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With the objective of teaching the students the language skills so that they become more concerned in language learning, for example why is Eyad studying English? Why Dr Ahmad wants to learn Arabic? What motivates Dr Ahmad to learn Arabic language in Jordan? What is the reason for Dr Ahmad's interest to learn French or Japanese? The answer for these question is motivation which is considered one of the main determining factors in the success and developing foreign or second language and to keep their interest in language learning when L2 is not seen an important for their immediate needs , and to pass their exams , it's necessary for teachers and doctors to find productive and creative ways to teach students L2 and to increase their motivation and to get them the chance to appreciate the language .Therefore, this assignment will take into considerations the roles of motivation in second language acquisition among L2 learners .initially , the definition of the term motivation will be discussed and this will be followed by ------------------------------------.Then the attention should be drown to --------------------------
Definition of motivation
The term of motivation seems rather difficult, because the disagreement about the precise nature of its meaning .The term seems to vary from one culture to another and from individual to another.
According to Pintrich & Schunt (2002, p.5), the term of motivation is derived from the Latin verb "movere" which means to move .They add that the general definition of the term refers to "the process whereby goal directed activity is instigated and sustained". Furthermore, Garder (1994, p.361) argues that the specific definition for L2 learning motivation is a composition of effort and desire to achieve the goal language learning. He adds that the motivated learner shows favorable, convenient and good attitudes toward language learning.
Oxford (1996, p.2) summarizes Gardner's definition of motivation as a collection of four elements as follows: a goal, a desire to achieve the goal, favorable (positive attitudes toward language learning, and effortful behavior to that effect.
Ellis (1994, p.142) characterizes the term of motivation as a "slippery" concept .Conversely, Oxford states that motivation reflects the power to achieve the goal. Moreover, she adds that this power stems from the desire to achieve that goal, favorable attitudes toward language learning, and effortful behavior.
Furthermore, Skehen as cited in Ellis 1994, p.509) argues that the term of motivation derives from "internal interest" in the learning task, or as a result of "resulative hypothesis". He adds that the term motivation might derive from "internal cause hypothesis "which indicates the learner brings "a certain quantity of motivation "to educational setting. Moreover, the internal cause hypothesis has received the" lion's share of researcher attention" Skehen as cited in Ellis 1994, p.509). He also reflects to another hypothesis "external influence hypothesis" that strengths the learner's motivation. Skehen as cited in Ellis 1994, p.509).
Moreover, we as human beings when we hear the term "motivation", many words and expressions are triggered to our minds such as: ambition, will, desire, energy, achieve, inspire, reward and so on. In addition, motivational issues cover large parts of our daily life. When we talk about our interests, our wishes, and things that we like and dislike and so on. We are in fact concerning ourselves with main motivational determinants of human being. When we complain about bad results in SLA or in morphology course, tough friends, or rather when we are happy about good results in SLA or pleased by the recognition of our promotions and so on, we are addressing issues at the heart of the motivational psychology ( Qashoa, 2006, p.1). Under certain circumstances, Kanfer (1998, p.12) argues that motivation is psychological mechanism governs the direction and persistence of our actions not to individual differences to overwhelming environmental demands that force our action. In brief, Dornyei, (2001, p.1) states that the term of motivation is very much part of our life and few in this world ignore its importance in human affairs in general.
In reality, learning and teaching language specifically English language as a second or foreign language is no exception in this respect .When we as teachers or doctors think how to encourage and motives our low students to work hard, how make an attraction learning environment we truly deal with motivation.
Because Motivation plays a significant role as a contributor factor in teaching and learning the language .It is difficult for the low motivated students to improve their English language as a foreign or as a second language. Dornyei (1994) states that motivation is one of the most important and determinants factor in teaching a foreign or second language. It is difficult for the low motivated students to learn English language .Dorney (1994) states that motivation plays a significant role as a contributor factor in teaching and learning a foreign / second language. He adds that the concept of motivation is "cyclic, going up and down, affecting language achievement, and being affected by it".
Sources of motivation
Oxford &Shearin (1994, p.15) states that without knowing where is the roots of motivation, how can teachers and doctors water those roots.
Fisher (1990) summarizes motivation in learning to three major sources as follows:
The learner's natural interest (intrinsic reward)
The teacher /employment and so on (extrinsic reward)
Success in the task (combining satisfaction and reward)
Intrinsic motivation refers to activities that are enjoyable and satisfying to do, whereas, extrinsic motivation refers to those activities and actions that are carried out to attain some instrumental end ,such as ,good marks, a voiding a punishment ,employment and so on Gardner,Deci&Ryan(1995).To encourage intrinsic motivation ,many characteristics should be available, such as, challenge, curiosity and fantasy to reflect the learner's willingness to learn (Lepper & Hodell, 1989 ).
Furthermore, Small (1997) stated that intrinsic motivation usually displays intellectual curiosity and seeks knowledge which is the main goal for education .He adds that the lack of intrinsic frustrates both the learners and the teachers who are the foundation stone of the educational process .Luce (2002,p.1) stated that over the years as a teacher I have watched teachers collapse and feel with frustration and heard them grunt the "oh" "hell" and "damn" that come from their experience of working in the educational setting specifically with students who wouldn't learn and show low motivation toward learning .He adds that I have listened to their
Littlejohn (2001) believes that only a small number of students have intrinsic motivation. Some teachers in the educational setting affect positively the student's sense of intrinsic satisfaction by using puzzles and games. He adds that this thing has temporary impact .So that, the learner's natural interest is unreliable to generate sustained motivation in the language of the learning. Another theory originated by Vroom (1995) in which motivation occurs when learning has value to the learner ("expectancy theory"). The effort to learn English will be benefit and useful to the learners (instrumentality) and the learner's effort will be rewarded by the learner's expected outcome (expectancy).
In my point of view, I think that the third theory" expectancy theory" is the most important source of motivation for students who are weak and low motivated. For them we, as teachers and doctors have to improve and develop their sense of success and let them feel that they "can" do something instead of the idea that they "can't" (littlejohn, 2001, p.4).
Figure 1: from motivation, where does it come? Littlejohn (2001, p.4)
Figure 2: Source: www.tpub.com
Motivation from a developmental viewpoint mainly refers to Piaget on the one hand and to Vygotskys research on the other hand. According to Piaget (1985), children are 'motivated to develop their cognitive or mental abilities in a predictable set of stages' (Piaget cited in Oxford 1994, p.23). They move to accommodate their cognitive schemata 'to a new stimuli or assimilate the new stimuli into their existing schemata' (Piaget cited in Oxford 1994, p.23). Thus, motivation is a 'built- in, unconscious striving toward more complex and differentiated development of the individual's mental structures' (Piaget cited in Oxford 1994, p.23). Vygotsky is of the opinion that motivation can only exist if the input given to students is 'challenging and relevant' (Vygotsky cited in Oxford 1994, p. 23). He calls the distance between a learner's 'actual development' and the level of 'potential development'
Motivation, defined as the impetus to create and sustain intentions and goal-seeking acts (Ames & Ames, 1989), is important because it determines the extent of the learner's active involvement and attitude toward learning. In other word, it is an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action. More specially, humans universally have needs or drive which are more or less innate, yet their intensity is environmentally conditioned.(Brown)
Motivation is the learner's orientation regarding the goal of learning a second language (Crookes and Schmidt 1991).Â Â It is extremely important to understand the nature of student motivation because research shows that motivation plays a major part in students' choices of language learning strategies and the proficiency levels they achieve. However, language instructors often are not aware of the specific motivations of their students. The work is based on the extensive research of the role of attitudes and motivation in second language acquisition by Gardner and Lambert (1972), Dornyei (1998), and others.Â An eventual theory of second-language teaching should take into account not only scientific knowledge coming from contributing sciences (linguistics, psychology, etc.), but also practical knowledge of language teachers.
Motivation from a developmental viewpoint mainly refers to Piaget on the one hand and to Vygotskys research on the other hand. According to Piaget (1985), children are 'motivated to develop their cognitive or mental abilities in a predictable set of stages' (Piaget cited in Oxford 1994, p.23). They move to accommodate their cognitive schemata 'to a new stimuli or assimilate the new stimuli into their existing schemata' (Piaget cited in Oxford 1994, p.23). Thus, motivation is a 'built- in, unconscious striving toward more complex and differentiated development of the individual's mental structures' (Piaget cited in Oxford 1994, p.23). Vygotsky is of the opinion that motivation can only exist if the input given to students is 'challenging and relevant' (Vygotsky cited in Oxford 1994, p. 23). He calls the distance between a learner's 'actual development' and the level of 'potential development' the Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky cited in Oxford 1994, p. 23). Thus, motivation can only occur within this zone. As a result, a straightforward definition should include these possible approaches indicated.