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In the chapter of methodology, I have discussed the methods used for the research on the gifted student. The methods clearly showing the means of collecting the data as well as the utilization of different techniques which are most relevant in giving the clear meaning of the questions or issues about the gifted and talented student. In this chapter, I have explained about the research paradigm, which is quantitative approach, the case study approach that is methodological framework, choosing of sample and selection of participant. The data collection process is explained in a much enhanced way, the prepared questionnaire, interviews conducted, as well as triangulation and the ethical issues are also discussed in a proper way.
The research paradigm
For the identification and measurement purposes in research work, mostly two approaches are used, which are qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative approach mainly used for the purpose of finding about the characteristics of individual and there is not as such any measurement are involved. But on the other side, we can see that the quantitative approach is basically involvement of the measurement or amounts for the purpose of finding data about the individual (Robert Murray Thomas, 2003, p.1). The qualitative approach is mainly attached in focusing the individual about their thinking, their experiences, lifestyle, observations and also about their problems (Robert Murray Thomas, 2003, p.2). The quantitative approach used to define about the identification of things relevant to their outer experiences and relationships with the involvement of measurement (Cohen, Manion, Morrison, 2000, p.8).
For the purpose of identifying about the gifted and talented students, I selected the qualitative approach. The qualitative approach is most appropriate for my research work in reference of study (Asher Sheke, 2005, p.17) because it used to reflect about the ideas and senses of the individuals for representation of their experiences by interviewing them and making some conversation with them. To make research about the gifted and the talented students, there was no need of having fixed amount of data to measure about their representations but there were need to have some conversation and using some tools of interviewing for knowing about the challenges and the problems they have. The qualitative research is mainly used for knowing about the social behavior of the gifted student.
According to the study of (Robert Murray Thomas, 2003, p.1-2, p.33), the qualitative approach is suitable for my research of gifted student in accordance to following description:
' The qualitative approach used to define about the results or data collection after having some communication or interaction with the individual.
' There is no involvement of fixed data measurement in the qualitative approach.
' In qualitative approach, there is involvement of the experiences, observations and routine of lives.
' The qualitative approach used to examine about different phenomena just like educational crisis
' There is also discussion involvement about the communication and actions of individuals.
' The qualitative approach used create an environment to understand about the behavior of people and then there interpretation.
Case study approach
For my research work relevant to the study about gifted and talented student, I have selected methodological framework as a case study approach. It is the most appropriate approach to understand about the needs and problems of the gifted students. The case study helped me in finding, observing, analyzing, and also understanding about the needs of the gifted students.
In the process of case study, the information is collected and then interpreted for the purpose of representation of the occurrence being placed, it is simply making understanding about some situation. (Cohen, Manion, Morrison, 2000, p.185)
There are different strengths of the case study approach which are discussed by Nisbet and Watt's in 1984 (Cohen, 2000, p.184). These strengths are showing about the worth of the case study approach. By conducting result from the case study approach, the clarifications can be easily seen by the wide range of people. The case study is entirely based on reality. By getting the case study, we can also find out result easily from the similar cases. The important features are used to discussed inside it, which can not be find very easily from large scale of data. Normally, it is discussed by a single researcher not by a wide rang of researcher. The weakness are also discussed in a same way. Mostly there are not general type or results be derived from the case study. There is also less possibility of the thorough checking. The data, which is used to make a case study, is mostly selective and based on personal and subjective bias.
The methodological framework is used to make a clear picture of the gifted and talented students needs and problems. In my study, I have taken four intermediate girls school data, which is clearly describing about the counseling of gifted student in the intermediate school system of Saudi Arabia. The methodological framework is sketching a clear view about the counseling of gifted and talented students and it is very much helpful in defining their needs.
Choosing a sample
In my research work about counseling needs of gifted and talented students, I have chosen four intermediate schools of girls. I have chosen two regular schools where there is not proper counseling of the gifted student because the new and advanced techniques of teaching are not applied there yet. I have chosen two big schools where the gifted student used to attend the special classes for their counseling, and the new and advanced education has applied there.
The detail about these four schools has mentioned below:
' School name: Marat intermediate school for girls
' Number of students: 84
' Number of class: 4
' Number of teachers: 11
' School name: Shaqra intermediate school for girls
' Number of students: 96
' Number of class: 6
' Number of teachers: 15
' School name: Olaya intermediate school
' Number of students: 190
' Number of class: 8
' Number of teachers: 22
' School name: Riyadh intermediate school
' Number of students: 262
' Number of class: 9
' Number of teachers: 28
These four schools mentioned above are assumed individual cases in my research work.
Selection of participants:
With the choices of the selected samples mentioned above, it is important to make a right choice about the selection of participants. So I have chosen appropriate participants in the above selected schools and made collection of data by the process of interviews and questionnaires. In my research work, data is collected by interview from the first two schools which are the regular schools, from each regular school, two class teachers have been interviewed and from each regular school, 15 gifted students have been selected for the questionnaire. And then from the second two schools which are the big schools and then from each big school, one counselor for gifted class has been interviewed.
In the regular intermediate school, there is not as such counseling system, that is why I liked to collect data from class teachers and the students by the process of interviews and questionnaires respectively. But in the big schools, there is proper system of new and advanced education and there is also special classes are provided to the gifted and the talented student for their advancement, for this purpose I liked to collect data from the counselor by having interviews with them.
The participants of my research work really played an important role in getting the data. They show me a clear picture relevant to my interview and questionnaire response. I did not felt any hesitation or hurdle to find the results from the participants. They were very supportive in supplying their ideas and views to me.
The data collection is mainly a process of gathering an information and the data for the purpose of making them utilize and also for making it more enhanced. In my research work, I have collected the data about the counseling needs of the gifted and the talented students. For the purpose of collecting data for my research work, I have collected it from the four intermediate girls schools, by the process of making interviews and questionnaires. The data collection was made through the usage of school's teachers, gifted students and the counselors.
While collecting the data, I totally emphasized on the right, appropriate, valid and suitable data. The data is entirely relevant to the needs of the gifted students and also about their issue of counseling. For this purpose, I have chosen the tools of 'reliability' and as well as the 'validity'. I completely focused on these two tools of data collection. I tried my best to not make any issue in my case relevant to the validity and the reliability. I tried all of my best to present all of the data with accuracy and truthfulness.
The validity and the reliability becomes the major issue normally in making the research work. If there would be existence of errors or omissions in the data, then it can make all of the data of the research work useless. 'Reliability' basically used to make us approve about the accuracy and correction in measurement of the data. The 'Validity' used to reflect about the reality and truthfulness of the data. The validity is entirely attached with the reliability of the data, because if there would be validity in our research work, then there would also be reliability and accuracy be found in the data (Jan Riordan, 2005, p.672).
The data collection process was done with having fully focus on the issue of reliability and the validity. If there would be existence of the reliability and the validity then there would be less chances of the errors and mistakes in the data. So, this technique is applied fully while making collection of the data relevant to the gifted student needs and their counseling. The issue of the bias in the data is prevented fully while gathering the data in the following ways.
The process of the questionnaire helped me very much to find out the ideas of the gifted and talented students about their gifted needs. I used this techniques in my research work for finding about the problems facing by the gifted and talented students especially in the regular school. This technique made me unable to read out the thoughts of the gifted students. I adopted the 'open ended questionnaire' technique for gathering the data from the gifted students. The open ended questionnaire made me unable to adopt all of the themes of the research work for making collection of the information relevant to their gifted practices and their responses. In the open ended questionnaire there are unlimited replies and answers for the questions.
The questionnaire is basically a process used to be prepared with fully planning for getting the data in replies of our questions. The open ended questionnaire help us to get the information or data without any limitations. While preparing my questionnaire I kept in my mind the rules for making the questionnaire and applied them in my research work with full planning. The things I kept in my mind while designing the questionnaire are just like reviewing the objectives and the goals of my work, the questions of my questionnaire is tested gain and again to check out that they are understandable for the students or not, I completely focused on the privacy issue that the answer of the students could not affect the relationship of the teachers and the students, I fully tried to make questionnaire as easy and simple as possible (Patricia, Cathy A., 2008, pg.1-2). My questionnaire was entirely based on the getting information about the counselling needs of the gifted students in the intermediate regular schools systems of the Saudi Arabia that what should be the proper way to make them supply with their gifted counselling needs, I also focused on the emotional needs of the gifted student for more effective counselling in the big schools of Saudi Arabia.
The interview is an important type of data collection. This is the process of gathering the data from the people by making some inquiry from them. A discussion is used to be made with the people for making some decision about the data collection to come on some result. A conversation is used to be made with the selected teachers for getting about their opinions (Mary K. Rodwell, 1998, pg.122-123)
I selected the 'unstructured interview' type for data collection process from the selected participants. The unstructured interviews are open ended interview in which make us move on focusing on the main objective of the interview. This type of interview used to fully depends on the way how the researcher is introducing the topic to the other people who are being interviewed. The researcher used to make feel other person easy while conducting its interview to him (Roger P. Phelps, Lawrence Ferrara, 2005, pg.100).
The interview was made by me from the each regular school, two class teachers and as well as the interview was made from the each big school, one counselor for gifted class. The participants were very much co operative, they freely talked me about the needs and the counseling of the gifted and the talented students. There were completely flexibility and the assurance about the handling of the complexity in my interview.
I conducted my interview with the teachers of the regular schools in a free environment. I made inquiry from them about the problems as well about the needs of the gifted and the talented students of their class rooms. In reply of my interview conversations, the teachers gave answer of all my asked question with the detail about the counseling needs of their gifted students. On the other side, the counselors of the big school who used to take special classes of the gifted and the talented student, replied me all type of my interview conversation with the smooth techniqs they use while teaching such gifted and talented student. They also discussed about the behavior and the other needs of the gifted students too. The face to face interview really helped me in getting collection of information and the data for the purpose of knowing about the counseling needs of the gifted students.
Triangulation is a process which used to provide us an enhanced result in our research work after making some combination of the different types of methodologies, their data analysis, measurements, and techniques. It is the most confined form of the data of our data collection. It used to make us able to get an easy review about our research work. It is not a process of combining the data but it is basically a process which used to gather all of the coherent data to give us a review with the availability of the validity and the reliability. Wit the use of triangulation, it get very easy to have a same look of the things with the different aspects. It used to make us help in getting a good and advanced result from our research working (Roger P. Phelps, Lawrence Ferrara, 2005, pg.52). There is a process to make betterment in the internal validity of qualitative research is used to call the triangulation.
In my research work, I have chosen the qualitative approach for making collection of data by covering the term of validity and reliability. The interview is taken from the teachers and counselors which is giving a right view about the counseling needs of the gifted student. Other technique is used for asking questions from the gifted students for having information about their counseling needs. Methodical triangulation is used for getting information about the concepts and the ideas which are complex to be known in normal routine. It is mostly used to know about the caring or curing purpose relevant to mental thoughts of the people. The gifted student counseling needs are also relevant to it. So, this type of triangulation is very much suitable for knowing about the needs of the gifted and talented students (Susan K. Grove, 2005, pg.224-226).
While doing my research work, I tried my best to avoid all of the ethical issues. I were fully prepared to avoid such problems relevant to the ethics. I met all of the selected teachers and the students for making them clear about my purpose to do the research work on the gifted needs. I made them clear that the information is going to be gather through the process of interview or the questionnaire. I also made them satisfied about the privacy of their personal identities just like their names, addresses and other feedbacks. Except of this, I also proposed them to give them freedom in the participation as well as given them the right to withdraw whenever they will have wish for. I also mentioned over there that there is a permission to me from the ministry of the education of the Saudi Arabia for purpose of making data collection from the intermediary schools in which two are having regular classes without special counseling of gifted students and two big schools having opportunity to arrange special classes for counseling purpose of gifted students. I have mentioned above all of the requirements and needs of the ethical consideration.