burton, D. 2005:18}}. This project is located within on interpretivist paradigm. This qualitative research is support by Activity Theory and Grounded Theory.

The researcher is going to employ action research where according to {{257 Koshy, V. 2005:21}} action research fits the purposes of professional development or improving a situation identified. The sample will be selected from all new cohort of PGCE in PE trainee teachers who started the programme in September 2008. The researcher will play multiple roles such as researcher, an observer, practitioner, director, developer and trainee teachers as an actor that trying to tackle the issues going to be investigated from different angles and perspectives.

Very often, the data collection associated with action research is largely fuelled by the desire to understand one's practice and to collect data that is appropriate and accessible {{288 Burton, D. 2005}}. Qualitative research methods using case study, semi-structured interview and survey are more appropriately applied to this project {{231 Mills, G.E. 2003}}.

Activity Theory has been employed to support the content design of MMGE which emphasise human intentionality behind each design of which many of theories are lacking {{175 Kaptelinin, V. 2006; 282 Gifford, B.R. 1999}}. Activity theory provides a basis for understanding how trainee physical education teachers' act with MMGE learning resource and to stimulate great design technologies that address the stakeholders need and desires


In short, Action Research, Activity Theory and Grounded Theory were chosen because these theories have similar processes involved constant cycles of planning, acting, observing and reflecting processes {{121 Cohen, L. 2007; 283 Hearn, G. 2005; 288 Burton, D. 2005; 231 Mills, G.E. 2003}}. As part of the intervention project, the researcher is looking at the MMGE from various points of view. Firstly, to address what teachers need, teacher trainees will do a self audit need before they use the MMGE further. As they progress through the MMGE, SE will provide an explanation of the characteristics and the opportunity to play with various roles. Meanwhile, TGfU will expose more approaches on teaching game using tactical games strategy. As a result, every individual will go to their own path of learning as they learn and it becomes a foundation in this programme.

The analysis

As part of the qualitative research method, Grounded Theory uses a systematic set of procedures to develop and inductively derive a theory about a phenomenon {{121 Cohen, L. 2007; 185 Strauss, A. 1990}}. Here, creativity is also an important element {{185 Strauss, A. 1990}}.

The researcher adopted The Helix Model by {{253 Waring, M. 2001}}. It emphasises the systematic nature of analysis in grounded theory through coding, theoretical sampling, memos and diagram. As data are gathered from the evaluation questionnaire on MMGE learning resource, the semi-structured interview will be conducted later to look in depth into certain issues until it becomes dense, evolved and consider sufficient enough to be included in the current research. It will involve checking data forwards and backwards from time to time within the helix to accommodate the research going to be investigated and the expertise of researcher.