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According to O'Nei (1996), emotional intelligence is a different method to become intelligent and smart. By having emotional intelligence in us, we are able to know what our feelings are and how can we use our feelings to create and make desirable decisions in life. By possessing emotional intelligence, we will be able to manage handle well our moods. Besides that, it will get us motivated and help us to behave optimistically when we have difficulties and problems in working toward goals. In addition, we will have empathy to understand what others around us are feeling. Last but not least, we will also have social skill in us to enable us to get along well with others, to be able to handle and control emotions in relationships and to be able to convince or lead others
Emotional intelligence has been the concentration of concern of scholars and the popular media since its first introduction in the 1990's. Opinions regarding the phenomenon of Emotional Intelligence have swung from touting it as more important than general intelligence to considering it a passing fad that is impossible to measure and quantify (Bennet, 2009).
Besides that, emotional Intelligence is an intangible ability that each and every one of us has to alter the degrees to perceive, assess, interpret and manage emotions both within ourselves and other people. According to Goleman (1995), having a high levels of Emotional Intelligence is helpful in dealing with people within all fields of life, including business. People with high Emotional Intelligence tend to effectively communicate with others compared with people with low Emotional Intelligence. Besides that, people with high Emotional Intelligence will be able to correctly perceive and understand emotions in others and meanwhile be able to control and handle well their own emotions in real time within a communication exchange and it helps to minimize the possibility for miscommunication due to emotional reactions from both parties in the communication (Bennet, 2009).
In addition, according to Ashkanasy and Daus (2002), an emotionally intelligent leader is able to control and manage others' emotions. This would be able to allow a leader to support strong and healthy discussions and to allow new or different ideas to find solutions to problems. The leader will always willing to care, listen and take the time to consider new ideas.
Moreover, according to Averill (2004), it is always good to have emotionally intelligent employees as they are able to affect and achieve good results for the overall performances as well as the ability to get things done before deadlines. People who possess high levels of emotional intelligence will also be able to guide and control their own emotions as well as recognize, judge and react to the emotions of others they are working with.
According to Goleman (1998), he indicated in his study that nowadays, many people from all kinds of business backgrounds are concerning about the importance of application of emotional intelligence and what effects it can bring in the business settings as well as in others fields including healthcare and education.
2.2 Daniel Goleman Model
Daniel Goleman, a psychologist and science writer who has previously written on brain and behaviour research for the New York Times, discovered the work of Salovey and Mayer in the 1990's. Inspired by their findings, he began to conduct his own research in the area and eventually wrote Emotional Intelligence (1995), the landmark book which familiarized both the public and private sectors with the idea of emotional intelligence (Yvonne & Shelley, 2004).
Goleman's model outlines five main emotional intelligence constructs. "Self-awareness is the ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions. Self-regulation is the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods and the propensity to suspend judgment and think before acting. Motivation is a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money and status. Empathy is the ability to understand the emotional make up of other people, a skill that may be used in treating people according to their emotional reactions. Social skills often ensure proficiency in managing relationships and building networks and enhance an ability to find common ground and build rapport with others" (Goleman, 1998).
Source: Goleman (1998)
According to Goleman (1995), the first component of emotional intelligence is self-awareness. Self-awareness refers to people having a great understanding of others' feelings, strengths, weaknesses, wants, and forces. People with strong self-awareness are honest with themselves and with others.
Besides that, according to Goleman (1995), people will be manage to understand how their feelings bring effects on themselves, other people, and their job performance if they have a high degree of self-awareness recognize.
In addition, people with high self-awareness will be able to work with a demanding client. The person will be able to understand the client's impact on her moods and the deeper reasons for her frustration. (Goleman, 1995).
Furthermore, according to Goleman (1995), self-awareness grants people's understanding of their values and goals. Someone who is highly self-aware knows where he is headed and why; so, for example, he will be able to be firm in turning down a job offer that is tempting financially but does not fit with his principles or long-term goals. A person who lacks self-awareness is apt to make decisions that bring on inner turmoil by treading on burled values. The decisions of self- aware people mesh with their values; consequently, they often find work to be energizing.
Self-awareness can be identified during performance reviews. Self-aware people know and are comfortable talking about their limitations and strengths, and they often demonstrate a thirst for constructive criticism. By contrast, people with low self-awareness interpret the message that they need to improve as a threat or a sign of failure.
Self-aware people can also be recognized by their self-confidence. They have a firm grasp of their capabilities and are less likely to set themselves up to fail by, for example, over- stretching on assignments. They know, too, when to ask for help. And the risks they take on the job are calculated. They won't ask for a challenge that they know they can't handle alone. They'll play to their strengths.
In conclusion, Self-awareness is the ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions. This skill is essential for anyone in a working environment who has to deal with people. According to (Goleman, 1998), emotional awareness stars with attunement to the stream of feeling that is a constant presence in all of us and with a recognition of how these emotions share what we perceive, think and do. From that awareness comes another: that our feelings affect those we deal with. To be able to react appropriately in working situations with another person, people need to be able to know how to express their emotions and understand when and why they get any type of emotion. Each person should know themselves well enough to assume they will act a certain way when a situation that produces similar emotions comes up at work. This skill is helpful for people when they get frustrated or stressed. They can acknowledge why they are feeling that way and take steps to change their mood or behavior towards others. This skill could also help prevent explosions of tempers when a miscommunication happens. The person could be able to understand why they are frustrated and know that yelling and arguing will not be beneficial in that type of situation.
According to Goleman (1995), our emotions are driven by impulses of biological. Self-regulation, which is like an ongoing inner conversation, is the component of emotional intelligence that delivers us from being prisoners of our feelings. People engaged in such a conversation feel bad moods and emotional impulses just as everyone else does, but they find ways to control them and even to channel them in useful ways.
According to Goleman (1995), self-regulation is important for leaders. The reason is an environment of trust and fairness can be created by people who are able to manage their feelings and impulses. In such an environment, many problems related to politics and infighting will be able to be greatly lessened and at the same time productivity will be able to be increased.
Besides that, according to Goleman (1995), self-regulation is important for competitive reasons. Nowadays, business has been full with uncertainty and change. There are many mergers and acquisitions due to the technology. People will be able to follow the changes if they have mastered their emotions. They will not feel frighten but willing to learn when they are asked to learn new things which are to replace the old ones.
Furthermore, according to Goleman (1998), in his study he indicated that he wants to push the importance of self-regulation to leadership even further and make the case that it enhances integrity, which is not only a personal virtue but also an organizational strength. Many of the bad things that happen in companies are a function of impulsive behavior. People rarely plan to exaggerate profits, pad expense accounts, dip into the till, or abuse power for selfish ends. Instead, an opportunity presents itself, and people with low impulse control just say yes.
The signs of emotional self-regulation, therefore, are easy to see: a propensity for reflection and thoughtfulness; comfort with ambiguity and change; and integrity- an ability to say no to impulsive urges.
In addition, self-regulation is similar to self-awareness as it often does not get its due. People who can master their emotions are sometimes seen as cold fish-their considered responses are taken as lack of passion. People with fiery temperaments are frequently thought of as "classic" leaders-their outbursts are considered hallmarks of charisma and power. But when such people make it to the top, their impulsiveness often works against them. In my research, extreme displays of negative emotion have never emerged as a driver of good leadership.
In conclusion, Self-regulation is the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods and to suspend judgment and think before acting. "The principle of remaining clam despite provocation applies to anyone who routinely faces obnoxious or agitated people on the job," (Goleman, 1998). People in jobs with any type of service aspect could benefit from learning how to better self-regulate. Lawyers, doctors, customer service representatives, are some of the many occupations where it could be advantageous to be familiar with this skill.
According to Goleman (1995), motivation is the trait that basically all good and productive leaders possess. They are determine to work hard and succeed beyond their and others expectations. External factors motivate a lot of people. For example, people those who have great salaries or they play big roles in very high quality companies. On the other side, people those with leadership potential are motivated and driven by interests or enjoyments in their jobs as well as desire to do and achieve well in their jobs.
According to Goleman (1995), we will be able to identify and notice people who are motivated by intrinsic motivation instead of extrinsic motivation. Firstly, we are able to know that people are motivated to achieve through the passion for their works. They love to learn and challenge new things, and they are proud with their achievements in their jobs.
Besides that, people who are determined to do well will always raise the performance bar and keep the score. During performance reviews, people who combine self-awareness with intrinsic motivation will recognize their limits. However, they will not settle for goals that seem too easy to achieve (Goleman, 1995).
In addition, according to Goleman (1995), people will not feel worried even when the score is against them if they possess high motivational levels. In such cases, when self-regulation in them together achievement motivation that they possess to succeed in dealing with the frustration and depression that occur after a setback or failure.
Furthermore, commitment to the organization can be resulted from people who possess high levels of achievement motivation. People often feel committed to the organizations when they love their jobs and tasks in the company. No matter how other companies try to persuade committed employees to join them by offering higher pays, these committed employees will continue to stay with their own organization (Goleman, 1995).
In conclusion, Motivation is a passion to work for reasons that go beyond money and status. Having the ability to motivate one-self is a great ability for any leader or future leader to know. People usually believe in the people that motivate them to get something done or to start something new. This person is also usually good at looking at the big picture and explaining their thoughts to others. Usually excitement and optimism are also strong in people that are great at motivating. "They are persistent with their questions about why things are done one way rather than another; they are eager to explore new approaches to their work," (Goleman, Harvard Business Review, 1998, p. 98). People who are motivated are usually very committed to their work and organizations and are proud when they have completed a job well done.
According to Goleman (1995), empathy is the most easily recognized component of emotional intelligence. In the process of making intelligent decisions, people that possess empathy in them will thoughtfully think of others' feelings thoughtfully considering employees' feelings together with other factors. It is very important as part of the components of leadership.
Besides that, globalization has lead to the increase of significance of empathy for leaders in business world. Empathy is an antidote. People who have it are attuned to subtleties in body language; they can hear the message beneath the words being spoken. Beyond that, they have a deep understanding of both the existence and the importance of cultural and ethnic differences (Goleman, 1995).
In addition, according to Goleman (1995), organizations and leaders can use empathy to develop and retain talented employees. Knowledgeable people will take the knowledge of the company with them when they leave the company.
That's where coaching and mentoring come in. It has repeatedly been shown that coaching and mentoring pay off not just in better performance but also in increased job satisfaction and decreased turnover. But what makes coaching and mentoring work best is the nature of the relationship. Outstanding coaches and mentors get inside the heads of the people they are helping. They sense how to give effective feedback. They know when to push for better performance and when to hold back. In the way they motivate their proteges, they demonstrate empathy in action.
In addition, Goleman (1995) also stated that people often curious how leaders are able to make good decisions if they need to think for others who will be affected. However, in fact leaders that have empathy in them are able to do more than get along with others. They are able to use their experience and knowledge to develop their companies in clever but important ways.
In conclusion, empathy is the ability to understand the emotional make up of other people, a skill that may be used in treating people according to their emotional reactions. "For a leader it doesn't mean adopting other people's emotions as one's own and trying to please everybody. Rather, empathy means thoughtfully considering employees' feelings in the process of making intelligent decisions. A team's leader must be able to sense and understand the viewpoints of everyone around the table, (Goleman, Harvard Business Review, 1998, p. 99). Empathy is also important for leaders to have when dealing with retention of great employees. It is vital to be able to understand what the effective, hard-working people around need to stay with the company.
According to Goleman (1995), social skill, as one of the components of emotional intelligence, is not as simple as how we think and know. Social skill is friendliness that able to move people in the direction we want.
Besides that, according to Goleman (1995), socially skilled people tend to have a lot of friends as they are able to socialize and handle relationships with people when they are able to understand and manage their own emotions and able to understand the others' feelings.
In addition, socially skilled people, for instance, are good at managing teams-that's their empathy at work. Likewise, they are expert persuaders-a manifestation of self-awareness, self-regulation, and empathy combined. Given those skills, good persuaders know when to make an emotional plea, for instance, and when an appeal to reason will work better. And motivation, when publicly visible, makes such people excellent collaborators; their passion for the work spreads to others, and they are driven to find solutions (Goleman, 1995).
Furthermore, according to Goleman (1995), people that have social skill may at times spend their working hours chatting with friends. It is because by having good relationship with more friends now, it will benefit them as they believe that they may need help someday from those friends.
Moreover, social skill is considered a key leadership Capability in most companies. People seem to know that it is important for leaders to handle relationships effectively as they believe that social skill allows leaders to put their emotional intelligence to work and enable them to get work done through other employees (Goleman, 1995).
In conclusion, Social skills often ensure proficiency in managing relationships and building networks and enhance an ability to find common ground and build rapport with others. Goleman (Harvard Business Review, 1998, p. 100) explains social skills as friendliness with a purpose: moving people in the direction that you desire, whether that's agreement on a new marketing strategy or enthusiasm about a new product. Like emotional intelligence, social skills entail more than just being friendly. It is more about knowing how to talk to different people within an organization to get to the same goal. They are able to build bonds with all different types of people so everyone understands each other when something comes up in an organization. "The leader's task is to get work done through other people, and social skill makes that possible," (Goleman, Harvard Business Review, 1998, p. 99).
Gender Differences in Emotional Intelligence
There are arguments among researchers on whether or not males and females have significant differences in general levels of emotional intelligence. According to Daniel Goleman (1998), in his study he indicated that there is no existence of gender differences in Emotional intelligence. However, he says that men and women may have different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in different areas of emotional intelligence, their overall levels of Emotional Intelligence are the same. However, Mayer and Geher (1996), Mayer, Caruso, and Salovey (1999), and Mandell and Pherwani (2003), states in their studies that they have found that in professional and personal settings, there is a higher possibility for overall emotional intelligence scores to be higher among women than men.
The differences can be due to using different measurement. According to Brackett and Mayer (2003), in their studies they states that when Emotional Intelligence is measured by a performance measure (the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), females score higher than males on it. However, when Emotional Intelligence is measured by self-report measures such as the Bar-On Emotion Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) and the Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SREIT), they found that women and men have the same level of Emotional Intelligence. There is a possibility that gender dissimilarities exist in emotional intelligence only when people explain Emotional Intelligence in a purely cognitive manner instead of through a mixed perspective. There is a need for more research to be done in order to find out whether or not gender differences do exist in emotional intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace
According to Cherniss (2000), in his study he indicated that it can be very helpful in many areas of life if people possess developed emotional intelligence. However, the application of its usefulness has been most frequently documented in the professional workplace. Besides that, Cherniss also outlines four main reasons why the workplace would be a logical setting for evaluating and improving emotional intelligence competencies:
1. Emotional intelligence competencies are critical for success in most jobs.
2. Many adults enter the workforce without the competencies necessary to succeed or excel at their job.
3. Employers already have the established means and motivation for providing emotional intelligence training.
4. Most adults spend the majority of their waking hours at work.
A strong interest in the professional applications of emotional intelligence is apparent in the way organizations have embraced E.I. ideas. The American Society for Training and Development, for example, has published a volume describing guidelines for helping people in organizations cultivate emotional intelligence competencies which distinguish outstanding performers from average ones (Cherniss and Adler, 2000).
As previously noted, considerable research in the emotional intelligence field has focused on leadership, a fundamental workplace quality. Even before research in the area of E.I. had begun, the Ohio State Leadership Studies reported that leaders who were able to establish mutual trust, respect, and certain warmth and rapport with members of their group were more effective (Fleishman and Harris, 1962). This result is not surprising given that many researchers have argued that effective leadership fundamentally depends upon the leader's ability to solve the complex social problems which can arise in organizations (Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs, & Fleishman, 2000).
The cost-effectiveness of emotional intelligence in the workplace has been an area of interest. Several studies have reported the economic value of hiring staff based on emotional intelligence. In a report to Congress, the Government Accounting Office (1998) outlined the amount saved when the United States Air Force used Bar On's Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I) to select program recruiters. By selecting those individuals who scored highest in emotional intelligence as recruiters, they increased their ability to select successful recruiters by threefold and saved $3 million annually. A similar study by Boyatzis (1999) found that when partners in a multinational consulting firm were assessed on E.I. competencies, partners who scored above the median on nine or more competencies delivered $1.2 million more profit than did other partners.
Cherniss and Goleman (1998) estimated that by not following training guidelines established to increase emotional intelligence in the workplace, industry in the United States is losing between $5.6 and $16.8 billion a year. They found that the impact of training employees in emotional and social competencies with programs which followed their guidelines was higher than for other programs, and by not implementing these programs companies were receiving less of an impact and consequently losing money.
Are Individuals with High E.I. More Successful?
Research on the predictive significance of E.I. over I.Q. was spurred by Goleman's initial publication on the topic which claimed that emotional intelligence could be "as powerful, and at times more powerful, than I.Q." (Goleman, 1995, p.34). Much of this claim was based on past research revealing that the predictive nature of I.Q. on job performance was not promising, with I.Q. accounting from 10-25% of the variance in job performance (Hunter & Hunter, 1984; Sternburg, 1996). The results of longitudinal studies further implicated emotional intelligence as being important. One study involving 450 boys reported that I.Q. had little relation to workplace and personal success; rather, more important in determining their success was their ability to handle frustration, control emotions, and get along with others (Snarey & Vaillant, 1985). Although this study did not attend to emotional intelligence directly, the elements which it addressed (the ability to regulate one's emotions and understand the emotions of others) are some of the central tenants of the emotional intelligence construct.
While research exists supporting the contention that emotional intelligence does contribute to individual cognitive-based performance over and above the level attributed to general intelligence (Lam & Kirby, 2002), current theories tend to be more judicious regarding the incremental benefits of E.Q. over I.Q. Both Goleman (1998) and Mayer, Salovey and Caruso (1998) emphasize that emotional intelligence by itself is probably not a strong predictor of job performance. Instead, it provides a foundation for emotional competencies which are strong predictors of job performance.
In later work, Goleman (2001) attempts to theoretically clarify the relationship between I.Q. and E.Q., and their respective applicability to job performance. He describes I.Q. as playing a sorting function, determining the types of jobs individuals are capable of holding. He theorizes that I.Q. is a strong predictor of what jobs individuals can enter as well as a strong predictor of success among the general population as a whole. For example, in order to become a medical doctor, an individual requires an above average I.Q. Emotional intelligence, on the other hand, is described by Goleman as a stronger predictor of who will excel in a particular job when levels of I.Q. are relatively equal. When the individuals are being compared to a narrow pool of people in a particular job in a certain organization, specifically in the higher levels, the predictive power of I.Q. for outstanding performance among them weakens greatly. In this circumstance, E.Q. would be the stronger predictor of individuals who outperform others. Thus, the doctors in a particular clinic would all have similarly above average I.Q.'s. Goleman would hypothesize that what would distinguish the most successful doctors from the others would be their levels of emotional intelligence.