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Mathematics is wonderful logic, full of interesting patterns. It is the language of science and engineering. It opens the doors to higher- level job. No employment can be managed without arithmetic, no mechanical invention without geometry. - Benjamin Franklin. Mathematics is an essential for everyone. It is not possible to live in the modern world without making some use of mathematics. Mathematics is helpful to assist students build up required skills for lifetime education. It is a wealth for studying other disciplines that help students to expand their capacity to value the beauty of nature, think rationally and construct sound judgments.
Achieve's research shows that advanced level mathematics courses such as Algebra II develop entrance to postsecondary learning, are vital for college accomplishment and are significant to many careers. Students that complete such coursework are not only ready for work, they can be able to earn higher salaries and provide a better future for themselves. Many alternative students and girls, of all races and ethnicities, lack access to higher math classes or are discouraged from enrolling in them. . (Slover, L. 2008)
Today, you cannot afford to drop out of school and find a job that pays a living wage. America wants the talents and skills of all its children to thrive and prosper. If we assist our children, we strengthen and support our nation. We must identify that America's achievement gap harms not just the students who are cheated of an excellence education but the nation itself. (Secretary Duncan, A. 2010).
According to Slavin 2008, The mathematics achievement of America's middle and high school students is an issue of great concern to policymakers as well as educators. Many believe that secondary math achievement is a key predictor of a nation's long term economic potential. Mathematics performance in American middle and high schools is not primarily a problem of comparisons to other countries, however, but more a problem within the U.S. There are enormous differences between the performance of white and middle class students and that of minority and disadvantaged students, and the gap is not diminishing. Clearly to advance in mathematics achievement, we must improve the quality of math instruction received by all students. What recourses and tools do we have on hand to interfere in middle and high schools to extensively advance their mathematics outcomes? Which textbooks, equipment, software applications, and trained approaches are recognized to be successful? Slavin, R. E., Lake, C., & Groff, C. (2009).
As President Obama stated in the Blue Print Reform (2010),
"Every child in America deserves a world-class education. Today, more than ever, a world-class education is a prerequisite for success. America was once the best educated nation in the world. A generation ago, we led all nations in college completion, but today, 10 countries have passed us. It is not that their students are smarter than ours. It is that these countries are being smarter about how to educate their students. And the countries that out-educate us today will out-compete us tomorrow. This effort will require the skills and talents of many, but especially our nation's teachers, principals, and other school leaders. Our goal must be to have a great teacher in every classroom and a great principal in every school. We must recognize the importance of communities and families in supporting their children's education, because a parent is a child's first teacher. We must support families, communities, and schools working in partnership to deliver services and supports that address the full range of student needs. This is a framework to guide our deliberations and shared work - with parents, students, educators, business and community leaders, elected officials, and other partners - to strengthen America's public education system. (2010)
Now it is up to us, as parents, teachers, leaders, and every individual in the communities to fix the problems that face our nation by providing the support, the tools to help our children compete in today's world. Research shows that the child brain develops 90 percent of its size by age 5 year. Children may drop in both educational and intellectual if they are not showing to the correct kinds of motivation. Sadly, this gap only becomes larger as children grow older. http://math-and-reading-help-for-kids.org/index.html. Students may drop in both educational and social skills if they are not introduced to the right method of instruction at the right time in their life.
Secretary of Education Arne Duncan stated,
"Finally, we're also seeking $1.8 billion dollars to support students by encouraging community engagement and support and exposure to other positive adults. Teachers cannot do it alone. They need parents, community leaders, social service agencies and other supportive adults in the schools helping to reinforce a culture of learning and respect. A parent is a child's first teacher. We need to work together to continue that legacy and deliver a world-class education for every child." Testimony, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan March (2010.)
It takes a village to raise a child is an admired maxim with an obvious message: the whole neighborhood has a vital responsibility to engage in the growth, improvement and development of its people.
Student accomplishment in mathematics is affected by many factors that can establish, preserve, support or discourage performance and academic achievement, include the individual attribute interests, curiosity and responsibility. One of the main factors is teacher influence and method and quality of instruction. Other major factors are Parent Support, Peer Influence, Community Influence, student's Self Expectation and school environment. My report will illustrate the connection between important variables that affect on mathematics achievement.
Teacher Influence and Method and Quality of Instruction
Until the 1960s it was understood that schools and teachers didn't contribute totally toward student accomplishment, which was mostly defined by genetics, family background and socioeconomic. Hattie and his colleagues direct and analyse a meta-analysis of further than 500,000 studies and discover that the student contribute for about 50% of the variance in learning. Homes and family can relate between 5 to 10%, schools 5 to 10%, and friends 5 to 10%. But, teacher responsibility represents for around 30% of student achievement. Accordingly, there has been a major concentration on education, instruction, and quality teaching and teacher accomplishment from the late 1980s to the Today. Hattie, J. (2003).
Approximately 27 percent of all the children in the United States drop out of public School. That indicate 1.2 million teenagers are dropping schools for the streets (Secretary of State. Aren Dunk, March, (2010). Many teachers believe and agree that school achievement of our children is below their abilities they indicate that Japanese children emphasize on effort more than ability. . Wlodkowski & Jaynes, (1990).
High motivation in learning has always been linked to reduced dropout rates and improved level of students' success. There are many factors that add to student' concern and level of dedication in education and teachers have little power over many of those factors. Research has revealed that teachers affect on student motivation and mathematics achievement. Brewster.C &Fager .J, (2000).
The McKinsey studies show, that the quality of the teacher has more to do with student result than any other variable .It state,
"Ten years ago, seminal research based on data from Tennessee showed that if two average eight-year-old students were given different teachers - one of them a high performer, the other a low performer - their performance diverge by more than 50 percentile points within three years â€¦ By way of comparison, the evidence shows that reducing class sizes from 23 to 15 students improves the performance of an average student by eight percentile points at best. Another study, this time in Dallas, shows that the performance gap between students assigned three effective teachers in a row, and those assigned three ineffective teachers in a row, was 49 percentile points. In Boston, students placed with top-performing math teachers made substantial gains, while students placed with the worst teachers regressed - their math got worse" McKinsey & Co., (2007).
Figure and graph page (the effect of teacher quality)
Quality Teacher and Methods of Instruction
The critical goal of high school mathematics teachers is to generate a significant learning environment that is conductive to teaching students the necessary concepts for educational accomplishment. (White- clark, R. DiCarlo, M. & Gilchriest, N. research observe the effects of constructivist teaching . usual high school mathematics' students often state their disturbance such as " why do I need to know this stuff." numerous high school students experience confused from their math teaching and recognize it as unrelated to their lives. While some blame the curriculum, and the instructional approach that are implemented in our schools. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) recommends using a constructivist method of teaching, in which learners develop meaning based on experience and inquiry. Direct teaching is frequently referred to as teacher- centered as the substance of the lesson is transmitted straight from the teacher to the student (slavin 2004). Direct instruction includes lectures, textbook usage, and the completion of worksheets. While the constructivist method of teaching referred to as student- centered learning, places greater responsibility of discovering and learning information on the students. Research confirms that constructivist math instruction enhance secondary math education, and encourages relations and improve student learning. Therefore, students better understand the application of mathematical concepts and become more motivated and involved in their math courses. Mathematics educators must be exposed to different forms of teaching to assist students achieve in mathematics and to better meet the standards. Constructivist- centered instruction must become a priority for educators to ensure that students gain more rigorous and significant learning experiences. White- Clark, R. DiCarlo, M. & Gilchriest, N. (2008).
Research on Reinforcing Effort
Researchers have shown the effect of believing in the importance of effort. Their research demonstrates that people normally attribute achievement at any given job to one of the four causes: Ability, Effort, Other people and Luck. A confidence in ability seems helpful- if you trust your ability, you can deal with everything. Belief that other people are the main cause of success also has drawbacks, particularly when an individual finds him or her alone. Belief in luck has clearly disadvantages. Belief in effort is obviously the most constructive attribution. If you consider that effort is the most essential factor in achievement, you have a motivational instrument that can shape to any situation. Students might not be conscious of the significance of believing in effort, but they can be trained. The cure for this is for teachers to make sure that they clearly teach and illustrate the correlation between effort and achievement. Teacher can assist students recognize the significance of effort by sharing examples of well -known athletes, educators, and political who succeeded because they didn't give up. And also to ask student to recall personal examples of times that they succeeded primarily because they didn't give up. Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, 2001) .Reinforcing effort teach learners one of the mainly helpful lessons they can find out. The more serious you attempt, the more flourishing you are. Providing credentials for accomplishment of precise goals not only enhances success, but it stimulates inspiration.
Linguistic and Non-linguistic Representations
Information is gathered in two ways - a linguistic form and a descriptions or imagery form. The linguistic approach is semantic in nature. It consists of real statement in long term memory. The description or imagery style is contains pictures in the brain or even physical feelings, such as sound, taste, touch and kinaesthetic associations.
Learning Theories: The Three Representational Modes
The more we employ both method of representation- linguistic and non-linguistic- the better for us to remember data. The primary way teacher's present new knowledge to students is linguistically. This means that learners are normally left to their own plans to create non-linguistic representations .however the effects on achievement are stronger when the teacher assists students to make the connection. It has even been shown that openly engaging learners in the formation on non-linguistic representations motivates and enhance the motion in the brain http://www.intel.com/education/tools/benefits.htm
Benefits of Thinking Tools
Research states that non-linguistic representation increases students understanding of that content. Teachers can construct graphic and vivid representation ,building physical forms, drawing and creating mental pictures , sketching images and symbols, and engaging in kinesthetic activity (kinesthetic activities are those that involve physical movement. Produce non-linguistic representations assists students comprehend content in a whole and clear new way. Teachers can chose a mixture of approaches, ranging from vivid organizers to physical styles to enhance students learning and increase activity in the brain.
Researchers have conducted many studies on the effects of note taking on student achievement. Notes should be considered a work in growth. Teachers should support students to constantly add to the notes and improve them as their understanding of content expands. Teachers must thoroughly give time for students to go back over their notes, - evaluate and adjust them. Notes should be organize and understandable in order for students to use them as study guides for tests. Indeed, http://www.netc.org/focus/strategies/summ.php
Summarizing and Note Taking
Explain their examination of study guides prepared by universities to teach students how to take notes. They found that there was a strong connection between the quantity notes and students' accomplishment on examinations.
Homework and Practice
Homework and practice offer students with opportunities to expand their understanding and abilities relative to materials that has been originally presented to them. Student elementary levels should be far less homework than students at higher grade levels. Keith's data point out that for about 30 minutes of additional homework per night, then student general grade point average raises about half a point. Practice is needed for knowledge of any kind. While practicing, student should adjust and shape what they have studied .students should be encouraged to keep track of their pace and correctness. Homework and practice are habits of expanding the school day and giving students with chance to improve and extend their understanding. Teachers can use both of these practices as great teaching tools. Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, (2001)
Feedback is one of the mainly influential distinct modifications that also improve student accomplishment. It presents students with a clarification of what they are doing. The best advice involves an explanation as to what is correct and what is incorrect in terms of student answers. Feedback given without delay after a test is greater and more effective. The manner in which learners get feedback is important for their achievement. Teachers should strive to center their feed back on particular forms of understanding and skill. Marzano, Pickering, & Pollock, (2001)
What Quality Teaching Looks Like
"To love one's children is to be in complete communication with them: it is to see that
They have the right kind of education that will help them to be sensitive, intelligent and
Integrated" (Krishnamurti, 2001)
Research on teacher performance and capability concentrate on relating teacher attitude and behavior to student performance. Teachers are truly believed that all students can learn. Quality teacher possessed the following attributes
A high level of understanding, imagination, enthusiasm, and belief in and for their field.
Makes student education the main focus of concentration and attention.
A full understanding of the framework in which they are working.
Makes the lesson fun, using humor whenever possible.
gives clear, precise descriptions, explanations and instructions
Construct a solid foundation in mathematics, building on what has gone before and preparing for what is to come.
Lesson is well planned and managed
Models the types of understanding, appretiation and wisdom that learners should look for to expand and develop in good judgment and knowledge.
Continues to learn from teachers, administrators and students to grow in knowledge of course content and pedagogy.
Accordingly, the most important depend not so much in identifying and describing excellence and quality teaching but in increasing these capacities in more teachers and schools Darling-Hammond & Baratz-Snowden, (2006).
Focusing on Teacher Quality
Teacher quality in mathematics and science has a major impact on the instruction and learning process. High- performing school structures construct and, preserve a strong focus on improving education because of its direct impact upon learner accomplishment. To improve teaching these high - performing school systems constantly do three things well:
They find the right people to become great teachers (the quality of an education system cannot surpass the quality of its teachers.
They nurture and develop these citizens into successful and effective instructors (the only way to develop results is to improve teaching).
They put in place structure and support to make sure that each child is capable to profit from excellent teaching (the only way the system accomplish the maximum performance is to elevate the standard of every scholar).'
Barber, Michael and Mourshed, Mona, (2007)
Getting the Best Teachers
According to The McKinsey report several studies support the conclusion that the value of the educator has more to do with student achievement than any other variable. All of the nations with top-performing school systems select their instructors from the top 30% of all academy students. Finland and Singapore have careful and rigorous selection systems for acceptance to teacher education, Singapore admitting only 20% of candidate, Finland only 10%. Cultural approaches toward education play an important role in selecting teacher, but so do teacher earnings. The top nation pay their educators a starting salary that is equal to 95% of GDP per capita. South Korea pays 141%. In the United States pay 81% of national GDP per capita. There are also other techniques of drawing the top and the finest people. New York,
Boston, and Chicago have set up members and Residency plans that hire from among the extremely top students. But the dilemma is not just getting high-quality teachers. It is also maintaining them. This is where the next practice comes into play. Barber, Michael and Mourshed, Mona, (2007)
. Graph page (---) top performers often spent less on education than the OECD average
Increase Student Motivation
"The most important motive for work in the school and in life is the pleasure in work, pleasure in its result and the knowledge of the value of the result to the community" - Albert Einstein.
According to Peggy Tsang, educators need to establish into their lessons number of strategies which have been revealed to have a constructive influence on students' motivation. Among theories and approaches to student motivation, several undertake the problem from a psychological viewpoint and other from a physiological point of view. Here is a brief overview.
Behavioral Theory: learning motivation is a product of strengthening. Learners, who have been rewarded and praised for knowledge and accomplishment, can find their potential.
Humanistic Theory: learning motivation is a fulfillment of needs and an effort to accomplish one's total potential as a person
Attribution Theory: learning motivation as a substance of how students perception for their precedent successes or failures. Students who point their success or failure to effort, rather than to their ability are in attribution state.
Expectation value theory: learning motivation is student' anticipation and have value for accomplishment. Learners will be more concerned in learning if they value and expect that they will be successful.
Brain -Based Learning: the use of different duties and actions, for example , incorporating progress and movement in learning and giving learners the state for proceed to experience and observe achievement, can adjust the natural production of different neurotransmitters. The brain's natural reward structure produces these chemicals every time a person experiences an achievement and as a result, the effectiveness of the mind will be enhanced.
Teachers can make a difference and all learners are motivated to learn under the correct circumstances. Teachers can present this environment in their classroom. More highly, teachers can support students' learning motivation in their classroom by representing personal qualities such as concern, care, passion and enthusiasm, and by demonstrate and communicate to student's constructive attitude about teaching and learning which are helpful to the produce a motivating environment. In sustaining and supporting learning motivation, teachers can make a difference. After all motivation is a key factor for mathematics achievement. Marjorie, B. (2010)
Strategies for Increasing Motivation
At the classroom level: Use external motivation.
Make students sense and feel that they are part of the class environment by welcoming and supporting them.
Reply confidently to student questions, admire and praise students out loud for good work.
Put effort to have good communication with student, particularly those considered to be at risk and without positive adult communication. That permits students to promote a sense of association with school
Evaluate and asses student work and effort as soon as possible and be certain that feedback is comprehensible and positive. .
Assess and evaluate students based on the task, not in similarity and difference to other students.
At The School and District Levels
Produce a school culture that stresses the significance of educational accomplishment.
Expand a school environment that distinguish individual and character differences, support creativity and clear vision and gives both instructors and children as sense of autonomy.
Provide and participate in successful professional effective use of homework, and student engagement. Renchler, R. (1992).
Develop activities that deal with motivation. Discuss the issue of motivation with parents, and give them assistance in nurturing motivation in their children.
The culture at the school level can influence the behavior of staff and students and their resulting success in instruction and in education. While evidence found that schools with positive atmospheres are academically more effective and successful.
(Cori Brewster.C &Fager (2000)
How Teacher Motivate Students to Engage in Class Activities?
Teacher should connect materials and lessons to students' live that can be applied in real -life situation. Learning should be important to students within or outside the school. Students are more involve in activities when they can put together previous knowledge and draw clear connections that related to the real life situation.
Awaken students' curiosity about the topic being studied. This kind of activity also builds on students' need for competence and independence, giving students an opportunity to direct research and discover for themselves Bert, P., Creemers, M. & Kyriakides, and L. (2008)
Parent Involvement and Mathematics achievement
Research has revealed that students achieve better academically when parents are involved with their child's education. Children's home environment forms the initial expectation of attitudes they build up toward education. When parents encourage and cultivate their children's normal curiosity about the world by welcoming their inquiries, encouraging exploration, and familiarizing them with educational tools that can expand their world, they are granting their children the significance that knowledge is valuable and often fun and rewarding. (Lumsden, L (1994)
Every racial group has acknowledged and implied morals regarding education in the educational field. The Japanese society puts a high value on learning. Achievement in school is seen as strongly related to individual quality. Learning in school is an honorable issue, and when a student applies good effort in academic pursuits, this reflects completely on the learner as well as on the learner's family. Studies show that Japanese mothers and their children stress effort more than ability, compared to American mothers and their children. .Wlodkowski, R. & Jaynes, J. (1990)
3.1 Focus on Mathematics Attitudes and Achievement
National and international studies have made student achievement in mathematics a high priority in schools. Based on longitudinal study from grammar, middle school and secondary schools, STEVEN B. SHELDON, S & EPSTEIN.J (2005), observed the associations between family and community involvement and student achievement in mathematics. Analysis identifies that successful implementation of performance that supported families to support their children's mathematics learning at home was related a higher percentages of students who scored at or above proficiency on standardized mathematics achievement tests. For all learners to attain higher success, instructors should support and parent involvement in mathematics. Learners whose parents met with a mathematics educator and a counselor to talk about ways to facilitate and assist at home achieve more in mathematics than did students whose parents did not receive guidance and training in such conferences. Likewise, students whose families attended preparation and information workshops and received resources to assist their children at home complete greater increase in mathematics outcomes than did with students whose families did not attend the workshops. Those studies recommend the significance of providing parents with resources, understanding and support to help their children thrive in mathematics.
Schools too can use homework assignments to direct and reinforce home-school communications. For instance, homework can be intended to encourage parent-child communication and activities in particular topics and to allow parents to communicate more easily with instructors about homework assignments .Studies on the effects of associated and collective homework have revealed increased homework completion and enhanced achievement in inner-city and suburban middle schools. Studies propose that use of homework that involves parent- child communications can generate a line of communication between families and educators, increase parent's participation, and assist advance student success.
Teachers may reach the finest consequences by applying activities that assist parent-child interactions connecting mathematics and that support the growth of mathematics skills. STEVEN B. SHELDON, S & EPSTEIN.J (2005)
3.2 Home Environment and Parenting
TSUI, M. (2005) used state test, surveys and evaluation of eighth graders in China and the United States, his research discovered the associations among family income, parenting, home atmosphere, and mathematics accomplishment. The research found that the mathematics success of Chinese eighth graders perform and score higher than American students. Chinese families had higher outlook for their children and discussed more often with them about school. Also, the connection between parental anticipations and mathematics grades is better for Chinese students than for United State students.
China has an understandable custom of stressing education. Math and science considered the most prestigious academic subjects. Students understand that they must put a great effort in order to have a good opportunity, better future, and don't disappoint their parents. The purpose of children develop such a serious approach toward learning is because of the comprehensible respect their families have for teachers.
In the United States, teachers appear to obtain far less support from parents. Support from families influences teachers' spirits and effectiveness, it is probable that the needs of such support indirectly shaped and affect the mathematics achievement of American students.
3.3 Home Environment and Parent
The most interesting and fascinating finding of this study is how healthy Chinese children from poor families did on mathematics comparative to the performance of poor and even non poor American students. This finding implies that even though money makes a difference, but there are more essential factors connected to educational achievement. All Chinese eighth graders knew how far in school their parents want them to go. Most Chinese children considered that they did not study hard enough and that they had not met their parents' expectations. This clear understanding of parental outlook and sense of gratitude to parents may help to explain the high mathematics achievement of poor Chinese children. MING TSUI (2005)
Charts and graphsssâ€¦
Peer groups and Student Achievement.
High school is an essential stage in a student's life. It is at this time that adolescents are making choices about their classes and future learning and career plans. It is also the time when parental influence is being confronted by peer pressure. The power of peers can be both positive and negative. On the positive side, it can serve as an essential incentive for adolescents to achieve well in school. On the negative side, it can guide to regulation problems and delinquent behaviors both inside and outside school. Thus, the values of peers can play an important role in students' educational experiences and outcomes. Figure1 shows the percentage of students characteristic that influence their academicals achievement figure 1.Xianglei Chen (1997)
Peer groups are an essential to teenager development. In fact, there is a recognized need to account for peer group surroundings as an important factor in adolescent socialization, inspiration, and accomplishment. Research has shown that peer groups exert a great deal of influence over the attitude students implement toward achievement. Additionally, it is likely that peer yield more power when adolescent are close friends. Significant associations with peers are assumed to advance emotional and life skills for teenagers and may be connected to educational success and motivation. The values of companion can play a major part in students' culture.
The influence of peers can be both supportive and destructive. On the positive side, it can serves as an important incentive for youth to achieve vigorous in school. On the negative side, peer power can direct to discipline problems. Some peer groups apply negative peer pressure to those who excel academically.
Researchers have argued that negative peer pressure has served to discourage students from conforming to morals, outlook, beliefs, and behaviors that elevate accomplishment. For example, the social disapproval or negative peer pressure experienced by some students might lead to dropping out of school. According to Stewart, E. School Structure Characteristic, Student Effort, Peer Associations, and Parental Involvement. Education and Urban Society Volume 40 Number 2 January 2008 179-204 Corwin Press.
4.1 What Do Peer Think of Me?
Ethnic minority students often say that their peer group presents obstacles to their achievement
During early adolescence, when students are just beginning to develop the cognitive skills necessary to separate their own thoughts and feelings from those of others. At this stage, adolescents are unsure of themselves and poor judges of how their peers will react to their behavior. Peer influence is strong and pervasive, although not as obvious as one might think. The positive power of peers can be important in creating a school climate that is supportive of academic excellence. Understanding the ways that peer influence operates is critical to designing strategies that can take advantage of such influence when it works for you, and defuse it when it doesn't. Burns, A and Darling, N (2002)
4.2 Using or resolve Peer Influence
School can intervene and redirect peer influence toward a positive course:
Provide positive information. Student usually knows there are other kids who really do smoke and do drink. They may not know there are a lot more other kids holding the same positive, non deviant values a they do. Changing the perception of school norms can make students more comfortable in expressing their positive beliefs. Burns, A and Darling, N ( 2002)
Great a mentoring program. Mentoring program is a valuable tool for training future leaders, as well a preparing future students for a successful experience in high school. This program can change the school's future by bringing the positive influence of successful high school students to K - 8 students' lives. According to a public / private Ventures study with Big Brother / Big Sister of America, children with advisers were less predictable to start using illegal drugs, drinking alcohol, skipping school or engage in violence. The research revealed that rather than focusing separately on discrete problems such as alcohol and other drugs, school drop -out, youth violence and teen pregnancy, all of which may affect the same child- the strength of mentoring is that it deals with all these problems simultaneously by addressing the needs of the child as a whole. Gorcoran , G. (2002)
Individual- Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement
"It's not that I'm so smart. It's just that I stay with problems longer." - Einstein.
Einstein was humbled by math and physics. His determination to continue made the difference in his achievements.
What does it take to learn mathematics?
Most people equate it with intelligence, but it is very dependent on developing an attitude, on that include perseverance, tenacity, and fearlessness. Too many students give up upon encountering difficulties in math. Some people are more gifted than others, and so achieve success faster and with less frustration... Those who are not as gifted can compensate with perseverance and tenacity... The hardest aspect of teaching lower levels of math is trying to convince students they can succeed. These students have experienced previous failures, but their lack of success can be attributed to factors that slave nothing to do with innate mathematical ability. . Even student with very high I Qs can't go into higher level math without the background gained from previous courses.
Learning math is two - sided equation: One side is what the student brings to the process; the other side is the teacher. Did the student have perseverance and fearlessness? Was there a good learning environment that included a compassionate and knowledgeable teacher who encourages risk-taking? Schwartz, A. (2006)
Students, persevering can mean many things, from coming to class when they are tired, to doing homework.
Learning math requires that students follow through on several basic steps
Attend class, listen, take notes and ask questions
Look over notes and compare with the text
Do homework and identify problem areas
The bottom line is that students need to realize that succeeding in a math course requires the commitment of time and effort. Student should develop their critical and analytical thinking skills that help them to think more clearly in every aspect of their lives.
Schwartz, A. (2006)
Relationships between self- concept / self - efficacy and mathematics achievement
Self- concept is the perception each person has of him or she is a component of personality development. Ma, X and Kishor, N (1997) consider self- concept, family support, and gender role in mathematics as the major indicators of attitude.
Self - Efficacy is known as the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the resources required to manage prospective situations. Research show students with higher self- efficacy choose more challenging tasks, persist longer in the face of a challenge and put forth more effort. Wassworth, L., Husman, J. &Duggan, M. Effect of Learning (2007)
Self -efficacy and student Motivation.
Self -efficacy, achievement goals, and task value are personal motivation constructs that are effective for distinguishing students with different motivational profiles. Students with strong sense of self- efficacy hold firm convictions about their capabilities to successfully learn and perform given academic tasks at desired levels. Highly self -efficacious students are hardworking, are unafraid of undertaking challenging problems and assignments, express high intrinsic motivation, do not easily give up and, as a result, enjoy the benefit of strong scholastic performance. These students believe that ability is something they can develop by acquiring new knowledge and skills, and they consider temporary failures a natural part of new learning. Bong, M. (2008)
Generally, attitude, belief and emotion are the major descriptors of the affective domain in mathematics education, whereas knowledge and thinking are contents and processes of human memory. Mathematics educators, however, usually consider attitude as their major concern because they view emotion as unstable and attitude as a general concept that includes belief. Mathematics educators generally believe that students with low mathematics self- concept need intervention to change their beliefs about mathematics as a discipline and about themselves as learners of mathematics. Research in mathematics education also indicates the significant role of family in the formation of students' mathematics- related attitudes. . Ma, X. & Kishor, N.
A number of studies have so far indicated that many children begin schooling with positive Attitude toward Mathematics (ATM); these attitudes, however, tend to become less positive as children grow up, and frequently become negative at the high school (Ma & Kishor, 1997). It seems that the pressure exercised on students to cope with highly demanding tasks, often at a pace beyond their ambition, together with unimaginative instruction and non-positive teacher attitudes, have destructive impact on their ATM (Philippou &Christou, 1998). However, the junior school years have been identified as a crucial period in the course of development of students' ATM, meaning that teachers have both, opportunity and responsibility, to promote their students' positive attitudes and high achievement,
The relationship among efficacy, academic motivation and achievement in
Mathematics has been widely studied. It was found that SE beliefs appear to be a more important factor influencing attitudes, achievement, and educational and career choices, than other variables such as anxiety, mathematics experiences, perceptions of Mathematics and self-regulation beliefs (Zimmermann, 2000). It was also found
That the influence of SE on Math performance is as strong as is the influence
With regard to the East Asian students' paradox, several explanations have been provided. It is argued that social environment interferes in this particular. Despite of the low self-expectations that Asian student had, in
Comparison to western students, it was found that SE was positively related to performance within the Asian sample .instructional design could play a significant role in promoting both, students' ATM and their SE beliefs. Hence, teachers need to pay as much of attention to their students' affect world as to actual performance. Very important, of course, is the level of teachers' own sense of efficacy on the one hand, and their ATM on the other. It has been argued that teachers' beliefs about mathematics play a major role in shaping their instructional practice, and consequently influence their pupils' attitudes, SE, interests and achievement (Philippou & Christou, 1998; Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2000).
Based on my research, I conclude that too many factors affect student's mathematical achievement. One of them ,teacher quality on mathematics achievement. Teachers must be familiaze with effective instructional methods and procedures, and must have access to materials, and other effective resources to be able to implement the lesson. Currently, they must do much of the work to improve mathematics education and increase students motivation. Unfortunately, few educators have satisfactory time or preparation to design and comprehensively appraise and evaluate mathematics curricula .
Quality teachers must have many fundamental characteristic to facilitate, promote and nurture the learning process by responding to the individual needs and interests. In order to engage and reach each child, teachers have to identify those teaching strategies that have a high possibility of increasing student mathematics achievement. Some instructional methods and techniques that are recommended in the National Science Educational standard were student - centered instructions, Teaching of critical thinking skills, and use of "hands- on" Laboratory activities.
Teachers should depend on the knowledge of their students to identify the most appropriate instruction strategies. Also Problem solving is recognized by many researchers and educators, as well as professional organizations such as the NCTM and government agencies as an essential skill that is central to the school mathematics curriculum. Teachers must be kept informed of the best research-based practices for teaching students how to solve math word problems. Thus, professional development programs should regularly focus on the teaching of solving math word problems. Banerjee, B. (2009) suggests that the diagramming method of solving word problems can significantly impact student achievement.
Faculty and others responsible for preparing future mathematics teachers should include information about the relevant research and recommended practices for teaching problem solving. Student teachers should be given many opportunities to experiment with different approaches to problem solving and mathematics achievement with particular concentration on the issues of vocabulary and the correct labeling of appropriate diagrams. Banerjee, B. (2009)
In order to improve achievement in mathematics, we need to focus on attracting, selecting, preparing, developing and supporting quality teaching. Each learner deserves teachers who are suited , prepared to teaching, well - educated , trained, talented, capable, qualified, concerned, , caring, loving and committed to moving and advance the education of their students.
Regardless of the relationship between attitudes and achievement, teachers and Mathematics educators tend to believe that children learn more effectively when they are interested in what they learn and they achieve better if they like what they learn .Thus, students who come to enjoy Mathematics, increase their intrinsic motivation to learn, and vice-versa. It is obvious; therefore, that continual attention should be directed towards creating, developing and reinforcing positive attitudes towards any subject of the curriculum.
students' perceptions about their own abilities play a major factor in learning and engagement SE researchers have suggested that teachers should pay, as much of attention to students' perceptions of capability as to actual capability, for it is these perceptions that may more accurately predict students' behavior on the other hand, if teachers provide situations of success for all students, this will improve students' sense of efficacy and their attitudes towards learning. Researchers advocate that the structure of positive and constructive attitudes to school can present a vehicle for powering educational and participation through the final year of high school and after high school.
A positive peer association is significantly associate with mathematics achievement. As adolescents associate with friends who value education and are committed to academic pursuits, they create attachments to school. Furthermore, positive peers provide I
Help students invest in their education.
Parent - child discussion is significantly associate with academic achievement, thereby suggesting that parental engagement in education - related discussion with their children was an effective tool for increasing students' academic and mathematics achievement. This research paper has attempted to deal with the individual -level and teacher and classroom environment that significantly affect students' academic and mathematical achievement. In short, I suggest that individual - level, such as student effort, parent- children interaction and discussion, and associations with positive peers, are substantially associated with students' mathematical achievement.