Methods Of Measuring Prospective Student Performance Education Essay

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Chapter 2

Literature Review

2.0 Introduction

2.1 Student Performance

There is a difficulty for measure student knowledge because we only can through observation student performance to infer what student knowledge them possession on but that is not perfect way. Student knowledge would influence toward student performance

(Chang et al., 2006).Still, there is one application of Machine Learning Techniques to prophesy student performance (Kotsiantis et al., 2003).Lecturer actually can having other available information such as test score to determine student performance (Kotsiantis & Pintelas, 2004).According Wilson and Weiser (2001), by adopt the changes of technology, it would sway on the performance or satisfaction in the class. They use the measurement "satisfaction" to connote that use positively performance impact. Another taciturnity way to collect data is like use past GPA (Grade Point Average) but present performance in class may perplex these result. Correct "Performance" indicators need to include more difficult assessment to capture actual result. Walser (2009), Students would reflect their performance by self-assessment exercise. The results found that student agree the self-assessment exercises helped them to reflect on their performance. Additionally, student attest to complete those exercises would reflect their performance, motivation themselves, monitor progress and also able provide useful feedback to instructor (implementing student self-assessment exercise) for course improvement to have a better interaction with student, evaluating self-assessment exercise could be an effective instruction method. Abbott (2006), a face-to-face interaction named as after action review (AAR) is to evaluate performance. Is a four step of process discussed of a training session: 1) Plan: select objective and arrange the data collection for the exercises. 2) Prepare: Organize the presentation and collect information during exercises. 3) Conduct: analyse student performance by discussing. 4) Follow up: address the issues which rise during the AAR and modify forthcoming training.

Adam and Nel (2009), use grade point average (GPA) as measurement.(Clayson ,2009) although it was not the part of research paper but is show a corresponding relationship with clear cut as meta-analysis has shown. As result from Adam and Nel (2009) narrate student performance shown better while involve in face-to face teaching.

2.2 Kiasu

Kiasu (pronounced KEY-ah-sue) been labeled among Asian society (Kirby & Ross, 2007 & Nam, 2009). Kiasu define as an "obsessive concern with getting the most out of every transaction and a desire to get ahead of others" (Hwang, Ang, & Francesco, 2002: 75). According to Kong, 1999; Carlson, 2007 & Selvarani, 2003, the dialect words "kia" mean afraid, and "su" mean to lose. Thus it can literally the mean of kiasu as 'afraid to lose' or "scare to lose" in such expression. "Kiasu" just included in an English dictionary and published in Australia (Anonymous, 1995).This may found in the Singlish (Singapore English) vocabulary which transform from the popular Chinese Hokkien term. "The kiasu person is selfish. He takes more than he needs…He is inconsiderate. He is greedy. And he is definitely obnoxious" (Leo, 1995: 18). Kiasu as translates in the philosophy which prescribes that scare of not win. It let human being practices as should do whatever action to win (Lim, 1998). David (2008), the "kiasu" in an English expression is "keeping up with the Joneses" or the nearest English match is "dog in a manger". This is ingrained in the vocabulary that passes few years ago.

According to Kirby & Ross (2007), Kiasuism be comprehended in much different form. It can view from philosophy aspect to approach to life or as a context specific strategy for obtain targets. While for the term view, the former is comprise several items towards interactions with others, the latter is consider have plan or intrigue to obtain targets. For neither understand the previous two view terms, the target of kiasuism is to attain a competitive advantage over others (Kirby & Ross, 2007). From the view that across an array of every-day contexts which approach to daily life, there is a relationship between kiasu tendency and task performance been study in many context such as having meal in restaurant or even shopping activities (Kirby & Ross, 2007).

In fact, there is a relationship from older generation or history that between Chinese Master/Guru and his/her student toward the attitude of knowledge sharing and the disclosure of information (Ramasamy et al., 2006). Whereby the master will always keep some of the special knowledge from his/her student to make sure their students wont surpass than them which is maintain their high status (Ramasamy et al., 2006).Actually there are some implication state by other popular that why the Chinese are unwilling to transfer all their knowledge. One is the fei shui bu liu bie ren tian ("Farmers prevent their fertilizers from flowing into the fields owned by their neighbors") and another is kiasu (afraid of losing).These two merely deliberate the nature of the Chinese are selfish in knowledge sharing due to worry their competitive advantage been deprive (Ramasamy et al., 2006). By the way of kiasu, Chinese firms may not transfer or sharing their knowledge they have for those not in their "in-group" or organization circle (Ramasamy et al., 2006).

Kiasu tendency was operationalized using the 10-item scale developed by Ho et al. (1998). (To be continue..)

Carlson (2007) believes that in metallurgical industry made great progress in growing and productivity for provide useful product due to has such kiasu spirit. By had the "kiasu" attitude they able challenges to take all the circumstances into puzzle then solve it to make business successful. "Afraid to lose, kiasu means you win!" (Carlson, 2007: 26). Association deputy secretary Teoh Ewe Hun said that it all boil down to attitude. Malaysia has. Even at the risk of jeopardize their own life by adopted the kiasu attitude (Selvarani, 2003).

Among Asian societies, Singapore has been given the special labeled of kiasu .All behaviour done by the person (kiasu) is to make sure him/her or their beneficiary gains benefit (Kirby & Ross, 2007). "Kiasu" already became a pejorative description of their national character and competitive nature of Singapore culture. From Kirby and Ross (2007) & Carlson (2007) study, "Kiasu" already became Singapore's national mantra in endeavour to achieve global excellent in every aspect of economic. Kong (1999), Tan and Pauzi (2003), distinguish characteristics of 'ugly Singaporean' as loud, complaining, insolent and kiasu. This all is typical of kiasu attitude (Thiyagarajah, 2005 & Kong, 1999). For instance, during buffet session keep pilling food that always take the food that much more far than what they able to finish, reserve hawker centre seat by using tissues paper pack or reserve seat for friend on bus, or even hide up those library book in particular place for own self used and other people not able to locate them (Thiyagarajah, 2005 & Kong, 1999). The Singapore kiasu philosophy has kicked up consideration interest in Malaysia (Leong, 1996). The researcher Vijver and Tanzer (2004), the "kiasu" (fear of losing out) syndrome are deeply established in Singaporean society. For example, in the anxiety research (worry, tension, low confidence, and cognitive interference) which no cross-cultural differences found that those good student are more anxiety their performance during test than weak student. Foo (2000), those Singaporean already used it to call them kiasu, they are not bothered. According Benjamin (1994), "Singapore is a kiasu society" said by one of the western diplomat and elaborated mean that they fear of losing out. If they give way, they would feel they being lose out in the situation among their people's eye.

Kiasu philosophy is popularity in Southeast Asia. It shows not any effect of improvement customer service sector due to them all behaviour as Kiasu (Lim, 1998).The concept of kiasuism apply to understand student behaviour has been analyse by three key study which done by ho et al. (1998), Hwang et al. (2002) and Hwang (2003). To develop the nomological validity of kiasuism, construct validity have to explore at any time when there is no standard measure or universe of content that adopt as whole. The developer should investigate foresight and independent segment of that particular network. (Cronbach & Meehl, 1955).In an education specific context, Ho et al. (1998) state that the study among university student in Singapore and Australia show there is a positive relationship between kiasu and student task performance. Jayamalar (1997), many "kiasu" youths, absorb their teacher for extra grade, or better testimonial or even a university recommendation certificate. For them, everything can take whatever is useful or not, they would grab like hungry wolves to make sure other not get it. The only thing in their mind is, get more than other.

Nevertheless, this behaviour not necessary unique for Singapore, it has also been study research in Hong Kong and Australia (Ho et al., 1998). Earlier studies had been found out the similar result in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Australia (Ho et al., 1998; Hwang et at., 2002). As Ho et al., 1998 mention that is a theorized of possibility that similar behavior existed at other places. Ho et al. (1998) state kiasuism "could be found in any geographical region, across any time horizon, regardless of cultural and societal backgrounds". Since Ho et al. (1998) found there is a positive relationship between kiasu tendencies and academic performance among Australian students, it is reasonable to expect that students in the Malaysia will also manifest the kiasu tendency behavior. According to Kirby & Ross (2007), as it appears an extravagant motivated by a deep desire to win for gain competitive advantage (kiasu) in multicultural phenomenon. We can conclude that this kind of mentality it is appear in anywhere else.

Lim (1998), Kiasuism was established in this country (Malaysia) or in this region, it seems unavailing to call for improve their attitude that respect the customer. Lim (1998), "We can prove this by noting that the vast majority of Malaysians live according to the philosophy of kiasu."This definitely implies in our society. Chan (2003) state Malaysian mentality is so used to free promotions. When see the long queue of people, they would join in without hesitate. Don't worry it sure wont is the blood or donate money that crowd of people. A rare sign of the predatory nature of Malaysians! Muzli (2001), he discover that "kiasu" mentality appear among everyone. One of the person been investigate said that "I submitted more than one application because the chances of success were slim, especially when applications submitted were in the thousands." The fellow only submitted one application and fail obtain since last year.

Tam (2005), nowadays the phenomenon of tuition which refer to the instruction for children after the normal school time and parent pay extra on it to assistant their child. Is it student not capable to self study for independent research themselves? Or is it just a kiasu syndrome build inside the parent heart? As Kirby & Ross (2007) state, Kiasu tendency behaviour can be show itself by all the tactics or strategy. In Kirby & Ross (2007) study, the kiasu tendency and academic performance for student in the United States have positive relationship by proved overall validity for overall kiasu tendency. As an over view sense in Kirby & Ross (2007) study, kiasu behaviour does result to improved academic performance.

Aziz (2007), the "kiasu" had good and bad side and Malay have to absorb the courageous for achieve excellence on life. There is surprise that "kiasu' being as outlined at the special forum which mention that is one of the seven virtues for Malays to succeed. Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin as Agiculture and Agro-Based Industry Minister address the importance of the "kiasu" attitude. It can be category into two kinds which is kiasu positive and kiasu negative (Hwang, Ang, & Francesco, 2002).

2.2.1 Kiasu positive

Leong (1996), practising the kiasu for punctuality, courtesy, honesty, discipline and filial acts would lead positive result. Imaging if people kiasu so be punctual for meeting or even dinner. That how good being kiasu! Jayamalar (1997) and Ismail (2007), we did not realise that this kind of fear of losing is highly make Singapore became such competitive in today society. Leong (1996), it would be fantastic when kiasu children fight their hard work to complete their homework and result due to they don't want to "lose out" than other. This kind of children may even help their friend from kick off those bad habits such as smoking or bully juniors attributable their kiasu attitude. Kirby & Ross (2007), the general notion of diligence is the key to success and diligent redeems stupidity seems to comply among student. As all being equally, those they have class material would perform better than less motivate students. The kiasu which competing in a positive light may ultimately be deep-rooted among us (Leong, 1996).

In an education specific context, difference tactics will lead to significant different effects through which kiasu behaviours manifest it (Kirby & Ross, 2007).Kiasu-positive tactics with academic performance showed had a significant positive relationship by two kind of measurement which is by exam scores and peer evaluation which is performance of student determine (judge) by other student who same in classroom. By used of kiasu positive tactics with guidance evaluation of individual academic performance and with peer evaluation of within group academic performance, it reveals there is a positive relationship. From this, it found that kiasu positive tactics bring student get improvement in despite of test scores measurement or peer evaluation measurement (Kirby & Ross, 2007).

According Aziz (2006), as a good business man or entrepreneur should have 4's -- Sopan (courteous), Santun (polite) and Selalu (always) Senyum (smile), Kiasu is another one significant characteristic lead a person became a good entrepreneur. People that possess kiasu attitude always say want to be the best or want to be the number one among other. Our Prime Minister Datuk seri Abudullah Ahmad Badawi says that "But not everybody can be at the tower, but everybody can be a little kiasu". Lim (1999),Being "kiasu" is never mind, just be work hard and don't look down on other then will be a good attitude we had on. David (2008), some of "kiasu" element is self interest that good in a society. Aziz (2006), Malay who has kiasu drives them toward success. Vice Chancellor for Malaysia's premier from University Malaya say that it is time for our rural society people to be a little more kiasu or a little more aggressive attitude.Yet, kiasu also have positive effect which they will energetic to more understand the surrounding environment for advantages of them because they want to win (Leo, 1995).

Knowledge became a valuable asset that able given competitive advantages. "Knowledge is power" will influence how an individual's manage their knowledge and consequence Kiasu (Lee & Choi 2003; Gordon & Grant 2005). Within an organization, Employee tends to create and share knowledge among them is needs a harmonious culture being practice from before (Lee & Choi 2003). Collaboration, mutual trust, learning, leadership, incentives/rewards and kiasu-ism, those been identified as a cultural factors (Lee & Choi 2003).

2.2.2 Kiasu negative

Is 'kiasuism' really that bad? Nowadays the kiasu stories appear in our newspaper or even magazines. It starts to affect in our life. Of courses there is a negative light has been limn out. Kirby & Ross (2007), Kiasuism already became an extraordinary characteristic that embedded in Singaporean. Many report related kiasu negative behaviour has been reported in local newspaper. Singaporean earmark the term 'kiasu' to reflect go better attribute. Those words like "selfishness", "calculating" and "greedy" are associated with Singaporean's kiasuism.

Fadhal (2003); Jayamalar (1997) and Ismail (2007), we are always accused or sneer Singaporean being "kiasu" or "kiasu-ness", Malaysians unfortunately simultaneity. That is how easy for us to point the finger to another when there is rampant in our backyard. That example of phenomenon can see on our road. P.Selvarani (2003) and Tam (2007), "kiasu" (not wanting to lose) attitude lead up with many dangerous driver on road. The "kiasu' attitude would arrant driver cause of increasing number road accident; tend make driver reckless on the road, they all are potential killers on the road. They cannot bear that been overtake by other seem lose behind. The kiasu attitude stick out a mile is one of the main factor causes road accident occurs. Based on this we can seen that what kiasu contribute to negative effect. Chan (2001), one of the reason causes the larger number of accident is the kiasu syndrome and especially those young generation driver. Yet, Fadhal (2003) study that not all Malaysian behaviour "kiasu" attitude.

P.Selvarani(2003), The spirit of "kiasuism" was not only limited to vehicle driver but also as other motorists with this bad driving habit. They intend to overtake other just to be more ahead than other as competition. Malaysian adopts this "kiasu" attitude from young time. We been taught have to do better than other people but for all wrong way on it. Those kiasu drivers would like show-offs their "prowess" to other, if not meaning for them as "losers". Aziz (2007), the "kiasu" is not a good example to show to children. Victim of kiasu can understand the feeling that been treat by such arrogant behaviour is not a pleasant experience.

Jayamalar (1997), Young student generation most frequently practise this "kiasuism". Parent themselves behaviour "kiasuism' it lead up they child attitude as them once entered the school. The Kiasu mentality by parents would pressure their child from very early age like just three years old already attending many courses for make sure their child can be ahead than other Malaysian students, "no one else matter but themselves, they don't even share what they learnt with the rest of us." Such like domino effect of the proverb that, like father, like son. Fashal (2003), Malaysian appears to adopt the "kiasu" attitude from Singapore. Example like they would fight for the event they attend failed to get any door gift or even waste their time for door gift.

Jayamalar (1997) state those "kiasu" people used to take advantages of people for their own gain. They would pretend as friend with you when you have benefit for them to get ahead. Besides that, they not understand meaning of sharing, just assume everything they know is for them and no other else has the right to get it. For instance they would pretend that did not hear what the teacher said but eventually they are taking action behind other or even might bad mouth their best friend behind their backs to the purpose of getting better than them. Our nation will became worst if the people still no longer care about other and had the mind set of that only kiasu for survive. From Ismail (2007) study, being kiasu not want to became superior but is for own survival.

Kirby & Ross (2007) applied two method of measurement to kiasu negative. There is negative relationship show in kiasu negative tactics and peer evaluation of within group task performance. Whereas, Positive relationship show in kiasu negative tactics and guidance evaluation of individual academic performance such as test scores. Kiasu negative can lead to nominal damage of task performance. In a particular group, the characteristics like only self interested are unfavourable welcome. They think kiasu negative tactics as untrustworthy other. From this we can know that kiasu negative are not desire characteristics among the group member. According Sun Tzu (1971) & Mintzberg (1992) study, some originate works on strategy seem align with kiasu negative. Meaning that kiasu negative tactics is not a good characteristic within group task performances.

2.3 Face

Face, as first concept to people means the "the front part of a person's head from the forehead to the chin" (Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, 2009).Plenty of scholar have offered different definition of face. Leong and Chen (2001): 1575, clarify face is "the respect, pride, and dignity of an individual as a consequence of his/her social achievement and the practice of it", while Carr (1993):90, has same theoretical idea with the face definition. Cardon and Scott (2003):10, define face "relates to a person's image and status within a social structure. Goffman (1955):213, the term face is an image by a person in term of social attributes. Brown and Levinson (1978):66, Face can be lost, maintained or even enhanced. Huang (1987): 71, face congruency one's performance and able reflect one's status. Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989), face equivalency "reputation, good name."

All definition are straightforward explain face mean in society mind. The most suitable interpret of complexity concept of face among Chinese is from scholar Ho (1976): 883, "the respectability and/or deference that a person can claim for him/herself from others, by virtue of the relative position he occupies in the social network and the degree to which he is judged to have functioned adequately in the position as well as acceptably in his social conduct".Dong and Lee (), in Chinese culture concept, face is important that has already intermingle with every aspect of the Chinese life. Ho (1976): 883, the first Asian president of the international council of psychologists says, face is "a concept of central importance because of it is pervasiveness with which it asserts its influence in social intercourse. [As a result,] it is virtually impossible to think of a facet of social life to which the question of face is irrelevant".

Dong and Lee (), Face can be various form of multiple characteristic. It could be traded. It can be decisive for entity business among Chinese who use this kind of strategy as "borrowing face" to achieve target or purpose for benefits. Cardon and Scott (2003), in a business aspect, common lose face may lead directly conflict, criticize other front public or even not suitably treating other people well. In reality, many Chinese are very sensitive about their face as a serious matter. As one popular Chinese proverb "li shang wang lai (respect is reciprocal)" means once giving face to other people and the giver tend to expected respond from the receiver. For example treating partner with good manner or giving gift as appreciation. Likewise, this term apply in daily life. Dong and Lee (), the more face of individual possesses; the more likely he/she will be given face. It is a hierarchical on status. As a business people they need to understand this culture to avoid loss of business opportunity.

From history of Chinese language, the three common word meaning face are mian,lian,yan. Lin (1935), refers that zheng mian zi as "fight for face; keeping up with the Joneses" and gei mian zi as "give face; show respect (for someone's feelings)". Hu (1944):61, Mianzi "can be borrowed, struggled for, added to, padded, - all terms indicating a gradual increase in volume. It is built up through initial high position, wealth, power, ability, through cleverly establishing social ties to a number of prominent people, as well as through avoidance of acts that would cause unfavourable comment." Hu (1944):45, Mianzi refer to perceptions of a person's prestige. Lian is a person's moral character that confidence in society. Take a look in business view, a person who lose lian would consequences loss of thrust between partner while a lose mianzi would consequences in loss of authority.

According Huang (1987) study in Chinese high school student, found out that loss out mianzi and lian can be convertibly. Yet, loss out mianzi and lian is laconically interpreting difference among university student. They think loss mianzi is more direct related to failure as measurement someone's self-esteem or what expected, whereas loss out lian is more related to transgression of social codes. Huang (1987),losing lian is more significant than losing mianzi.

Micheal,(1991), a psychotherapist do study in Hong Kong found out that important of having face are plethora relationship in Chinese culture.

Lose ur face,lose ur name

To lose face (or save face), 1876, is said to be from Chinese tu lien; to face the music is theatrical. Face value was originally (1878) of bank notes, postage stamps, etc.

Online Etymology Dictionary, © 2010 Douglas Harper

2.3.1 Face lose

Face lose can be called as lose face as well. It means "suffer a loss of respect; to suffer disgrace( bring shame upon ), be humiliated or embarrassment" (Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, 2009,, & The lose verb in this term means fail to maintain. From (1997-2010) and Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989), literally translated face lose originated Chinese idiom as "tiu lien" It is playing significant role in Asian cultures which refer the concept losing respect of other, especially in public. The book wrote by the British consular official Sir Robert Hart published in 1876 introduced the face lose term in "These from Land of Sinim - Essays on the Chinese Question" (2010), Define lose face as have egg on one's face and stultify oneself. According Spears, Richard, the author of McGraw-Hill Dictionary of American Idioms and Phrasal Verbs (2004), lose face refer "to lose status; to become less respectable". In Cambridge Idioms Dictionary, 2nd ed. (2006), define lose face as "to do something which makes other people stop respecting you".Chan and Kwok (1985), Face acquired its Chinese glossary it is a lexical gap with English lexicon. Chan and Kwok (1985):61-62 ," The Chinese has supplied a specific 'name' for a 'thing' embodying qualities not expressed or possibly not fully expressed, by a number of terms in English. The aptness of the figurative extension has probably also played a part".

Ho (1976), losing one's face is more connotation than saving face. There is a basic differences involve. Ho (1976): 870 , "One does not speak of gaining lien because, regardless of one's station in life, one is expected to behave in accordance with the precepts of the culture; correctly conceptualized, exemplary conduct adds not to one's lien, but to one's mien-tzu."

Ho (1975):874-880, "a person can be said to have face but not prestige, or vice versa. Prestige is not necessary; one can easily live without it, but hardly without "face."

Eberhard (1976), Chinese were the typical afraid lose face.

you lose the respect of others

2.3.2 Face gain

Face gain can be called as save face (face saving). It means "retain respect; to avoid disgrace, avoid humiliation or embarrassment" (Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, 2009 & term save in save face means avoid damage/loss.The earliest usage of this term is in Westminster Gazette (April 5, 1898): "Unquestionably the process of saving one's face leads to curious results in other countries than China."( Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed., 1989) . From WordWeb Online (2005-2009), it means "maintaining dignity or prestige" or "an act that avoid a loss of face (dignity or prestige)" Burgess and Burgess (1998 - 2005), face saving "refers to maintaining a good self image". Wiktionary state give face is an etymology that translated of Cantonese means "to honor (idiomatic): to pay respect, To take an action or make a gesture intended to preserve one's reputation or honour".Gary Martin (1996 - 2010), mention save face comes late than "lose face". First record in the June 1899 edition of The Harmsworth Magazine: "That will save my face in the City.""Save face" not direct related to Chinese yet it merely opposition of "lose face" Save face was coined from lose face.Hu (1994):58, Yao mianzi as "eager to gain reputation; be concerned about appearances" which is the closest Chinese approximated to "save face". Carr (1993:74), "It is significant that the earliest usages for English lose face, save face, save-face and face-saver refer to China, while later ones are more international in application."

Huang (1987): 71, "The fact that Chinese lexicalizes losing face, but not gaining face is a potent reminder that losing face has far more serious implications for one's sense of self-esteem or decency than gaining face." Lian classify as ethically absolute yet mianzi refer as socially quantitative.

Cohen(1977),the gain face is view as more important in those high context culture country like China and Japan than those low context culture country such as United State and Germany.

2.4 Kiasi

2.5 Compete

2.6 Active learning

2.7 Summary