Model Proposed For The Training Objectives Of An Educational Philosophy Education Essay

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The rise of experiential teaching methods in recent years, the teaching methods, have many advantages, in many courses be applied. Entrepreneurship Education is a culture of entrepreneurial awareness, pioneering spirit and entrepreneurial ability of individual talents to create a model proposed for the training objectives of an educational philosophy (PDSA Gustafsson-Pesonen, 2009). This proposal of teaching can be effective and can aware entrepreneurs about facts which they do not know or which they ignore. This can also increase the interest of the student. This school of thought is also supported by another article which says, in entrepreneurship education the teaching methods should be directed towards entrepreneurship, student activation, emphasis on social interaction and student oriented. New Pedagogical methods, problem oriented learning, experiences and different co-operation with business life are important in entrepreneurship education. Connecting the entrepreneurship education with practical company functions increases the subject's interest (Anne Gustafsson-Pesonen, 2006).

But some students might think that the entrepreneurship cannot be taught, its insight you. So they might be confused or lost. Ibarra (2003) argues that most people experience the transition to a new working life as a time of confusion, loss, insecurity, and uncertainty. Unfortunately, this uncertain period usually lasts much longer than anyone would imagine at the outset. But if people realize that changing a career does not mean exchanging one identity for another but rather reconfiguring the set of possibilities, it becomes less threatening (Ibarra 2003). This viewpoint proves a great relief to the people in the art sector, where they are afraid of losing their artistic selves if they become entrepreneurs. But life goes on the way where you want to take it.Achievement in life is based on own work attitude and the active creation of your own opportunity strategy. The essential task of entrepreneurship education is to guide students so that they can accomplish this opportunity strategy (Anne Gustafsson-Pesonen, 2006). Achievement in this leads often to the creation of new enterprises or many new good employers and With the help of an entrepreneurship spirited educator and the educational institution, the responsibility for learning transfers to the students and activity will take a more important role instead of passive receiving(Anne Gustafsson-Pesonen, 2006). But some might think that teaching entrepreneurship education might change the personality of the person. The ability to create a new entrepreneurial identity and to make an entrepreneurial career change demands a new type of attitude towards one's own profession and professional identity in creative industries, which means an identity transition, because changing our career means changing our selves (Ibarra 2003). Hägg (2007a, 359) argues that appropriating entrepreneurship concerns the professional identity on an individual as well as on a collective level. That means a true change of direction is always frightening and the mixing emotions make it even harder, to stand the burden of insecurity. It is also challenging to withstand the stress of changing among the profession (Hägg 2007b).Hägg (2007a, 2007b, 2007c) emphasizes that creative entrepreneurial pedagogy develops through the dialogue between theories and empirical data.

Theoretically, creative entrepreneurial pedagogy is based on the ideas of Scott, Rosa and Klandt (1998). Scott, Rosa and Klandt (1998) have divided entrepreneurial education into three parts: learning about entrepreneurship, learning through entrepreneurship and learning for entrepreneurship. This perspective gives a wider look at the entrepreneurship education and it gives a solid solution for myths created about entrepreneurship education.Hägg (2007a, 2007b, 2007c) emphasizes that creative entrepreneurial pedagogy develops through the dialogue between theories and empirical data. This creativity can be achieved by developing the personality of the individuals. Entrepreneurial pedagogy should consist of the processes which are crucial in the development of one's personality and professional growth (Kyrö 2005). So that means that the most important element in this is the individual. It depends on the individual that how he/she changes his/her personality.

The attitude factor is also of importance in this subject. Identity is a multidimensional and complex construct that has inspired several researchers from different perspectives. In spite of different approaches and emphases, they share an understanding of identity as a dynamic construct, which always needs a context (Lord, Brown & Freiberg 1999; Berglund 2006, 237; Fadjukoff 2007, 10). Similarly Hall (1999) emphasizes that old identities, which have long been stabilized in public reality, are degenerating. Another author Ruohotie (2004) agrees with the sight of the post-modern subject created by Hall (1999) and shows that self-concept is a cognitive structure which is strongly linked to the identity. Ruohotie (2004) makes a distinction between three kinds of self-concepts: Personal identity, Social identity and Collective identity in which Personal identity means the way in which individuals see themselves in 6 relations to others, i.e. how they experience themselves, Social identity means the way in which individuals see themselves in interaction with others so the social identity puts self-concept in a larger social context and Collective identity becomes more evident in the collaboration with others. Markus and Nurius (1986) introduced the concept of possible selves and this concept has inspired much subsequent research (e.g. Lord, Brown & Freiberg 1999; Ibarra 2003, 2005, Ruohotie 2004; Korotov 2005) and according to Markus and Nurius, possible selves symbolize the individual's ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming. Lord, Brown and Freiberg (1999) also bring up the concept of a working self-concept and they state that activating the working self-concept depends on the context or the experiences recently acquired. This role is awakened by hints from the environment. Lord and Brown (2003) describe the working self-concept by three components, which are self-views, possible selves and current goals and standards. These all three components interact with each other and create a control system, which controls motivation and emotions (Ruohotie 2004, 8-9).

Wennekers and Thurik (1999) made a significant contribution to the study of entrepreneurship by synthesizing these dissimilar strands of the literature to construct an operational framework linking entrepreneurship and economic growth. Addressing a lack of official growth models that explicitly focus on the entrepreneur, Schmitz (1989) conceptualized a model motivated by the endogenous growth models developed by Romer (1986). In the framework formulated by Wennekers and Thurik (1999), the macro measurement of entrepreneurship needs to operationalise entrepreneurship as a multi dimensional concept from typologies that are developed at the micro-level. Experiential studies find support for differing relations in both directions of causality. An early survey by Storey (1991) documents the ambiguous empirical evidence on the unidirectional impact of redundancy on firm start-up.

As far as the matter of teachers is concerned (James O.Feat, 2000) argues that we become boring teachers when there is no newness in the classroom and the environment becomes predictable. When teachers fail to apply theory as a tool and fail to evolve answers from the students, they become irrelevant. Good theories are always acceptable and if teachers fail to teach their students to apply that theory in different practical ways, then it is the teachers who are at fault not the students. On the other hand some authors might think that it is more dependent on students. Discussing entrepreneurship education Donald F. Kuratko has stated that "unless students go to bed at night and feel their spines sweat, they [will] never know what it feels like to be an entrepreneur" (Kuratoko, 2003). That means that the basics can be taught. But the student will not get the real idea, until the student him/herself goes into the depth of the concept and experiences the idea. Colin Camerer (1985) observed that many research findings tend to "accumulate rather than cumulate." This accumulation of inconsequential facts occurs because too much research is exploratory rather than confirmatory. This means that the researchers do not care about the new type of data. So the data is often interpreted differently by the receiver, which creates confusion and hence the actual purpose of research is not achieved. Much of the focus in entrepreneurship education has been on developing a business plan (Ronstadt, 1985), although many entrepreneurship courses include activities such as visits from experts, case studies and special projects related to the development of a business, including some limited hands-on approaches (Gorman, Hanlon, & King, 1997; Vesper & McMullan, 1988). This implies that case study method is a good one for teaching entrepreneurship. Having business plan activities gives a practical perspective of the idea. But some authors think teaching case studies is not good enough; it is just a step to improve the method. If we talk about recent time, there is not much research describing the impact or effectiveness of different methodologies for teaching entrepreneurship (Winslow, Solomon &Tarabishy, 1999).Honig (2004) argued "neither the teaching of business plans, nor the plans themselves, are sufficiently justified on the basis of theoretical or empirical literature."

Entrepreneurship is a learning process and Brookfield (1984) described learning as the process of acquiring skills and knowledge while Kolb (1984) described learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience." Experiential learning is any knowledge gained through experience. So learning is something gained through experience according to these authors. Similarly Kolb thinks that the literature on experiential learning theory is extensive, Kolb describes the process of experiential learning as one where the individual uses his or her experience to transform activities into knowledge and development (Kolb, 1984; Torbert, 1972). The pedagogical approach which is usually used is writing of a business plan.Hills (1988) surveyed entrepreneurship educators and found writing a business plan was identified as being the most important feature of entrepreneurship courses, although some have questioned the effectiveness of using the business plan as the primarily learning tool (Honig, 2004). So this doubt has made the teachers to think about experiential learning, which is more practical in nature. Now some authors think that experiential learning is just not enough, unless the emotions of the participant are also involved in that experience.Experience is often synonymous with emotions and their deeper meaning (Kayes, 2002).Digman, Sebora and Hansen (2006) who found that giving a realistic preview of entrepreneurship may help nascent entrepreneurs make better decisions when evaluating opportunities.

Rae (2005) points out that entrepreneurial learning is an important area of enquiry which is not well understood in either academic study of entrepreneurship or the practical development of new entrepreneurs, the author stresses that learning is a fundamental and integral part of entrepreneurial process, in which the human, social and behavioural activities are of as much concern as the economic aspects which are often highlighted. (Rae 2005) Entrepreneurial identity transition means entrepreneurial learning process. But there can be a proper process of transitioning. According to van Gennep (1960) there are three phases a rite of passage which are separation, transition (liminality) and incorporation. During the separation phase, the person separates (him) herself from the previous social environment and their previous way of life. During the transition phase, the person experiences the liminal condition, and during the incorporation phase (s) he enters a new group and a new life. In this study these phases give a good description of the different episodes and symbols during the training program.

Van Gennep (1960) emphasizes that different stages could be more significant in different kinds of passages. Turner (1982) argues that persons who find themselves in a liminal phase are temporarily undefined, beyond the normative social structure. This means that they don´t have rights over others. They experience a period of ambiguity, being between and betwixt, in which identity is multiple, ambiguous or provisional. This experience on the one hand weakens them but on the other hand liberates them from structural obligations. Liminality can offer a sense of freedom, a possibility to create and a special sense of community with others in the liminal condition (Turner 1982).

Entrepreneurship is one of the most important aspects of our economy and students understand that and they no longer believe they can take a job with a large corporation and expect that they will spend their careers in one place (Judith Cone, 2003). Students know they have to build a wide range of interdisciplinary skills that give them maximum flexibility and preparation for the future (Judith Cone, 2003).Entrepreneurship is one such skill (Judith Cone, 2003). Students want to learn how to recognize opportunity, harness the resources to exploit that opportunity, exercise their creativity, create sustainable solutions, take the inherent risks, and participate in the rewards and Schools are trying to meet this student demand (Judith Cone, 2003). If we compare it in common terms another author says that If man is not to do more damage than good in his efforts to improve the social order, he will have to learn that in this, as in all other fields where essential complexity of an organized kind prevails, he cannot acquire the full knowledge which would make mastery of the events possible (F.A. Hayek, Nobel 1974). Therefore he will have to use what knowledge he can achieve, not to shape the results as the craftsman shapes his handiwork, but rather to cultivate a growth by providing the appropriate environment, in the manner in which the gardener does this for his plants (F.A. Hayek, Nobel 1974).

Growth is a result of knowledge accumulation and entrepreneurship [(Dejardin (2004 and 2005)]. It is innovation and ideas that drive growth and not just infrastructure development and investment promotion that most development policy sought to promote in its early period. In this view progress is all about new ideas and invention which entrepreneurs take the danger of bringing to the market [Romer (1994) and Grossman and Helpman (1994)]. This theory is suppoerted by another author in his work, Schumpeter's theory predicts that an increase in the number of entrepreneurs leads to an increase in economic growth (Schumpeter, 1911). But I think innovation is compulsory for the economic growth with an increasing number of entreprenuers.

Researchers have inaugurated to inspect growth that is endogenously determined by technical change resulting from decisions of profit-maximising agents. (Verspagen, 1992) provide surveys of such innovation and R&D based endogenous growth models.

If we look at the situation of Pakistan. Many international surveys show that Pakistan was one of the most corrupt countries in the world so it is being observed that entrepreneurs are cautioned. Although it has strong potential to be an entrepreneurial nation, there are certain factors that prevent it from being so. The first is the entrepreneurs' wishes to become wealthy overnight, without having to move up the ladder gradually. This overconfidence and lack of understanding for proper business techniques causes the demise and downfall of many entrepreneurial ventures and the second is there is no platform for women entreprenuers.(NadeemUl Haque,2003).

The women entrepreneurship is lagging in Pakistan as they do not have any platforms. As an author says in his research the business environment for women in Pakistan reflects the complex interplay of many factors, which fall into two basic categories. The chief is made up of social, cultural, traditional and religious elements. This side of the environment has taken shape over many centuries; it is anchored in the patriarchal system and clearly manifested in the lower status of women. The gender bias of this type of system is rigid and deep-rooted as it draws legitimacy from the perpetuation of a traditional mind-set, established rituals and a firm belief system.

The second group of factors derives from the first group, taking the form of constitutional structures, policy documents, regulatory arrangements and institutional mechanisms. This category is contemporary rather than traditional, so it is cosmetically impartial. The traditional systems pose difficulties for women in general and entrepreneurs in particular in two ways. First, they are inherently discriminatory; and second, they inhibit the equity-based composition of modern institutions and their fair working, as modern institutions are derived from traditional ones.

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