Literacy and numeracy is .an integral part ofeducation and forms the basis when students enter into practical life irrespective ofthe field they may choose. Especially when it comes to a technical field its importance becomes even greater as a student adept in literacy and numeracy stands a far better chance of doing well as compared to a person who lacks or does not have the necessary skills in numeracy and literacy. Every person in the community -parents, teachers, government or any other stakeholder -has a duty to ensure that the upcoming generation is fully equipped with numeracy and literacy and to create its awareness amongst the students and anyone who wants to attain a certain degree of proficiency in it.
First ofall we should learn about these words because this is the basic foundation ofeducation. Literacy is integral to effective learning, teaching and assessing in all areas ofcurriculum. There are four factors ofliteracy given below:
Literacy in curriculum and
Literacy in teaching Numeracy is integral to effecti~Te learning in all years of schooling and in all areas of learning. It has also four parts: 1. Understanding numeracy
Teaching knowledge and pedagogy
Numeracy across the curriculum
Numeracy leadership. The government has developed a series of new initiatives and resources to support on-going improvement in the literacy and numeracy outcomes for all Victorians students. Students motivation generally in all subject and specially in mathematics is a great a challenge for all teachers because every classroom consist of different types of students, each student brings with them different student learning styles, different interests, and different life experiences that make each classroom unique and special.
There are many strategies to motivate students; some ofthese are given below: Teachers should set reasonable objectives from every lesson given to their students.
Success. Motivate students by showing them that they can be successful in the classroom.
Relevance. Show students how what they are learning matters in real life.
Engaging Questions. Lead in with questions and encourage students to discuss the topic by
bringing what they know about th,e topic.
S. Incorporate different learning styles. Use a variety ofteaching strategies in the classroom.
6. Rewards and Privileges. Rewards and privileges are great motivational tools for hard work.
Multiple Intelligence (MI)
Definition: It can be defined as the full range ofabilities and talent that people possess. Another
definition is the ability to learn about, learn from, understand, and interact with one's
environment. This general ability consists ofa number ofspecific abilities.
In 1983 Dr. Howard Gardner proposed theory ofmult1ple intelligence. According to him, "I want
my children to understand the world, but not just because the world is fascinating and the human
mind is curious. I want them to understand it so that they will be positioned to make it a better
~place. Knowledge is not the same as morality, but we need to understand if we are to avoid past
mistakes and move in productive directions. An important part ofthat understanding knows who
we are and what we can do ... Ultimately, we must synthesize our understandings for ourselves.
The performance ofunderstanding that try matters are the ones we carry out as human beings in
an imperfect world which we can affect for good or for ill. (Howard Gardner 1999: 180-181)"
According to Dr. Howard Gardner there are eight points which based on multiple intelligence
which are given bellow.
Linguistic intelligence: It is the ability to learn language spoken and written.
Logical-mathematical intelligence: It is the capacity to analyze problems logically, carry out
mathematical operations, and mathematical thinking.
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: It is the potential ofusing one's whole body or parts ofthe body
to solve problems. It is the ability to use mental abilities to coordinate bodily movements.
Spatial intelligence: Such type ofintelligence involves the potential to recognize and use the
patterns ofwide space and more confined areas.
Musical intelligence: The skill which involves the performance, compbsition, and appreciation
Interpersonal intelligence: It is the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires ofother people. Naturalist Intelligence: The ability to recognize and categorize plants, animals and other objects in nature. Ifwe see more deeply Dr. Howard's theory of Multiple Intelligence is being now being implemented into teaching and learning practices across the continents, because it is appropriate theory and very suitable for learning style. In all educational institutions, this theory is given very importance because of its standard; the teachers are very fond ofit. The educational institutions adopting this theory have progressed rapidly. Every student is different according to their learning style and understanding power. Multiple intelligence is one ofthose theories which fulfill the condition ofindividual learning styles such as music, spatial relations, or interpersonal etc. Teaching, learning and assessment with MI will allow a broader range ofchildren to successfully participate in classroom learning in the given diagram it will be clearer.
This theory is very effective in the classroom when the students belong to different cultural,
social, economic groups and interests. The teachers can create awareness among these students to create their individual intelligence profiles.
These entire factors can affect the students learning process, but how should teacher face such diversity in the classroom? Now the 'traditional' classroom tends to treat students as a homogeneous group, with the teacher presenting the same exercises to all students at the same time, and expecting the same answers to be produced within similar time limits. Students are expected to absorb the knowledge presented by the teacher with a strong emphasis on the use of language and logical-mathematical analysis. Most academic knowledge is presented for learning by means of an extremely limited methodology and the acquisition of that knowledge is evaluated by means of rote tests, whereby the best grades are assigned to students who demonstrate the greatest ability for memorization. As Gardner says that "The basic needs of teachers as they try to create more inclusive, affective and effective instruction. These basic teaching needs are primarily related to promoting understanding and appreciation among students, to creating classrooms where learners experience a sense of loving and belonging, to issues of fostering pupils' esteem, personal intellectual empowerment and self-motivation, and to helping teachers achieve more diversified instructional techniques. Simply, MI Theory has taken
hold in classrooms across the United States because it helps educators meet the needs of many different types of learners easily, and because it reflects teachers' and parents' deeply rooted philosophical beliefs that all children possess gifts and that part of the most important mission of schools is to foster positive personal development. Thus, teachers understanding and using MI theory, and its related educational frameworks and explanations of diversity, are being transformed into teachers who understand human patterns, human diversity and human learning at better, deeper, and more comprehensive levels."
Use ofMI in maths In our day to day life maths, this has very important role. Reading time on a watch, rounding a date on a calendar, checking up the mileage of your car, halting at the filling station, attending to a roll call at school, getting scores in the class exams, scoring in a game, betting on a horse race, preparing a recipe in the kitchen, -the list is just endless if one goes on to note down the situations when our computational skill, or more specifically, simple mathematics comes to play a role. It scares us to certain extent to think ofa life without any knowledge ofcalculation or computation, or in other words mathematics. In many a case, lack ofa formal education hardly affects gaining a relative mastery in these computational skills which are so essential in our daily
Many students do not like maths and consider that it exists only in classroom but not in real life.
Multiple Intelligences Power up Math Teaching. Results are still flowing in from the Third
International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) that examined the curricula, student
_.:t performance, and teaching styles of math and science programs in fifty countries. Students are guided and encouraged to build up meaning as they participate in activities. This is valuable, but,
we have more "learning channels" available than that. To use multiple-intelligences language. U sing other intelligences would yield more progress. They would be wise to tap their linguistic and interpersonal intelligences by pairing off and paraphrasing the problem to each other until they are sure they understand the question. With the spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligence they can "feel" or visualize the portions in that food-sorting process. This not only helps them to get oriented in the problem but it can lead to an estimate ofthe answer. (Estimates should always accompany problem-solving to screen for "wild results" from a calculation.) The use of the various intelligences, even Gardner's latest, the naturalist intelligence, with its sorting, naming and classifying strengths, creates more of a sense of total involvement with a problem. It gains relevance to a student with certain intelligence strengths, and the number relationships make sense. Compare this broader experience to the usual way this problem would be taught by, for instance, reading the problem, having students try it, showing a fraction calculation on the board, and moving on. An awareness of much intelligence can keep fresh approaches coming in math class and can include students who otherwise might drift off when only talk or calculations are being offered. From a teaching point of view, the important thing is not whether teachers elect to base their teaching on specific course books or whether they reserve the right to interpret, select and use the types of classroom activities that can cater for (or be designed to cater for) the intelligence profiles of their particular learner group. It is far more important for teachers to recognize the fact that learners are in fact different and therefore may need different types of classroom activities and techniques in order to learn. Only in doing so can teachers fully encourage their learners to try harder and at the same time make the learning environment as meaningful and enjoyable as possible for all parties involved.
Many web side ofICT maths game puzzle maths quest math300 etc in which are showing interest and due to these web site the students interest increase in mathematics.
Strategies for students with math difficulties:
To 'visualize' math problems, draw picture, graph and chart so students can easily u,nderstand the problem.
The mathematical problem can be repeated again and again and make sure thatstudents are concentrated, listen carefully and look at any visual information that may be provided (picture,
chart, graph, etc.).
For such types of students, always try to explain example with the help ofdiagram ifpossible.
Always ask students that they should think of real life situation if such type ofproblems exists.
Ask for uncluttered worksheets so that you are not overwhelmed by too much visual information.
Maths is the only subject which needs more and more practice, so give more time to students for memorizing mathematical facts.
Attention deficits: 1. Student has difficulty maintaining attention to steps in algorithms or problem solving so student has difficulty sustaining attention to critical instruction (e.g., teacher modeling).
Visual-spatial deficits: Student loses place on the worksheet and also has difficulty differentiating between numbers.
Writing problem: Student has difficulty writing across the paper in a straight line.
Directional problem: Student has difficulty relating to directional aspects ofmath, for
example, in problems Involving up-down (e.g., addition), left-right (regrouping), and aligning of numbers.
13. Auditory-processing difficulties: Student has difficulty doing oral drills. 14 Student is unable to count on from within a sequence.
15. Memory problems: Student is unable to retain math facts or new information, because student forgets steps in an algorithm and performs poorly on review lessons or mixed probes. Strategies for teacher on how to enable students overcome math difficulties Looking at how teachers and students use mathematical language in classrooms and how they organize instruction is another area of research that can be helpful to teachers of ELLs. There has been more interest in classroom discourse since the math reform movement of the 1990s, because part ofthat reform movement included putting a much greater emphasis on ensuring that students are able to explain their reasoning, their use of strategies, and their solutions. Researchers are exploring questions such as whether and how collaborative learning facilitates math learning, whether and how teachers and students use mathematical language in classrooms, and how teachers' beliefs affect the way they organize their classrooms. In the end, it comes
down to individual teachers, as it always does. Teachers must know what they need to do to be
effective, know how to do it, and have the support they need to do it. Future articles will look
more closely at the academic language of math and how teachers can address the particular
difficulties ELLs have with the language of math, and at teaching strategies that can help
improve the effectiveness ofmath teaching for ELLs.
In the end, it comes down to individual teachers, as it always does. Teachers must know what
they need to do to be effective, know how to do it, and have the support they need to do it. Future
articles will look more closely at the academic language of math and how teachers can address
the particular difficulties ELLs have with the language of math, and at teaching strategies that
can help improve the effectiveness ofmath teaching for ELLs.
The MI Theory is suitable right from the very childhood till the University level or even higher. It fulfills the condition of intelligence. Anyone following the eight sections of MI can become a , very successful person. The same stands true for any institution which can include a school, university or a business organization. Even in research the MI Theory holds an elevated position. In Frames of Mind, Howard Gardner presents the theory that there is no general "intelligence" of the kind purported to be measured by IQ tests. Instead, the human mind is organized around several distinct functional capacities, which he calls "intelligences." Using an elaborate set of criteria, he identifies the seven intelligences listed in Table Though these intelligences overlap
with the two-brain theory that distinguishes the functions of left and right hemispheres, Gardner
sets aside the two-brain model in order to investigate thinking at a deeper level of complexity.
Each intelligence combines elements that may have evolved separately. Though certain functions
are highly localized in the brain and can be eliminated by brain damage to that site, the
intelligences are surprisingly flexible and can make use of various senses, parts ofthe brain, and
chance opportunities. (Even the blind can develop spatial intelligence.) The intelligences follow
characteristic patterns of development in childhood, yet those patterns are diverse enough to
prohibit one from prescribing a set pathway by which children should develop. While these
intelligences appear in cultures all overthe world, different cultures value them differently. Each
of the seven intelligences is relatively independent of the others, but they do not often appear
separate, because they usually work together and may be understood as separate only after
observing many instances oftheir combined effort.