With reference to key theories and concepts, accessed via recommended reading and discussed in the first tutorials, examine which aspects of the People and Organisation module are most useful or interesting to me and why?
Complete the Honey & Mumford learning styles questionnaire and provide a discussion of the findings in my assignment. The discussion should examine, in the context of the outcomes:
What problems that I anticipate in completing future assignments?
Learning strategies that I intend to use in order to deal with these problems.
During my schooldays I was interested in computers a lot and always wanted to become a software engineer. Hence, I took up science as my major subject after completing my school. After completing my higher secondary I took admission in an engineering college in the computer science and engineering department and four years later my dream was fulfilled and I became a software engineer. Then a big question came into my mind - "NOW WHAT?" This question troubled me a lot. It gave me sleepless nights. I really didn't know what to do. Whether to go for a job or go for higher education? As recession was at its peak getting a job was out of the question. So I decided to go for higher education. But then another question came up my in my mind - "WHAT COURSE?" So I started the thinking process. I searched the internet, talked to my parents, relatives and friends. I even went to career counsellors and after very deep thinking I came to the conclusion that I want do M.B.A. Then I started thinking "WHAT MODULE I NEED TO TAKE IN M.B.A.?" Since I was from IT field I thought that if I get a specialisation in the same field then it would really help my career. So I took up a specialisation course in information systems in M.B.A.
WHY STUDY M.B.A.?
Computer was the biggest invention of the last century. This is referred to as the COMPUTER AGE. During the computer age we saw how the computer came and conquered the lives of all the people. Today computer has become such an integral part of our lives that we can't even a day without it. So we can say that computer is here to stay for a very long time. So doing a course which would specialise me with the business aspects of this machine will surely increase the prospects of a better career. (International Graduate 2009)
WHAT MAN NEEDS?
The first and foremost need of a man is money which is very obvious. Everybody needs money. We can say that people with MBA earn more money. In every sector, the panorama of making more money and living a very high standard life brings millions of students to M.B.A. programs. In this age where the employee is transient, employers today are not investing in training their employees but instead they search the best talent in various M.B.A. programs. This has made the education business very profitable.
The M.B.A. acts as a magnet that attracts talented people from every part of the society hence the M.B.A. educational experience provides every student with remarkable prospect to network. This networking is not only limited to students but also includes internship opportunities, which brings a very highly qualified faculty and connecting to the institutions vast alumni. This makes the M.B.A. experience the best fit for everyone. (International Graduate 2009)
"Motivation can be defined as the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal." (Robins and Judge 2007, p.186)
Motivation is a significant function of management. Every establishment devices, organises, directs, co-ordinates and controls the resources to attain objectives. The administration takes decisions. These decisions are communicated to the subordinates. Subordinates are obligatory to execute work to attain objectives. All the subordinates won't follow the administration according to the prospect of the top executives. Thus the top level executives should create interest in the work for the subordinates. To do this the subordinates are encouraged and enthused. Thus motivation is a process of enthusing and encouraging the subordinates to achieve the objectives. (Koroth and Venugopal 2004)
CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION
A Psychological Phenomenon
Base on Motives
Related with Individual
Goal Oriented Process
Motivation is Influenced by Social and Cultural Norms
Positive or Negative (Koroth and Venugopal 2004)
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Maslow's Need Hierarchy theory
Herzberg's Two Factor theory
McGregor's theory X and theory Y
Theory Z (William G Ouchi)
CONTEMPORARY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
McClelland's theory of Needs
Cognitive Evaluation theory
(Robins and Judge 2007)
The two theories which I find useful for me are:-
Cognitive Evaluation theory
Cognitive Evaluation theory
This theory proposes that the beginning of extrinsic rewards such as pay, for work effort that was formerly intrinsically gratifying due to the contentment coupled with the content of the work itself tends to reduce overall motivation. Traditionally, motivation theorists commonly supposed that intrinsic motivators such as high pay, promotions, good supervisor relations and pleasing working circumstances. But the cognitive assessment theory suggests otherwise. It argues that extrinsic rewards are used by organisations as payoffs for higher performance, the intrinsic rewards, which derived from individuals doing what they like, are decreased. In other words when extrinsic rewards are given to someone for performing an appealing task, it causes intrinsic interest in the task itself to decrease. (Robins and Judge 2007)
If the cognitive evaluation theory is applicable, it should have key implications for managerial practices. But cognitive evaluation theorists would argue that this will only tend to decrease the internal satisfaction that the individual receives from doing the job. In fact if cognitive evaluation theory is correct, it would make sense to make an individual's pay non contingent on performance in order to avoid decreasing intrinsic motivation. (Robins and Judge 2007)
A more recent outgrowth of the cognitive evaluation theory is self-concordance, which considers the degree to which peoples' reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interest and core values. (Robins and Judge 2007)
For organisations managers need to intrinsic rewards in addition to extrinsic incentives. In other words, make the work interesting; provide recognition and support employee growth and development. Employees who feel that what they do is within their control and a result of free choice are likely to be more motivated by their work and committed to their employers.
The Goal-Setting theory proposes that if clear and difficult goals are set then it leads to higher levels of employee productivity. Specific goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalised goal. The specificity of the goal itself seems to act as an internal stimulus. (Robins and Judge 2007)
If factors such as acceptance of goal are held constant, we can also state that the more difficult the goal, the higher the level of performance. It is logical to assume that easier goals are more likely to be accepted. But once a hard task is accepted, the employee can be expected to exert a high a high level of effort to try to achieve. (Robins and Judge 2007)
People will do well when they get a feedback on how well they are progressing towards their goals because feedback helps to identify discrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do; i.e., feedback acts to guide behaviour. But all feedback is not equally potent. Self-generated feedback-for which employees are able to monitor their own progress-has been shown to be more powerful motivator than externally generated feedback. (Robins and Judge 2007)
According to the definition given by Kolb (1984) -
"Learning is a process by which knowledge is through experience."
A more specific definition was given by Honey and Mumford (1986) -
"Learning has happened when people can demonstrate that they know something they did not know before insights and realizations as well as facts and/or when they can do something they could not do before."
There are various models which define the styles of learning. Some of these models are:-
Anthony Gregorc's Model
David Kolb's Model
Honey and Mumford Model
The learning model which I've chosen is Honey and Mumford's model. This model was designed by them using the Kolb's model. They used the Kolb's model and used it on various managers in business. This model is a self administered questionnaire by which we can decide our preferred learning style. By knowing our style of learning we can increase the speed of our learning as we can do those activities which best suits our preferred learning style.
(Management for the Rest of Us 2009)
After going through this questionnaire we come to know that there are four learning styles which are:-
Activists are the people who tend to try anything by which they can gain experience. They try to keep themselves busy. As soon as one activity is over they try to get involved in another activity. They may the first to react in a crowd.
Flexible and open-minded.
Happy to have ago.
Happy to be exposed to new situations.
Optimistic about anything new and therefore unlikely to resist change.
Tendency to take the immediately obvious action without thinking.
Often unnecessary risks.
Tendency to do too much themselves and hog the limelight.
Rush into action without sufficient preparation.
Get bored with implementation/consolidation.
Reflector is a person who tends to sit back and ponder over the various experiences he/she has gone through and learn from them. They collect data themselves and through others and then analyse these data. They try to be cautious. They do not jump to quick conclusions. They think deeply about the consequences before taking any action.
Thorough and methodical.
Good at listening to others and assimilating information.
Rarely jump to conclusions.
Tendency to hold back from direct participation.
Slow to make up their minds and reach a decision.
Tendency to be too cautious and not take enough risks.
Theorists tend to be rational and logical. They always seem to have a question before doing anything. They try to be perfectionists. They assimilate disparate facts into coherent theories. They tend to reject anything which is not logical.
Rational and objective.
Good at asking probing questions.
Restricted in lateral thinking.
Low tolerance for uncertainty, disorder and ambiguity.
Intolerance of anything subjective or intuitive.
Full of 'should, ought and must'.
Pragmatists keenly search for new ideas and try to implement them. They are practical and down-to-earth people and like making practical decisions.
Keen to test things in practise.
Practical, down-to-earth, realistic.
Businesslike - get straight to the point.
Tendency to reject anything without an obvious application.
Not very interested in theory or basic principles.
(Pinnington and Edwards 1986)
Having an experience
Putting their theory Reflecting on it
Into practise PRAGMATIST THEORIST
Drawing their own conclusions
After completing the Honey-Mumford questionnaire I came to know that I'm a Reflector, Pragmatist and an activist in a strong preference and a theorist in a low preference.
Being an activist I can be flexible, optimistic and always ready to take up new challenges. But this can lead to me taking unnecessary risks which can cause unnecessary problems.
Being a reflector I can carefully analyse what sort of approach I need to take to complete a certain task. On the other hand this can lead to delay in completing the task can cause last minute panic.
Being a pragmatist I can take a practical approach towards any problem. I'll take a straight forward approach towards any kind of problem and find a solution for that problem without any problem.
Being on the lower side of theorist I won't be able think logically and rationally and there won't be any discipline in my approach towards problems. But I can think laterally and I can flexibly adopt various uncertainties while solving any problem.
After reviewing the various theories and concepts I came to know that the best motivational theories which I can adopt are:-
Cognitive Evaluation theory
After completing the Honey and Mumford questionnaire I came to know that I'm a very strong reflector, pragmatist and activist and a weak theorist.