The Value Theory states that what people value drives their actions. Of course, everyone tends to value personal development, career enhancement opportunities, and a pleasant work environment. Perhaps this is linked to the motivational factor of gaining a higher status in society or among one's peers.
In terms of personal development factors, we can describe many reasons for why students should develop themselves as it relates to motivation and satisfaction (Mujtaba, Scharff, Cavico, and Mujtaba, 2008; Link999, 2008; Gawel, 2008; Mujtaba and Scharff, 2007).
Motivation is defined as people's needs and desires that influence their behaviors. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory was proposed in his paper entitled "A Theory of Human Motivation" (1943), where the social and esteem needs explain why individuals decide to pursue higher education. Furthermore, Herzberg's Two Factor theory concludes that there are two main factors of motivation, and they are: a) motivator factors such as achievement, recognition and growth, and b) hygiene factors such as financial compensation and benefits (Gawel, 2008).
To satisfy the desire in self-improvement.
Acquiring knowledge and systematizing the universe have been considered in part, as techniques for the achievement of basic safety in the world, or expressions of self-actualization. Also, freedoms of inquiry and expression have been discussed as preconditions for satisfactions of the basic needs.
To gain more respect from others.
All humans have a need to be respected, to have self-esteem, and to respect others. People need to engage themselves to gain recognition and have activities that give the person a sense of contribution, to feel accepted and self-valued, be it in a profession or hobby. People with low self-esteem need more respect from others.
To gain more self-confidence.
Satisfaction of the self-esteem need leads to feelings of self-confidence, worth, strength, capability, and adequacy of being useful and necessary in the world. An appreciation of the necessity of basic self-confidence and an understanding of how helpless people are without it, can be gained from a study of severe traumatic neurosis.
To achieve an educational goal.
Â· understand how they are learning and relate their learning to a wider context;
Â· improve their general skills for study and career management;
Â· articulate personal goals and evaluate progress towards their achievement; and,
Â· encourage a positive attitude to learning throughout life.
To improve one's language skills
A general way of thinking for some non-English speaking students is that by being enrolled in a graduate degree program that is facilitated in English, one can improve their speaking and writing skills.
Career enhancement, characterized by the desire to obtain professional credentials needed for advancement, would allow the respondent to remain marketable and competitive in the business world.
Job promotion is usually associated with more responsibility, authority, and earning. Furthermore, it is associated with better living standards, more benefits, and better physical environment both at work and at home. Overall, challenging work and promotions can lead to many benefits, including the following:
Higher salary: One of the more pleasing effects of a job promotion is an increase in take-home pay. The amount that is offered can differ greatly and is dependent upon various factors in the market or economy.
Better benefits: The term benefit can mean any of the following: better health insurance, housing, and /or transportation provided by the company. In some cases, children's school fee(s) are reimbursed by the company as well.
More responsibility: Job promotion leads to managing or leading more people, and by working in a higher position, a person usually has more subordinates to work with and supervise. The individual in a higher position usually assumes greater responsibilities in work assignments.
Possibilities for training or studie s: The opportunities in further schooling and training can lead to improved performance for the firm.
Improved workplac e: The environment is better and more pleasant.
- What is your approach to learning?
Approach to learnin
TheÂ diagram identifies five key elements of the IDIBL approach to learning, and in addition the importance of internet infrastructure.
1. Personalised learning
Learners identify subject knowledge that is relevant to their own work context and needs. Through a process of negotiation with learning facilitators, the learner develops a set of learning activities recorded as Individual Learning Plans (ILPs) or inquiry proposals.
2. Inquiry-based learning
This methodology has an emphasis on critical reflection on an individual's work practices and inquiry into their work context. This leads to an inquiry focus that is identified by the student, and an action that is planned, implemented and evaluated with the intention of making a positive impact in their work context.
3. Online community of inquiry
Online 'community of inquiry' offers a rich experience of challenge and debate, support, sharing findings, critical feedback, and conversations with invited experts.Â The facilitation team intentionally create an environment where trust and critical friendship can grow and contribute to the development of the community, anticipating a successful environment for deep learning.
4. Assessment for learning
There are no timed examinations with assessment being based on a patchwork of accumulated elements of work culminating in a critical commentary that accounts for the learning journey in relation to the set module learning outcomes.Â Students' academic voice is developed through encouragement to creatively use alternate genre, rich media and technology such as video, audio, websites and blogs.
5. Exhibition for dissertation
Towards the end of the programme, learners are required to construct an exhibition of their findings primarily based upon the final year of their studies but drawing on the whole three-year experience. The exhibition is given to an informed audience identified by the learner, wherever possible in their place of work.Â Critical evaluation of the exhibition by the audience helps validate their findings.
6. Internet infrastructure
Students are required to develop their understanding of the use of emerging Internet technology for collaboration and learning preparing them for a future of self-directed, life-long learners.Â Interaction between students and learning facilitators is entirely online with no face-to-face meetings
3- issues do you anticipate in the group work?
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a] Learning about 'others': Firstly, in different ways, both students and teachers talked about the need or desire to learn about other cultures and religions, although only for the teachers was this need seen to derive from the problem of insularity of some students and communities; for the students it was driven by curiosity. Questions of identity were recognised as important by both students and teachers as needing to be talked about, particularly in order to tackle racism.
b] Global injustice: This leads to the second joint need, to explore and understand the big political issues of injustice and variations in wealth and poverty, as well as environmental degradation. Teachers in particular mentioned preparation for 'participation' as part of global citizenship education. Students wanted more political literacy, in the sense of understanding why things do or do not change as a result of political argument, thus how government actually works.
c] War and conflict: This leads to the third - and in some ways most outstanding need - which was the need to know more about war and conflict. Admittedly, this was in the context of the Iraq war and the continuing and huge media exposure; but it raised the important and continuing issue of learning about current and controversial events generally. Students of all ages and both sexes wanted to understand the reasons for war, for hate, for hypocrisy - and wanted to know about them in the current, real time context, not just in the safe area of history.
Key constraints and gaps
a] National Curriculum
The National Curriculum was seen almost uniformly as an actual or potential barrier to any decent global citizenship programme, both by teachers and pupils. This was in terms of focus [eg National Curriculum being Eurocentric], time, mindset, resources and assessment.
b] Fear of indoctrination
Global citizenship education by definition means tackling political issues. Some teachers are constrained by the interpretation of guidance that they should not 'impose' their political views or 'indoctrinate' their students. Interestingly, students very much wanted to know what teachers thought personally about global issues or conflict situations, and were frustrated if teachers refused to tell them.
c] Lack of confidence to teach current controversial issues
This was raised by teachers, teacher trainees and LEA personnel. This issue has been a long-term concern in moral or religious education, but global citizenship education highlights or extends it in a number of ways. There is the linkage of global issues or events to the multicultural composition of the classroom or community, which requires extreme sensitivity.
d] Fear of agency
The rhetoric of participation in global citizenship issues was apparent, and this was indeed a reality for some schools. Charitable activity was popular. However, political participation was more problematic. As we saw, there were contradictory positions or policies on students joining demonstrations, with punitive measures sometimes for students who were categorised as truanting or leaving school without permission.
a] Creativity: As we saw in looking at what is happening in curriculum, teachers can and do exhibit a range of creative practices and lateral thinking in order to ensure that global citizenship education does take place. We saw many cross-curricular initiatives, with examples in a range of curriculum subjects from the expected history and geography to the less expected maths and music.
b] Management: Teachers can work individually, but it is tiring and sometimes thankless. The research confirmed the second obvious point that global citizenship education is better when it is part of a whole school policy and has the backing of an informed headteacher. This then enables a proper curriculum progression, allocation of suitable time and a sense of co-ownership.
c] Resources: A third obvious enabler comprises suitable resources for global citizenship. Comments at this point would relate to the need to network within and across schools or NGOs to find and share resources, so that individual teachers or co-ordinators are not reinventing the wheel every time, nor overwhelmed, ironically, by too much information [or blatant advertising] coming in to the school about possible materials or packs. LEA advisors and NGOs would be highly important here.