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All activities of an individual originate from Motivation. The impact of a persons needs and wishes, both have a powerful impact on the direction of his activities. Motivation depends on one's feelings and achievement-related objectives. There are different kinds of motivations such as exterior, innate, physical, and accomplishment motivations. More adverse kinds of motivation also exist.
What is Achievement Motivation?
Achievement motivation can be described as the need for achievements or the achievement of excellence. Individuals will fulfill their needs through different indicates, and are motivated to be successful for varying factors both inner and exterior.
It can also be defined as one's strong urge to accomplish something difficult and purposeful which gives him feeling of success and contentment. For achieving all this, he gets himself indulged in intense, prolonged and repeated efforts. This need is influenced by internal drive for action (intrinsic motivation), and the pressure exerted by the expectations of others (extrinsic motivation).
All activities of an individual are derived from the motivation he has in his mind. It refers to the dynamics of our activities, which involves our needs, wishes, and ambitions in lifestyle. Achievement motivation depends on reaching achievements as well as all of our aspirations in lifestyle. Achievement objectives can impact the way an individual performs a process and signifies a wish to show proficiency (Harackiewicz, Barron, Carter, Lehto, & Elliot, 1997). These main physical inspirational pushes impact our natural activities in different environments. Our purposes for accomplishment can range from scientific needs to satisfying creative wishes or realizing achievements in competitive ventures. Motivation is essential because it affects our lives daily. All of our habits, activities, ideas, and beliefs are influenced by our inner generate to be successful.
Implicit and Self-Attributed Motives
Motivational scientists are of the view that accomplishment activities mean the connections between situational factors and the person model's inspiration to accomplish. Two purposes are directly engaged in the prediction of activities, implied and precise.
Implicit purposes are spontaneous impulses to act, also known as process performances, and are aroused through incentives inherent to the process. Explicit purposes are expressed through deliberate choices and more often stimulated for exterior factors. In addition to this, those with impilict purposes set higher objectives in line with their inner requirements, whereas others usually adhere to the societal norms. These two purposes often execute together to determine the activities of the individual in direction and passion (Brunstein & Maier, 2005).
Explicit and implied motivations have a compelling impact on activities. Task habits are accelerated in the encounter of a task through implied motivation. An individual with a powerful motivational drive will encounter fulfillment from accomplishing his objective in the most efficient way. The individual gets satisfied by performing the task in an improved way. However, the precise purposes are built around the individuals self-image. This kind of motivation forms the individuals activities depending on his own self-view and can impact his choices and reactions from outside hints. The main agent for this kind of motivation is understanding or recognized capability. Many advocates still can not consent whether accomplishment is depending on perfecting a person's capabilities or determined to market a better self-image (Brunstein & Maier, 2005). Most analysis is still incapable to figure out whether these different kinds of motivation would result in different habits in the same atmosphere.
The Hierarchal Design of Achievement Motivation
Different methods have been used to design Achievement motivation in number of ways. Our knowing of achievement-relevant outcomes, cognition, and activities has improved. Despite being identical in characteristics, many accomplishment motivation strategies have been developed separately, suggesting that most accomplishment motivation ideas are of the same nature.
Motivational scientists have sought to market a hierarchal kind of strategy and prevention accomplishment motivation by incorporating the following two prominent theories:
Accomplishment objective strategy
Accomplishment objective strategy
Achievement purposes consist of the need for accomplishment and the worry of unable. These are the more frequent purposes that immediate our activities toward good and bad outcomes. Achievement objectives are regarded as more solid intellectual representations pointing individuals toward a particular end.
There are three kinds of these accomplishment goals:
A performance-approach objective
A performance-avoidance objective
An expertise objective
A performance-approach objective is targeted on getting proficiency comparative to others, a performance-avoidance objective is targeted on preventing mess comparative to others, and a expertise objective is targeted on the growth of proficiency itself and of process expertise. Achievement purposes can be seen as immediate predictors of achievement-relevant circumstances. Thus, accomplishment purposes are said to have a distal impact, and accomplishment objectives are said to have a immediate or proximal impact on achievement-relevant outcomes (Elliot & McGregor, 1999).
These purposes and objectives are regarded as cooperating to regulate accomplishment activities. The hierarchal model presents accomplishment objectives as predictors for performance outcomes. The design is being further designed to consist of more strategies to accomplishment motivation. One weakness of the model is that it does not offer an consideration of the procedures responsible for the link between accomplishment objectives as well as. As this model is improved, it becomes more useful in forecasting the outcomes of achievement-based habits (Elliot & McGregor, 1999).
Achievement Goals and Details Seeking
Theorists have suggested that people's accomplishment objectives impact their achievement-related behaviour and habits. Two different kinds of achievement-related behaviour consist of task-involvement and ego-involvement. Task-involvement is an motivational condition in which the individuals definitive objective is to acquire capabilities and knowing whereas the definitive objective in ego-involvement is to show excellent capabilities (Butler, 1999). One example of an action where someone strives to obtain expertise and illustrate excellent capability is schoolwork. However situational hints, such as the individual's atmosphere or environment, can impact the achievements of accomplishing objective at any time.
Studies validate that a task-involvement act more often results in complicated attributions and increasing attempt (typically in activities providing an opportunity to understand and develop competence) than in an ego-involvement action. Intrinsic motivation, which is determined as determined to engage in action because of self-satisfaction, is more frequent when the individual is engaged in task-involved activities. When everyone is more ego-involved, they usually take on a different perception of their capability, where differences in capability limit the effectiveness of attempt. Those who are ego-involved are motivated to be successful by outperforming others, and their feelings of achievements depend on maintaining self-worth and preventing unable. However, task-involved individuals usually adopt their perception of capability as studying through applied attempt (Butler, 1999). Therefore less able men and women encounter more successful situations provided that they can fulfill an attempt to understand and improve. Ego-invoking circumstances usually generate less positive reactions.
Competence moderated behaviour and habits are more frequent in ego-involved activities than task-involved. In ego-involving circumstances, innate motivation was greater among greater go getters who demonstrated excellent capability than in low go getters who could not illustrate such capability (Butler, 1999).
Task- and ego-involving configurations bring about different objectives, conceptions of capability, and reactions to issues. They also enhance different styles of data looking for. Individuals of all stages of capability will local plumber appropriate to getting their objective of improving expertise in task-involving circumstances. However they need to local plumber regarding self-appraisal to gain a better knowing of their self-capacity (Butler, 1999). However people ego-involving configurations are more enthusiastic about details about public comparisons, assessing their capability comparative to others.
Self-Worth Concept in Achievement Motivation
This mostly occurs after an encounter of unable. Failure threatens self-estimates of capability and makes uncertainty about a person's capability to execute well on a subsequent basis.
Self-worth theory states that one way to prevent risk to self-esteem is by receiving attempt. Withdrawing attempt allows unable to be linked to deficiency of attempt rather than low capability which decreases overall danger to the value of the self-esteem. When inadequate performance is likely to reflect inadequate capability, a situation of dangerous is designed to the person's intelligence. However, if an excuse allows inadequate performance to be linked to a aspect irrelevant to capability, the risk to self-esteem and a person's intelligence is much lower (Thompson, Davidson, & Barber, 1995).
A research was conducted on learners such as unsolvable issues to check some presumptions of the self-worth theory regarding inspiration and attempt. The outcomes revealed that there was no evidence of reported decreased attempts despite poorer performance when the projects were described as somewhat difficult as in contrast to projects much greater in issues. The possibility was raised that low attempt may not be responsible for the inadequate performance of learners in circumstances which make risks to self-esteem. Two suggestions were designed, one being that learners might unconsciously take out attempt, and the other stating that learners may reduce attempt due to receiving commitment from the confronted issue.
Avoidance Achievement Motivation
In lifestyle, individuals endeavor to be qualified in their activities. In the past decade, many advocates have utilized a social-cognitive accomplishment objective strategy in accounting for those determined for proficiency. An accomplishment objective is generally described as the objective for engaging in a process, and the particular kind of objective taken on makes a structure for how individuals encounter their accomplishment activities. Achievement objective advocates generally recognize two distinct ideas toward competence: a performance objective targeted on indicating capability in comparison to others, and a expertise objective targeted on the growth of proficiency and process expertise. Performance objectives are hypothesized to generate vulnerability to certain reaction styles in accomplishment configurations such as preferences for easy projects, drawback of attempt in the encounter of unable, and reduced process entertainment. Mastery objectives can cause to a inspirational design that makes a choice for somewhat complicated projects, determination in the encounter of unable, and increased entertainment of projects (Elliot & Cathedral, 1997).
Most accomplishment objective advocates conceptualize both performance and expertise objectives as the "approach" kinds of motivation. Current traditional accomplishment motivation advocates claimed that activities are highlighted and focused toward getting achievements or preventing unable, while the accomplishment objective advocates targeted on their strategy aspect. More lately, an integrated accomplishment objective conceptualization was suggested that includes both modern performance and expertise ideas with the standard strategy and prevention features. In this foundation for inspiration, the performance objective is separated into an separate strategy element and prevention element, and three accomplishment orientations are conceived: a expertise objective targeted on the growth of proficiency and process expertise, a performance-approach objective instructed toward the achievement of positive conclusions of proficiency, and a performance-avoidance objective centered on preventing undesirable conclusions of proficiency. The expertise and performance-approach objectives are recognized as self-regulating to market prospective great outcomes and procedures to process an individual in their process or to make enjoyment resulting in a expertise design of accomplishment outcomes. Performance-avoidance objectives, however, are recognized as promoting adverse circumstances. This prevention alignment makes pressure, process distraction, and a design of hopeless accomplishment outcomes. Intrinsic motivation, which is the entertainment of and attention in an action for its own benefit, outcomes in accomplishment outcomes as well. Performance-avoidance objectives undermined innate motivation while both expertise and performance-approach objectives helped to improve it (Elliot & Cathedral, 1997).
Most accomplishment advocates and philosophers also recognize task-specific proficiency expectations as an essential varying in accomplishment configurations. Achievement objectives are designed to be able to obtain proficiency and prevent unable. These objectives are regarded as implied (non-conscious) or self-attributed (conscious) and immediate accomplishment activities. Competence expectations were regarded an essential varying in traditional accomplishment motivation ideas, but now appear to only be somewhat highlighted in modern viewpoints (Elliot & Cathedral, 1997).
Approach and Avoidance Goals
Achievement motivation advocates focus their research attention on habits such as proficiency. Individuals aspire to obtain proficiency or may endeavor to prevent mess, depending on the earlier approach-avoidance research and ideas. The wish for achievements and the wish to prevent unable were determined as critical factors of aspiration and activities by a theorist named Lewin.
In his accomplishment motivation theory, McClelland suggested that there are following two kinds of accomplishment motivation:
One focused around preventing unable
The other around the more good objective of getting achievements.
Theorists presented an accomplishment objective strategy to accomplishment motivation more lately. These advocates described accomplishment objectives as the reason for activities appropriate to proficiency.
Three kinds of accomplishment objectives were designed, two of which being strategy orientations and the third being the prevention kind. One strategy kind was a process participation objective targeted on the growth of proficiency and process expertise, and the other being a performance or ego participation objective instructed toward getting positive conclusions of proficiency. The prevention alignment engaged an ego or performance objective aimed at preventing undesirable conclusions of proficiency.
These new ideas received little attention at first and some advocates bypassed them with little respect. Motivational advocates moved from conceptualizations such as Dweck's performance-learning objective dichotomy with strategy and prevention components or Nicholls' ego and process orientations, which he recognized as two kinds of strategy motivation (Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996).
Presently, accomplishment objective theory is the frequent strategy to the research of accomplishment motivation. Most modern advocates use the frameworks of Dweck's and Nicholls' revised designs in two essential methods. First, most advocates institution main orientations toward proficiency, by either differentiating between expertise and capability objectives or contrasting process and ego participation.
A contention was raised toward the accomplishment objective frameworks on the assumptions that does it hold true that they are conceptually identical enough to justify a convergence of the expertise objective type (learning, process participation and mastery) with the performance objective type (ability as well as, ego participation, competition). Secondly, most modern advocates recognized both expertise as well as objectives as strategy kinds of motivation, or they failed to consider strategy and prevention as separate inspirational tendencies within the performance objective alignment (Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996).
Adopting of a expertise objective is hypothesized to generate a expertise inspirational design recognized by a choice for somewhat complicated projects, determination in the encounter of unable, a good stance toward studying, and improved process entertainment. A hopeless inspirational reaction, however, is caused by the usage of a performance objective alignment. This includes a choice for easy or difficult projects, attempt drawback in the encounter of unable, shifting the blame of unable to failure, and reduced entertainment of projects. Some advocates consist of the concept of recognized proficiency as an essential agent in their presumptions. Mastery objectives are expected to have a uniform impact across all stages of recognized proficiency, resulting in a expertise design. Performance objectives can cause to expertise in those who a higher recognized proficiency and a hopeless inspirational design in those with low proficiency (Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996).
Three inspirational objective ideas have lately been suggested depending on the tri-variant structure by accomplishment objective theorists:
Performance-approach and expertise objectives both signify strategy orientations according to prospective great outcomes, such as the achievement of proficiency and process expertise. These kinds of activities and self-regulation generally generate a with range of affective and perceptual-cognitive procedures that facilitate maximum process involvement.
The performance-avoidance objective is designed as an prevention alignment according to prospective adverse outcomes. This way of control evokes self-protective emotional procedures that interfere with maximum process involvement. The three objective ideas provided are very process focused in characteristics. Approach and prevention objectives are regarded as applying their different outcomes on accomplishment activities by activating opposing sets of inspirational procedures (Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996).
Intrinsic Inspiration and Achievement Goals
Intrinsic motivation is determined as the entertainment of and attention in an action for its own benefit. Fundamentally, regarded as a strategic way of motivation, innate motivation is determined as an essential part of accomplishment objective theory. Most accomplishment objectives and innate inspirational advocates argue that expertise objectives are facilitative of innate motivation and appropriate emotional procedures as well as objectives make side outcomes.
Mastery objectives are said to market innate motivation by fostering views of task, encouraging process participation, generating enjoyment, and supporting self-determination while performance objectives are the opposite. Performance objectives are portrayed as undermining innate motivation by instilling views of risk, interfering with process participation, and creating pressure and pressure (Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996).
Both performance-approach and expertise objectives are targeted on getting proficiency and foster innate motivation. More specifically, in performance-approach or expertise orientations, individuals perceive the accomplishment establishing as a task, and this likely will make enjoyment, encourage intellectual performing, improve focus and process absorption, and immediate the individual toward achievements and expertise of data which facilitates innate motivation.
The performance-avoidance objective is targeted on preventing mess, where individuals see the accomplishment establishing as a risk and try to escape it (Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996). This alignment is likely to elicit pressure and drawback of attempt and intellectual resources while interfering with focus and motivation.
Personal Goals Analysis
In modern times, advocates have increasingly relied on various objective constructs to consideration for action in accomplishment configurations.
Four stages of objective are:
Task-specific guidelines for performance such as doing a certain action
Situation-specific orientations that signify the objective of accomplishment action such as indicating proficiency comparative to others in a situation
Individual objectives that symbolize accomplishment activities such as getting a's and b's
Self-standards and upcoming self-images such as planning for upcoming objectives and successes.
These goal-based accomplishment motivation ideas have targeted almost exclusively on strategy kinds activities but lately have moved more towards prevention (Elliot & Sheldon, 1997).
Motivation is a critical facet in lifestyle. Our main habits and feelings are affected by our inner generate to be successful over life's challenges while we set objectives for ourselves.
Individuals encounter motivation differently, whether it is task- or ego-based in characteristics. Some individuals endeavor to accomplish their objectives for self respect and self-improvement while others contest with their environment in accomplishment configurations to simply be classified as the best. Inspiration and the resulting activities are both affected by many different designs of accomplishment motivation.
These designs, although separate, are very identical in characteristics and theory. The expertise as well as accomplishment configurations each have a considerable impact on how an individual is inspired. Each theorist has designed a contribution to the current ideas in today's accomplishment research. More often than not, advocates build off of each other's execute to expand old ideas and make new ones. Achievement motivation is a fascinating place, and I find myself more fascinated after reviewing identical ideas from different viewpoints.
Expanding Achievement Inspiration Theory: How Motivational Mindset Associates To Other Fields
Scott T. Rabideau's document, "Effects of Achievement Inspiration on Behavior," effectively summarized current research and ideas in the place of inspirational psychology. Rabideau's document explains the main factors of inspirational theory in academic psychology, such as innate and exterior motivation, and described its finer factors, such as how we look for details about a process can depend on whether the process is inspired by strategy objectives or prevention objectives.
Indeed, many of the ideas provided in this document are highly linked with traditional emotional places.
Cognitive psychology is one such place that has powerful connections to motivation theory. According to motivation theory, the understanding, one has of ones self and ones recognized capabilities have an impact on process motivation. Furthermore, self-worth theory as described by Rabideau tells us that men and women take individual liability for unable, and in this situation will likely prevent that process later on.
It seems reasonable therefore that complicated adverse views would have a powerful good impact on motivation. This reflects the ideas dealt with in some factors of intellectual psychology. For instance, Aaron T. Beck's intellectual theory of despression symptoms works in much the same manner, by complicated automatic pessimism, which are a causal aspect in despression symptoms (Martin & Pear, 2003). Likewise, Albert Ellis has obtained a significant following depending on his growth of rational-emotive activities treatment, which deals with identifying irrational ideas that cause adverse feelings (Martin & Pear, 2003). These intellectual ideas have had tremendous impact on creating efficient therapies for those suffering from depression symptoms, and I believe that their core ideas could be used in accomplishment motivation theory.
Motivation theory also has very powerful connections to behavior psychology. Actually, I believe much of the objectives behind motivation as described by Rabideau can be described in terms of good encouragement. Both innate and exterior motivation can usually be linked to a desired good result, whether it is fulfillment obtained by accomplishing the process, or rewards such as money or public status that is expected later on. Although behavior psychology is more often used in an academic atmosphere to treat problematic and disruptive habits, much achievements has been designed applying behavior methods to strengthen good academic habits, both with normal and mentally disabled learners. Furthermore, behavior psychology has been gaining assistance in physical training and education and learning (Martin & Pear, 2003).
Rabideau's document identifies many prospective causes for inadequate motivation, which stem from a with range of inner and exterior (such as social) factors. I believe that despite the varied characteristics of causes for inadequate motivation, activities treatment methods can be used to have a good impact on trouble spots. By allowing motivation depending on implied entertainment of completing a process, activities treatment can not only generate motivation towards expertise of a process, but also help in situations where treating a cause of inadequate motivation is not always possible.
Competence appropriate to colleagues performs a big part in motivation theory, both in strategy and prevention objectives. Often, motivation for a process comes from looking for a level of proficiency, or preventing unable. It would have been exciting to see how the result of fellow critique or assistance in the encounter of a unable outcomes upcoming process motivation, as in some places of psychology fellow assistance can have a large impact on the progression of emotional issues.
Benefits of Avoiding
All of the accomplishment motivation ideas provided by Rabideau seem to consent that expertise and approach-type objectives or purposes cause to constructive activities in addition to individual advancement and achievements.
Meanwhile, avoidance-type objectives or purposes cause to adverse individual outcomes, inefficiency, and inner-turmoil.
Imagine a workplace situation in the modern fast-paced American business community in which there are no deadlines, no bosses, and no competitors. No matter how much entertainment people get from their execute, people the corporate globe must unavoidably execute projects in the midst of deadline risks and competitors to be able to persevere.
They most definitely encounter some pressure and worry about not meeting their employers' requirements and execute projects depending on prevention motivation to avoid from losing their jobs.
How could they encounter they have accomplished their objective if something can always be improved upon? They would always continue to endeavor for the expertise of the particular process or skill.
This long-term objective is not achieved through solely good reinforcement; there is plenty of pressure, pressure, and sometimes unable as well. Actually the objective itself could be regarded a prevention objective and motivate a college student depending on the worry of becoming a public pariah or the inability to offer for yourself.
In regards to category execute and assignments, a college student might be inspired to excel in his or her particular place of research. Although If college student is forced to attend a required category not appropriate to their specialized niche research, he/she might be inspired by the prevention of receiving inadequate marks or adverse feedback by the professor, which would be damaging to their college career from an overall viewpoint. The prevention would cause to completion of course execute and content and actually benefit the college student in the lengthy run.
In comparison, too much motivation indicates that prevention would follow the inspirational ideas as described by Rabideau and absolutely "undermine innate motivation." With a deprivation of strategy and expertise, an individual's inner-drive needed to be successful in lifestyle may be absent.
It would be exciting to discover further into this realm and see how inspirations through prevention kind objectives are appropriate to depression symptoms, particularly unipolar conditions. Perhaps the continuation of motivation through pressure, pressure and worry leads an individual through a volitile manner into a depressive state. Psychotherapy may assist them in creating more approach-type objectives and counter the consequences described in the "self-worth" theory.
What's My Motivation? It May Not Be Yours
Jeremy M. Swerdlow, Rochester Institute of Technology
To better illustrate this phenomenon, an actual [observed] situation describing two learners will be described. One college student gets a bad quality on an exam while the other gets an "A." Why did the first college student do so poorly? Obviously he was inspired to take the check and he was also inspired to get a passing quality so he could advance. This writer talks about numerous kinds of purposes starting with accomplishment objectives including:
Performance-approach in which a college student would focus on getting mere proficiency comparative to his class mates
A performance-avoidance objective mindset would mean the college student was trying to prevent mess
Finally, if the college student was facing an expertise objective, he will spare no efforts to get himself transformed into an expert in the content regardless of what was required for the check.
Now let us comparison the first college student with one of his class mates who is not that gifted and is indicating performance-avoidance. The lengthy run is looking fairly grim for college student with range two so he begins to take out attempt.
But college student wide range one gets a "C" on the check and college student wide range two gets an "A." What happened? What happened was a social element applying more power than any other kinds of motivation.
Student wide range one experienced persecution from his colleagues by "breaking the curve" and college student wide range two cheated to please his parents with his quality. In this situation, simply knowing motivation did not estimate activities, only objective. Seldom is an individual motivated by a solitary, isolated objective that is easily described.
The writer touches on this point and talks about a wide range of purposes that are possible, but sometimes forecasting activities by knowing motivation requires one containing numerous and sometimes contradicting inspirations.
Interestingly, both learners altered their habits in methods some would consider surprising. However, the second college student broke societies rules by cheating while the first override his wish to get a top quality with one lower than what he truly deserved.
Similarities also come from the point that both learners felt intellectual dissonance, obviously for two different factors, but the first college student was implicitly inspired, the second was explicitly inspired.
The first college student damaged himself for the benefit of the team [to ultimately protect himself from persecution] while the second college student took advantage of the team to better himself. One fascinating possibility is that simple implied or precise inspirations can estimate the possible inclusion of other kinds of habits.
Consequently, these individuals, like college student wide range one are flexible with regards to the environment and are better equipped to handle circumstances that require in-depth knowing of how their ethical values are communicated with the outside world.
It is also possible that college student with range one gets far less dissonance that college student wide range two who has an exterior recognized locus of causality. This college student feels that his activities could only have been validated by the scarce options he perceives are due to his own shortcoming. In short, individuals who exhibit prevention accomplishment inspirations are more likely to be susceptible to exterior impact the opposite is true for those looking for task-mastery.
Motivational Concept from a Different Perspective
Scott T. Rabideau, Rochester Institute of Technology
His points were very exciting and I consent they could have improved my unique discussion and allowed me to further articulate and explain different factors of inspirational theory. He mainly targeted on concepts for boosting motivation and suggested how these places of psychology could be appropriate to a inspirational treatment. As for the intellectual place, views many people have of themselves indeed play a powerful part in affecting their reason.
Charbonneau's other discussion targeted on behavior treatment and how it can probably be used in motivation treatments. These arguments seem to be quite exciting and would also be enthusiastic about seeing the outcomes of a research depending on Charbonneau's ideas. However, still many think motivation is most highly linked with the public aspect of psychology.
Segovia provided an exciting counter-argument concerning prevention and motivation. His concept that a balance of strategy and prevention motivation would make a more well-rounded individual seems quite fascinating.
Segovia makes a powerful situation in his discussion that prevention accomplishment objectives are absolutely necessary for daily performing, not only for operating adults but for scholars as well.
His points about learners taking classes irrelevant to their main research and adults doing projects at execute just to prevent unable or prevent being fired is something I should have regarded such as in my unique presentation.
Swerdlow provided an exciting example of how process expertise and prevention objectives can sometimes result in surprising outcomes and how inspirational pushes vary form individual to individual.
His example using the two learners was quite provocative and fascinating. He highlighted how noticed activities of an individual can differ from the inspirational pushes of that individual by introducing environmental and social factors. These factors can highly impact a person's activities despite their own innate purposes for achievements.