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Managerialism is a set of belief and practices, and it assumes that there must be a better management that could solve the various problem existing in a wide range of society(Pollitt,1993) Although there are different definitions of managerialism, as a fads and buzzwords, "it has been given various names including, New public Management, New Managerialism, Entrepreneurial Governance and Neo-Taylorism" (handout)during the three decades. There are two basic principles underpinning managerialism as ideology. These are Isomorphism and universalism. Isomorphism considers that the structure is linked with the commercial organisation so its target is coordination between production of goods and service. In other words, it stresses the efficiency of structure of private organisations. In contrast, Universalism views all the organisation are similar, it aim to the satisfaction of individuals for profit organisation.(handout). That is why managerialism works on individual organisation more effectively then policies target at the public sectors. However, managerialism is typified by a set of practice including assumptions, techniques, ideas and behaviours, which gave rise to greater focus on management and leadership, because the resources of all organisations can be optimised by the application of generic management and leadership as basic skills to satisfy the new requirements(Power 1997). Knowledgeably, when studying how far to which managers and staff have believed in managerialism, there are always three categories should be considered, these are willing compliers , unwilling compliers and strategic compliers. Although there is a discussion whether performativity is various from managerialiam or just partly, there should be a challenge what extent the the thinking and actions of teachers and staff will be changed positively.
Similarly , managerialism in England education is a belief that the effective leadership and management is considered as the most important element for operating successful schools and colleges (Bush 2004), However, a set of practice following manaerialism should be listed as comparison with bureau professional also applied in educational system. First, it empowers manager right to manage, which is rising the process of management above that which is to be managed. In the sense, it extend the application of performance indicators for monitoring and control staff actions associated with an insistence of the manager's right to manage. Secondly "usage of cost centres and devolved budgets to achieve greater financial control" , more importantly, using the VFM (value of money) to audit in the public sector, in the sense, applying three conceptions (economy, efficiency and effectiveness) , the organisation should use the least cost and input to achieve its objectives in the shortest time. Thirdly, managerialism use the contracts instead of the high-trust relationship to clear sub-units in order to atomising of large-scale organisation. Fourthly, managerialism use performance assessment to link the individuals' aim and the objectives of organisation. In other words, organisation should create the fixable workplace and introduction of performance related to pay so that weakening of trade union and professional ties within the workplace.(handout). The last but not least, "a virtual-market environment is created , it promotes competition and transforms students into customers".
1.2)How it was introduced in England in education leadership
For the last 30 years, the UK educational system witness a continued and intensified centralization (Bottery,1999). During that time, managerialism has been a stably indispensable ingredient in the policy of government in order to operate public school, in contrast to the traditional bureaucratic ideals, it provide high priority to management and leadership(Pollitt 1993). As time goes by, better management and leadership have become requirement and a trend. "managerilaism is a the acceptable face of new-right thinking concerning the state. It is an ingredient in the 'pot pourri' which can attract support beyond the new right itself." (Pollitt 1993, p49)
Why manageriamlism and performativity are important in terms of education leadership in England
With globalization of information and economy, the trend of thought in the educational leadership and management is flourishing as never before. It has become the predominant ideology in educational management. During the last two decades, Bush(1986, 1995,1999,2004) has consistently argued that effective leadership and management play a crucial role for the successful operation of schools and colleges. Bush(1999) and Gunter(1997) accepted the same conception that managerialism has to emphasise the managerial efficiency rather than the direction at the achievement of educational objectives. That is what Bush(2004,p 2)suggested" successful management requires a clear link between aims, strategy and operational management. In his view there are three aspects should be clear, that is: formal aims, organizational or individual aims and the determination of aims.(Bush 2004). Although the opposition to managerialism is never stopped, the government continually emphasise on the effective management and leadership in school, college and universities as the means by which governmental and organisational goals may be achieved(Simkins 1999).
The heart of educational management is the process of determining on the aims of the organization. There have been debates about that "what is extent of which the government policy can be changed by leaderships who develop alternative approaches based on school-level in England" and Wales. Wright(2001) described the extent, as a " sham" ,is reducing, against, Furlong (2000) considered the extent of government control of education is increasing for the status of the dominance of teachers as professionals and prescriptive national curriculum. However , Bush(2004) recognised that government control of education is existed in England and Wales. So, the policy makers are emphasising on need of good leadership. That is why there are many training organisations for training education managers and leaders.
In addition, managerialism emphasises the impact of management and leadership as a external culture where education institutions operate while it also exerted impacts on the internal culture--organisation culture who focuses on how people in the organisation think and act. Although Charles Handy(1993) did not define it a culture exactly, like Johnson and Scholes(1988) suggested that organisational culture is made of "organisation's stories, myths, rituals symbols, leadership and management styles and structures and systems." (handout), and he integrated the most popular theories and suggested that an organisation's culture is composed of four original cultures: role /power, role/bureaucracy, team/task and personal/existentialist. Bureaucracy is existed in the every educational organisation in the country and it is a feature of organisational culture. Although sometime it is a pejorative word, embarrassingly, it is also produced by managerialism. Because the reinforce of managerialism has gave rise to more rules, regulations and more data have to be collected and required, which is ironic that managerialism concentrates to reduce.(handout)
4 )Leadership theories in common use in England.
Although there is no unified definition of leadership at present, clearly, it is different with the management. It is realized that leadership is an influenced process where individual influences a group or organization through his or her action and motivation.(Yukl 2002;Northhouse 2007). Bush used three dimension to define the leadership, which is a basis for develop a working definition. That is , "leadership as influence", "leadership and values" , and "leadership and vision" . (Bush 2003)
Because the significance of effective leadership has been increasingly acknowledged(Bush 2003), the leadership theory has been studying and analysing. According to different concerns the style approach emphasized on, and various social context, three theories should be noted.
Trait theory, originated in the 19th century, is emphasises the behaviour, particularly, the personality of the leader. There are two general kinds of behaviour should be considered. That is , task aids goal achievement while relational assists interpersonal support.( Northouse 2007)
As a theory, two strengths should be mentioned. The greatest one is that it is very easy to understand, people likely think about what their leaders is and what their leaders should be like. In addition, trait theory can be used to identify potential leadership candidate as a first sieve. On the other hand, as a theory, the greatest weaknesses are that the definitive list of traits has been argued. That means, if a new list is identified the recognized leader should be in dilemma, because they likely do not have all the traits specified.
Contingency theory is an adaptation to circumstances that fund out new way to study leadership and create a new method to improve leadership effectiveness. It is based on three factors : the quality and specialty of leader, the performance of leader and leadership in context. It exerts more impact at management culture than before. Fiddler developed the previous theories and integrated complexity of leadership phenomena, and explained that Leadership is not only a sort of action of self-leader, but exert in the context of leadership.
Contingency theory is concerned with framework for effectively matching the leader and the situation. It is not fixed and universal relevance way to lead and management. Likelihood, any leadership style as long as adopting and matching in context and environment is effective leadership. That is to say, this theory can be used in schools when the style matched situation. But it cannot reasonably explain what leader should do when there is a mismatch between their managerial ability and skills and a special situation of school.
Currently, the Transformation Leadership theory(TL) has become popularised in the educational leadership field. Transformation Leadership theory focuses on values, ethics standards and lon-term goals. A connection leaders create is characterized, it is to raise the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and followers. Caldwell and Spinks (1992) discussed that Transformation Leadership theory is crucial for self-manage schools. However, Bennett et al(2003) argued that because this theory put too much on the top leader as a "heroic" figure and encourage manipulation of followers, it gave rise to overemphasis on conception of distributed leadership. Similarly, Bush(2004) argued that although the transformational model is popular in the literature but the contemporary policy climate cannot provide enough condition for its growth, because "the English system increasingly requires school leaders to adhere to government prescriptions which affect aims, curriculum, content and pedagogy as well as values"(Bush 2004,p78). Similarly, Bottery(2001) gave a the same view that "the more centralized , more directed, and more controlled educational system that has dramatically reduced the possibility of realising a genuinely transformational education and leadership." However, Bush(2004) analysed that TL is consistent with the collegial model in which a challenge should be faced is that leaders and staffs have shared values and common interests.
2.1)Management of education in China.
Education, as a Long-Term Priority, has never been ignored by Chinese government Since the founding of New China, the Chinese government has always attached great importance to education(Basic Education in China(2010)). The Ministry of Education(2009) stated that in the last 3 decades of reform and opening up, "China has been unremitting efforts to explore a path of educational development with Chinese characteristics". It is establishing the world's largest education system.
The first huge change has been made in first reform of educational authorities when the market economy replaced the planning economy in 1985. That is, educational system was no longer compatible with the prevailing economic system and social needs, there was a transition happened in the highly centralized administrative system of education.(Su 2004). National Conference on Education implemented policy "The reforms were intended to expand their management and decision-making powers", this policy gave administrators the necessary encouragement and authority to ensure smooth progress in educational reform. Lee(2006)gave a clear explanation that the local governments were given some administrative powers. The basic education was mainly the responsibility of local governments. In higher education and vocational education, colleges and universities were more independent decisions-making power. Furthermore, the investment system underwent a gradual change under which the state made unified development plans and provided budgetary appropriations for education.
The second great changes taken place in Chinese education in 1993 after the speech of the making one's rounds austral Deng Xiaoping is published. The Ministry of Education was established at that time. The Ministry of Education is highest power of education in China. Education Law of the People's Republic of China states that "the Ministry of Education is responsible for formulating guiding principles for education, establishing regulations, planning the progress of educational projects with expanded administrative scope and power and it is co-ordinating the educational programs of different departments, and standardization educational reforms". That is, bureau professionalism and partly decentralization is characterised of Chinese educational management.
The simplification of administration and delegation of authority were made the bases for improving the education system. This devolution of management from central government to the autonomous regions, provinces, and special municipalities made local governments have more decision-making power. In the investment system, State-owned enterprises, mass organizations, and individuals were encouraged to pool funds to accomplish education reform. Local authorities used state appropriations and a percentage of local reserve financial resources to finance educational projects.
For high education, considered a reason that the education system in China is highly centralized for the long time in the past, Lee(2006)argued that decentralization in education in China has some evident features and the administrative system and funding system of higher education is main aspects in which decentralisation took place in. In the sense, the provincial governments should carry out responsibilities and accountabilities to fund local universities.
Despite that the new Ministry assumed a central role in the administration of education, the reform decentralized much of the power it previously wielded and its constituent offices and bureaus, which had established curriculum and admissions policies in response to the State Planning Commission's requirements.
In summary, Location management is running in basic education and excessive government control over colleges and universities was reduced( the Ministry of education) than before. there are considerable autonomy and variations in and among the autonomous regions, provinces, and special municipalities.
2.3)How it influences Chinese culture
International cooperation and exchanges in the field of education has been expanded while the legal establishment for education has been remarkably development. Valuable experience has been accumulated for the management and adjustment at macro level(The Ministry of Education states). The three key words should not be ignored, that is "bureau professional", "decentralization" and "managerialism". Particularly, Decentralization is buzz word in Chinese management system, it is a characterised of Chinese management in educational system.
Decentralization is by no means an entirely new policy initiative or a recent policy product. The different countries have adopted diversified strategies and outcomes (Hanson, 1998), Being one of the major public policies, educational decentralization is a popular reform of governments around the world including in China. The policy of decentralization has been started in the mid 1980s, and reinforced and deepened since 1993. With the transformative market economy, an important education policy "the Program for Education Reform and Development in China" was promulgated, which outlined the major reform strategies and directions of China's education in basic and higher education in particular towards to the twenty-first century.
Wettenhall(1996) gives a clear explanation of the process that the policies and practices of decentralization have long been adopted as strategies by different nation states to reform and improve their administrative systems. In face of increasing financial constraints and declining state capacity in public services, modern countries have been under increasing pressure for restructuring and reforming their public sector and service delivery. Against this backdrop, a tidal wave of New Public Management emerged since the early 1980s (Hood, 1991). Following the doctrines of New Public Management, decentralization has become one of the most popular public policy strategies commonly adopted by modern states to improve the organization and management of the public sector (Fiske, 1996; Dill and Sporn, 1995).
3)Compare the England and china managerialism and leadership
THIS SECTION NEEDS TO BE EMPHASISED expanded
Despite a fact that critique to government control has existed, government control in education system has placed in differently level in Britain and China. China is country whose educational system is ran by state, before 1985, the government controlled over the education system since 1949, that is to say the Chinese government is the most powerful to manage education through all educational policies made by Chinese Communist Party. For instance, government monitored implementation of its policies at all educational institutions by its party committees. Almost every head teacher and senior management is member of Chinese communist party. The orientation of educational institution guided by policies made central government. Notably, there was a change happened in the national conference on education in 1985, the establishment of the ministry of education symbolised some coordination of education. Although State Council (central government) still played the central role in the administration of education and the new ministry of education is in charge of all organisation, the decentralisation to constituent educational bureaus and local governments, as a rudiment, has established, which had power in different level to establish curriculum and admissions policies. Education law of the people's republic of China(Article 14 ) state that:
The State Council and all local People's government at different levels shall supervise and manage the educational work according to the principle of management by different levels and division of labour with individual responsibility.
Secondary and lower education shall be managed by the local People's government under the leadership of the State Council.
Higher education shall be managed by the State Council and the People's government of province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the central government.
By contrast, in England and Wales, "the school leaderships are reduced to implement the policies and values of government and its agencies"(Bush 2004.p 4). "the government is very appreciative of school leadership who continue to give their time and energy to the voluntary work of serving on school governing bodies.()
Although governments have the constitutional power to impose their will but successful innovations require the commitment of those who have to implement these chances in the England and Wales(Bush 2004.p 4). He explained if the teachers and leaders believe the policies are not suitable for teaching and learning, which should give to rise to lack of passion and enthusiasm to implement an initiative. Therefore, government should appreciate school to have visionary leadership as long as the visions and values of school is closed with government imperatives.
Bush argued that what extent the leadership is able to modify government policy depends on school-level values and vision. Similarly, Furlong(2002) claimed that professionals have been status of teachers because of increased government control of education. That is to say, in England and Wales, professionalism is allowed to exist only by the grace of central government due to the central monitoring of teacher performance. ( Bush,2004 p5)
Governing bodies and individual governors should also review their effectiveness and carry out self evaluation of their own skills and evaluate the skill set possessed by the governing body as a whole so that any skills gaps can be met. Governors should also receive defined information to enable them to challenge and hold the school leadership team to account
Leaderships will need to acquire skills to carry out their responsibilities. To further equip and enable them the working group agreed that there should be mandatory training for all governors.( ) Bush(2003) asserted that it has been consensus that training is desirable way for people to gain suitable knowledge, skills and understanding to lead schools and colleges well. Therefore,the training for all governors is feature in England and Wales, it is quite different with China.
Bush(2003) described the history of management in the England and Wales, before 1983, the UK never provide the national program of management training for heads and very little provision of any kind for deputy heads and middle managers. Thereafter, the educational reform and subsequent legislation had a huge chance of educational system in England and Wales. The first agenda for management development has been reported at the School Management Task Force in 1990. It produced the bedrock of the new managerialism. For the next eight years, the National College for School Leadership is built for two national programmes, one is the National Professional Qualification for Headship, aspiring headship, and other is the Leadership Programme for Serving Heads including new heads and deputy heads. Accordingly, the most important thing was the establishment of mentoring schemes for new head teachers .
Bush(2003) emphasised the next main development in England and Wales is that it set up of TTA(the Teacher Training Agency) which not only devoted to the leadership and management development but also concentrated on pre-service training teachers. More importantly, TTA also set up NPQH(the National Professional Qualification for Headship), including the first national Qualification for aspiring heads in 1997 and the Department for Education and Skills is consulting on making NPQH mandatory for new heads from 2004. The most important stage in England and Wales is establishment of NCSL(the national college for school leadership) in 2000. In short TTA, NPQH and NCSL marked that leadership in England and Wales have been professional and emphasised the significance of leadership.
The NCSL future emphasizes to current normative preference for leadership, and the leadership development programmes has been taken over responsibility. Bush (2003) discussed that NPQH is providing new schemes, such as " new vision: induction to headship for new heads and leading from the middle for subject leaders and other middle managers. The NCSL has realized the significance of information and communications , it is a guidance of research in its leadership team. In addition, compared with TTA, the commitment of NCSL has elevated to a "world class" centre (Bush,2003). However, this world class centre prepared reasonable condition for development of managerialism
The research on self-management conducted by Bush, Coleman, Glover, Levacic in England and Wales pointed that it is important and beneficial to shift towards school autonomy. The greater autonomy in school contributes to optimize the all of resources of school. As a form of decentralization , participative democracy( involving strong participation by stakeholder at the institutional level) market mechanism have coexisted in England and Wales(Sayed,1999). In England and Wales, schools and colleges are at the heart of the educational market place with students and parents as customers.(Bush,2003, p12)
Management and leadership approaches
Due to a fact that some managerialism in china is borrowed from westerns, so some parallels can be drawn between the Chinese case and its Western counterparts in terms of the public management including educational management. For example, Devolution of educational management from the central to the local level was the means chosen to improve the education system. Devolution refers to the transfer of authority to an autonomous unit that can act independently, or a unit that can act without first asking permission. (Bray, 1999)
Lee and Lo( 2001 )agreed with the ideas from Massey (1993), Ferlie (1996) and continued to claim that "In the west, the theme of reinventing government is ideologically embedded in the current of the new right. It promoted the three "Es"(efficiency, effectiveness, and economy) in the public management, and advocates profit, property rights and markets to substitute for the mechanisms of power in the restructuring of public administration".
"In the Chinese context, the remaking of public maintaining to the role of top policy makers, the assessment of the state capacity, the dilemma between the state hierarchy and market mechanisms and the controversy of property rights. During the reform ear, the top Chinese policy makers have been trying to gain not only a realistic policy making role for the party-state at the macro level, but also feasible approaches in the remaking of public management at the micro levels".