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The debate arises over what are the aims that the schools should seek? Can subjective attitudes and values be measured objectively, how are inner personal aspects of learning to be compared according to the views of Bruner and Aristotle?
Aristotle born in 384 B.C Stagira. He spent his most childhood period at Royal Court because his father was the friend of King of Macedonian. He was the student of Plato and very intelligent, that is why Plato called him "the mind of the school".
His teachers "Plato" and "Socrates" proposed of education is to attain knowledge. according to the interest of learner or need of the society, Aristotle suggested that the aim of education should be "attainment of happiness or goodness in life and therefore virtual in the attainment of goodness".
According to Aristotle , education plays an important role, individual can learn to use their reason to arrive at virtue, political harmony and happiness with the help of education.
He proposed that the purpose of education is to produce a good man. Nature of man is not so good. By use of reasoning, person can control his activities because they have some animal activities, when man acts by reason and habit as a rational being due to their nature, got happiness. Aims of education must be to develop the full potentialities of individuals and to enable them toâ€¦.
Man perfected by society is the best of all animals, he is the most terrible of all when he lives with out law and with out justice.
the moral virtues, then are produced in us neither by nature nor against nature. Nature indeed prepares in us the ground for their reception, but their complete formation is the product of habit.
According to Aristotle, education plays an important role, individual can learn to use their reason to arrive at virtue, political harmony and happiness with the help of education.
Theory of Values:
Aristotle proposed that it is the responsibility of state to educate the people making them virtues. State's basic principle is virtue. State educate the people towards their own institutions for preserving them and gave political education to all.
"Virtue is the perfection of reason. Reason is the source of the first principle of knowledge. Reason deals with the abstract and ideal aspects. Active reason make the world intelligible". (Aristotle)
Goals of education:
The main function of state is to educate the citizens. State acts like a highest social place who works to secure the happiness of people and for achieving high goal. With the help of education, prepare them for some healthy activities. "Education should be guided by legislation to make it correspond with the results of psychological analysis, and follow the gradual development of the bodily and mental faculties" (Aristotle)
Specially some technical skills like physical activities, play, physical and moral education, music writing and reading skill from age 15-21 math, knowledge about grammar, geometry, poetry, ethics, literature, politics, astronomy and from age of 21 gave theoretical knowledge like physics, bio, logic, metaphysics, cosmology.
Theory of Knowledge:
About knowledge, Aristotle stated that it is a conceptual object, based on the form of object and concepts of general stages of objects, intellectual virtue, wisdom. And science gave information in systematic way, demonstration, deductive way. Aristotle disdains men of working class. He talks about land holding people.
Usually people have a mistake in judgment when could not found reason. But if they have already knowledge about anything, then the chances of mistake reduce, know about yourself "we must drag ourselves away to contrary extreme". (Banes, 218)
So, it is necessary to have knowledge about truth that what is good.
Theory of Human Nature:
Man is rational animal and that is soul or psyche which animates and informs neurological, anatomical or chemical features of human being and then ordered them distinctively on the basis of factions of human body. Animals express their feelings by crying, while humans have speech and judgment power that what is right or wrong, harmful or beneficial.
Theory of Learning:
Teacher plays his role as an instructor having a lot of knowledge, discipline. Teaching and learning never represent merely an interpersonal relationship or the expression of feelings. It is the responsibility of school to cultivate and improve individuals rationality.
Theory of Transmission:
Teacher and learner both are essential parts of state, and state is like a university who plan the educational system. Observation method should use to transmit the knowledge. Curriculum should be based on practical and theoretical subjects.
Aristotle concerned exclusively with the education of boys. He believed women to be intellectually inferior sphere of the family. "What we learn to do, we learn by doing"
Jerome Bruner (1915)
Bruner has a great worker on the process of learning or in education. He was the professor of psychology in Harvard University. He was he father of constructivism and discovery learning. He started in his book "the process of education (1960)" what learner can construct their knowledge based on things that they know presently and known in past.
"Learning How to Learn"
"According to knowing is a process not a product". He argued that to enable learners thinking process transformation, it is necessary to know the fundamental principles than master facts. He suggested learning by enquiry method and teacher play as a role of guide. He gave the idea of "Spiral Curriculum", where curriculum revisit basic ideas until students understands them. Teacher should grasp basic ideas intuitively and process of learning should be based on problem solving method and discovery based. Learner make hypothesis and then discus on it. He believed that student have a little knowledge to exposure the things that they learn. Learning allows them to more easy for future. He explained process of learning in two ways,
Specific transfer to tasks that are similar to those originally learned.
Non specific transfer, the transfer of principles and attitudes.
First way shows learning a skill and other type shows learning as a general idea, used as a based recognize subsequent problems/ variations of the basic idea.
Bruner believed that child intellectual development have three stages. He derived there stages out of age dependent and influenced by Piaget
This is the first stage of pre-school learner that mental work establish relationship with in experience and action, by trial and error learner/ person can solve his problem.
Concrete Operational Stage:
This stage is around 6-10 years, where learner can solve his problem by manipulate physical things directly or symbols rather than head indirectly. But he/she not easily deal with those possibilities which he/she has not in his experience before for problem solving.
Formal Operational Stage:
This is the third level around 11-14 years, where learner can set his hypothesis rather than in experience or not. He can also set the ideas which guide him to solve the problems which they could not know or describe before.
He propose three progressive stages of intellectual development.
Enactive----------- learning by doing
Iconic-------------- learning by means of images and pictures.
Symbolic---------- learning by means of words or numbers.
He stated that intellectual development of learner is not like a clock work sequence of events, this is the response of the environment.
Make a connection among subject and ideas from "fundamental principle" of that subject.
Process of learning should be start from previous knowledge which enhance their thinking power.
Develop learner's institution for answering.
Use discovery and problem-solving method for learning.
According to him, "institution is an act of graphing the meaning, significance or structure of a problem or situation without explicit reliance on the analytic apparatus of one's croft".
This is essential for students having intuitive subject grasp, an ability to "say how it goes".
Modeling intuitive thinking
Encouraging pupils to guess
Build self-confidence in learners
Bruner divide his ideas as that,
Structure process of learning that how it can be the central part of teaching
Readiness for learning
Analytical and initiative thinking
In this book, Bruner underlie different approaches like thinking skills, process of assessment of learner for learning. Bruner focused on learning for learners that they got knowledge by different experiences not know just about master facts, advocates enquiry method where teacher guide children's and accelerate their thinking, and start teaching from basic ideas intuitively, revisit basic ideas, curriculum, until student understand completely. This is also known as spiral curriculum.
Aims of education by Bruner and Aristotle
Requirements for productivity
Are we producing enough scholars, scientists, poets, land marks.
School contribute to social and emotional development , that they can fulfill their function of education for life in a democratic community and for fruitful family.
General, scientific and mathematical aptitudes can be discovered earlier than other intellectual talents.
Develop learner's intuitive thinking power.
Self-confidence of learners.
Create autonomous learners
Produce a good man.
Make sure uses of reason.
Development of the full potentialities of each man.
Development of man's intellectual capacities to their fullest extent.
Developing each individual's body to its highest level of health and strength.
Women receive training in gymnastics and domestic arts to enable them to manage households, to bear and raise children, and to please and be obedient to their husbands.
Education liberates man, enabling him to live his leisured existence according to his full potentialities.
Education as a practical means to the end of achieving the acme of man's nature.
Future rulers must learn obedience and responsibility before they rule.
Knowledge should be based on basic, humanities and natural sciences of astronomy, biology, physiology, zoology, chemistry and physics. Rhetoric, grammar, poetry, politics and philosophy would be important subjects.
Physical well-being of every citizen.