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In this essay I describe and discuss four questions. First question is entirely different from others. Because it completely related only to me, that what was the motivation for studying my Masters degree in Bangor University? So here I discuses my own reasons and experience of my motivation and I identifies some other motivational theories with reference.
Other three things mainly focus to my Masters study. Here I explained many thinks of different authors involving my own data, which means what I studied in my Bachelor degree and now what I studying in my Master degree. The three things are what is my approach to learning? What issues I do anticipate in the group work? And how will attempt to address these?
I simply define Motivation as a decision making process for achieving a specific goal through a particular behavior, It may become by itself or participation of other persons or involvement of other things. In case of me, my motivation is also itself to study MBA. Because my ambition and my long cherished dream was become a good Business man through MBA and also do it from a European county. I applied in three universities in UK and I got admission from all, finely I clarified from UK university ranking list that Bangor University is highly trusted university to compare other two. And I read important news from Bangor University's website that "Gain your MBA in Banking and Finance from the No.1 Business School in the UK (Research Assessment Exercise, (RAE) 2008).It was the first motivations to study at Bangor University. My favorite academic destination was Bangor University on behalf of many reasons; I believe I have the freedom to choose a path that suits my particular goals. The course that I have chosen will give me a unique kind of education. I will learn to work as part of a team, to communicate effectively with others and to develop the practical skills and intellectual abilities. I need for noble success. Moreover UK especially Bangor is a young and friendly country and a best place to live. I believe that unique blend of experiences has made me a person with an original point of view. I understood that Bangor University is one of the best B-Schools in the world with a strong orientation towards research and the diversity of research interests in the operations management group is of particular interest to me. Now I actualized my dream it with my effort and I feel many things. I am also looking to my future safety just like everyone. Banking and Financial services are a highly competitive and rapidly changing sector in every modern economy. In recent years, forces such as globalization, technological change, deregulation and international integration have fundamentally transformed the banking and financial services sector, as the global financial markets emerge from a period of unprecedented crisis, a modern, relevant and up to date Post Graduate Degree in Banking and Finance has never been more essential for tomorrow's industry leaders. So I decided purse MBA Banking and Finance, I expect it will enhance my confidence.
The word motivation defined many authors in different kinds. It all depends up on their researches, surveys and their experience. In my point of me fundamental concept of motivation is a process of decision making to do something it always related to psychology. Different factors influences in motivation, physical, financial, words or behaviors from others, simulative interest of any things etc, are involved in it. Generally it has two faces; it is also known as positive and negative motivation. Simply I can describe these two faces with best this assignment. If I do this assignment properly and correctly under the guidelines of my lecturer, then I will get maximum marks of my assignment, it is also called positive motivation. Otherwise if I do this assignment incorrectly and without control of my lecturer, then I got lowest marks of it, it is also known as negative motivation.
Motivation is a decision-making process through which the individual chooses desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviours appropriate to acquiring them,( Huczinski & Buchanan 1991).Every motivation depends its nature, different nature of motivation are given below;
In case of a business organization, they implement or use different motivational methods among employees or mangers for achieving their organizational goal or profit maximization. In a nonprofit organization motivate their workers for increasing their productivity. Here I follow two motivational theories;
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs (Wendell French 1994)
Physiological needs include the basic requirements for food, water, and sleep.
Security or safety needs include shelter, clothing and ways of defending oneself.
Belonging and affection needs include the desire to relate to other people and to give and accept love, care and cooperation.
Esteem needs include the desire for self worth, independence, and achievement and for recognition and respect from others
Self-actualization needs include the desire for growth, development, and self fulfillment and the urge to realize one's potential.
Hygiene Theory (Wendell French 1994)
Frederick Herzberg developed a motivational theory it is known as Hygiene theory. This theory of motivation based on factors that produce job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. He tested this theory in a study of engineers and accountants in several firms. He found that the key factor in motivation and satisfaction are achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, and advancement. These factors are called Motivation.
(Human Resource Management, Third Edition/Wendell French)
I also explained above what was my motivation to study MBA Banking and Finance and why do it in Bangor University. I represent it through charts.
Students' responses to' I motivate myself most of time' (Sally, Steve and Gail ,1998 )
Student' responses to 'I study because I am interested in the subject' (Sally, Steve and Gail ,1998 )
UCL= University College London, OU= Open University, OUSS= Open University Summer School.
Simply define learning as a process or experience of gaining knowledge or skill. It refers to knowledge gained by schooling and study. Everyone studying their wants and needs in different methods, which mean learning, has different approaches according in different scholars. They identified it through their researches and experiences. They used many learning methods for their surveys or researches. Some people follow their own ways to study their needs. Learning approaches depends up on its nature and character. For example a management students study on way and a science student study another way. Learning is mainly two types in the sense of education. There are Theoretical learning and practical learning. Firstly everyone should study theory and it implement in their practical. It is the basic concept of learning. Among the most basic of human activities, learning is a crucial as breathing. It is the process through which we internalize the external world and through which we construct our experiences of that world. It is of a more practical than fundamental nature. (Learning 1998)
Students' Approaches to Learning
Normally learning has three main approaches, such as Deep approach, Surface approach and Strategic approach. The approaches which students may adopt during their educational life will almost certainly have an effect on their 'success' academically and indeed in later life. These three approaches briefly explained below; (Motivating Student 1992)
Learners who use this approach tend to have a genuine interest in the subject and want to learn .The learner is able to interact with the subject and relate to it and the world around them.
In this, who adopt a surface approach which directs the learner to meet the course requirements by simply regurgitating information. Those who use this approach tend to use rote learning and have no ambition gaining of real understanding.
In here, the main of the learner is to achieve the highest grades by utilizing and taking advantage of higher education system. The students who use this approach know what it takes to get the highest mark. For example they will write what they think the lecturer will want to see, continuously looking for clues for examination and assessment requirements.
I usually follow the third approach means Strategic approach. In my opinion most of the students follow strategic approach and they earn maximum marks. In the modern world is dynamic. Everyone teaches their knowledge or skills with technological effort especially in educational societies, despite being considered outdated - to newer technology-based methods, using virtual learning environments (VLEs) such as Blackboard and other forms of electronic learning. Now I feel it because now I use blackboard in my lecture hall and also in my home. E-learning is more helpful to not only students for studying, but also to lecturer. Electronic learning, often abbreviated to e-learning, can be defined as any learning activity supported by information and communication technologies - or ICTs. There are debates concerning the labels, for example whether ICT-based learning is the same as computer-based learning, or is the same as e-learning. The differences are related to the different channels through which the materials are delivered. Online materials are internet-based and use the World Wide Web channel. Intranet materials, which can look like those available on the World Wide Web, are delivered through an internal network of personal computers.USB and CD-ROMs are used on standalone personal computers - that is not connected to a wider network. E-learning is taken to mean any form of electronic technology - as opposed to chalk and blackboard technology - to support learning.
Generally group means creation of one or more persons for achieving a common goal and group work means what they do for achieving their goal. It may be under control of a single person or a management. Wherever have Human resources, then there should have a group. Because human is essential one in our world for do something. In case business and non business organization group work is necessary. If have an effective in an organization, then they can easily to achieve their goal. It is a known fact. It also proved by many scholars through their effective research and survey. Group and Team are entirely different. A group is a number of persons, usually reporting to a common superior and having some face-to-face interaction, who have some degree of interdependence in carrying out tasks for the purpose of achieving organizational goal. A team is a form group, but has some characteristics in greater degree than ordinary groups, including a higher degree of commitment to common goals and a higher degree of interdependence and interaction. Groups can classify in two terms Formal and Informal Group.
According Jon Katzenbach and Douglas Smith team "is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of a performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable". (Wendell French 1994).
Main advantages of group are;
Creativity and productivity
Wide range of knowledge and skill
Issues of a group work
It is a psychological factor, because every group developed by humans. Everyone's wants and needs, nature and characteristics, culture and behavior, personality and background are always different, so always expecting many problems from groups.(Tom douglas 1991)
Problems relating to the members a group.
A group most obviously is comprised of its members, so in essence all problems of working with group must relate to the members of those groups. It arise directly or indirectly from the kind of people and occur as a result of what they do which affects the group process. It may arise at the time of job performance. For example is conflict among the group workers.
Problems relating to the group as a system.
When a group is created, that is over a period of time, and effort have been made to lay down a structure or structure with a function, it may eventually be in a state where it can function as a system in its own right. May be call it is psychological problems, which means these type problem developed from human Ego and complex for getting authority and power among group workers.
Problems relating to the condition that affect the group.
These problems always related to the external internal condition of the group. For examples, organizational policies, settings and time, size and number of the group etc. no group exists in a vacuum. It is both part of large system and contains within itself smaller system. Across its boundaries flows traffic of influences in both directions. Thus a group influences, or can influences, the larger system in which it is embedded and most certainly that external system influences the performance and structure of the group.
Lack of effective leadership.
If there no effective leadership, no effective group work. Here have a large constellation of problems which are directly related to the creation, maintenance and use and termination of groups. It appears to divide into the following major categories;
Those problems which appear to stem from the nature and quality of the group worker's knowledge (theoretical and experimental) of groups and of the practice of group work.
All those problems which are relate to the practice of group work and which may be loosely classified as 'skills'.
Another one which falls generally under the rubric of leader performance and includes factors like role and style.
The objectives and aims of leadership.
Lack of training and supervision.
Lack o leadership always related to lack effective leadership. Many group work problem raise from not getting the sufficient training. It includes lack of knowledge and skill about the group work, which means group workers not aware about their duties and responsibility and how do it.
It is most important reason to create problems. Because every employees or workers do their work for compensating their esteem needs. If they do not satisfied in their wage and salary, then there have many problems.
Lack of motivation.
Lack of motivation normally related to compensation. Because the essential factor of motivation is always money. In another words negative motivations are always a reason to create problems. Like demotion, suspension, punishment transfer etc.
SOLUTIONS FOR SOLVING PROBLEMS
Every problem created by lack of something. Leaders do have special responsibilities but members have responsibilities also, and there is no more effective way of indicating to a group where the power lies in the system than the exclude members from participation n in, and discussion of, those matters which affect and concern them quick deeply. Once can solve the problem through many ways.
Effective leadership means effective supervision to subordinate or group workers. A leader should have all qualities of a good leadership. There are following;
Good communicational skill.
Participation of employees.
It is the best solution solving psychological problems among workers. Participate the employees at the time of decision making and create a sense of belongingness among the employees. a good leader will participate in all things and make a good relation between employees and leader, and employees to employees. Friendly relation of a leader will solve all problems among workers.
Here motivation means positive motivation; the best positive motivation factor is financial incentives. Give to employees' maximum incentives depends their work performance. Give bonus, transport allowances, hospital incentives, good accommodation etc. Provide maximum opportunity to getting promotion and transfer (without punishment transfer).
A leader can solve many problems through effective recruitment. Recruit sufficient employees for sufficient work. And avoid the wastage of employees. After recruitment provide their duties and time with their reference. And participate them at the time of job designing.
Provide training and personality developments.
Lack of knowledge and skill will create many problems among employees. It will solve by providing good personality development classes and proving external and internal training programmes. Always create a sense of belongingness among employees for increasing productivity and achievement of organizational goal.
Environment means atmosphere of the organization. Many problems rise from atmosphere of the organization. It will affect to the employees physically and psychologically. For example sound pollutions, air pollutions, water pollution and other environmental pollutions. It will be a reason to employees' physical and psychological illness. So always provide good working conditions and create trust of their safety.
Performance appraisal is a process of examination of their work performance. Simply define performance appraisal is a Feedback. Performance appraisal essential one in every organization for finding their problems and solve it. It involves leaders' feedback and employees' feedback. Performance appraisal also helps to increasing their efficiency in their work.
Simply define Communication is a process of passing information from one person to another. It may be ideas, knowledge, skills etc. different kinds of communication has horizontal communication, face to face communication, upward and down ward communication etc. Generally two types communication, there are Formal and Informal communication. Many problems increase through lack effective communication between supervisors and subordinate, or between employees. So an Effective communication is an important one among the employee and leaders or supervisors.
The problem of an organization that the paradox that modern man is freer from coercion through the power of command of supervisors than most people have, been yet men in position of power today probably exercise more control than any tyrant ever had.(People and organization 1975).
Group work, concerned with social experiences and issues of power, represents a natural ground for feminist practice. Many groups serving the homeless population develops models based on feminist theory and practice. Consequently, issues such as leadership and community are approached from perspectives that are substantially different from more traditional models. (Gender and Group work 2003).
To conclude, this essay has identified different issues and solutions of a group work. Here these all are described in the view of business and non business organization. Finally I concluded that the motivation carry many roles in everybody's whole life. My motivations are I motivate myself most of time and I study because I am interested in the subject for study MBA banking and Finance at Bangor University. It represent with two chats. Here I discussed different approaches of learning. In this I follow strategic approach. Here I described for topics, and it all entirely related to my past and present study, especially in my Organization and People's lecture (Proff Sally Sambrook). However I referred lot of books.