Managerial Effectiveness Can Be Differentiating From Managerial Efficiency Education Essay

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The significance of professional / managerial performance and effectiveness has been recognized by key writers such as Drucker in 1955, according to him:

The manager is a dynamic, life giving element in every business. Without their leadership 'the resources of production' remain resources and never become production. In a competitive company, overall the quality and performance of the managers is the only effective advantage and enterprise in a competitive company can have. (Drucker, 1955).

Managerial effectiveness can be differentiating from managerial efficiency. Managerial effectiveness is about with 'doing the right things' and also describe the output of task and tell us what the manager in fact achieves. On the other side Efficiency is concerned with 'doing things right' and also describes to input what the manager does. To become efficient, the manager must be there to input requirement of the job - to explanation of the targets, planning company direction and control. But to become effective, the manager must pay concentration to output of job- to measure the performance in term of obtaining best possible results in core area of company, maximum use of resources, increase profitability and accomplish the target and goals of organization. Effectiveness must be linked to the attainment of some objectives and goal and to the performance of the management process and the implementation of the work. Now we attempt to make a distinction between successful and effective managers.

Effective Manager:

Effective Manager can be defined in term of the quantity and quality of standards of performance and satisfaction and they are well commitment of subordinates. Manager should be energetic and determine to his tasks and should prioritizing the work task. Critical should be done earlier than routine task.

There are many institutions and training centres like Centre for Excellence in Management Development (CEMD) continuously offering workshop on Effective Management Skills to help people and organization to improving their efficiency and effectiveness. During these workshops members are not only developed particularly capabilities in the schedule while they also improved learning skills and teamwork skills. The effective manager should be capable and have fully controlled on following skills.

Problem solving skills

Discovering causes of a problem

Explaining and analyzing a problem

Developing artistic options and selecting the best course of action

Executing and assessing effective and efficiency of the decision.

Communication Skills

Presentation skills

Listening skills

Report witting skills.

Conflict Management Skills:

Identifying sources of conflict

Understanding personal style of conflict resolution

Select the best strategy for dealing with a conflict

Promoting constructive conflicts in organization and teams.

Negotiation Skills:

Identifying common mistakes in negotiation and ways to avoid them

Developing rational thinking in negotiation

Developing effective skills in negotiation that benefits all parties involved.

Personal skill

Time management

Professional skill

Report writing skill

Assessment of my Personal and professional skills

The above mentioned skills will be really helpful to me to meet my future personal and professional goals. I planned my time earlier before doing something and I already know when and how much time should spend there. I am good in time management. I am very punctual and always reached on time wherever I have to go. Therefore, I never late from my office and as well in class room. And this is really appreciated by my boss and my tutors. This skill will help me in future to achieve personal and professional goals.

A very famous quote "A practice makes a man perfect". I was not much familiar to write a report. But after attending this course I came know the how to write professional report. Initially I have some problem to write a report but through practice I also have command on report writing. Now I am capable to write a good professional report. And this skill is very essential in professional life to achieve professional goals.


Lurie J.Mullings. (2007) Management and Organizational Behaviour, 8th Edition: Edexcel -managment-skill-e.htm (Access date 22/11/2010)

Task 2

SWOT is abbreviated of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats.

Personal SWOT analysis



Time Management

Prioritizing Work Task

Problem Solving

Trouble in Setting Goals

Lack of Business Background.

Poor Stress Management



Personality Improvement

Response & Feedback from lecturer

Interaction with different county's people

Home office, very strict to foreign student.

Home sickness

Fee submission problem, if not get job.

May be not able to pass DMS

Professional SWOT Analysis




Report Writing Skill

Time management

Poor Leadership

Poor presentation

Poor Communication



After DMS, enable me to do MBA.

Enable me to get good Jobs.

As poor communication & presentation, I may not able to deliver well and lose the job

Cause and effect diagram is often known as fishbone diagram.

Poor communication skill

Less chance to lead people

Poor leadership

Poor Prestation Skills

Poor coaching Skill

Fighur2.1: Fishbone diagram of Poor Leadership

Learning Style

Educationalist have long realised that we learn in different ways. One widely used categorisation of different learning styles that provided by Honey and Mumford.

They identified four different characters with quite different preferred learning styles-the activist, the pragmatist, the reflector, the theorist. diagnostic tests exist to established which learning style is more appropriate for you and help you develop an action plan to develop your learning skills You should give yourself a score between one and ten(1-10) for how well each of the description describe you. If you give it to 1 it is very poor description of you. if u give it 10 it is very good description of you.

My learning style is Pragmatists which I describe blew.





You are a practical person

You like to solve problems

You enjoy experimenting to improve techniques

You frequently come up with answer to the problems

You only interested theories is to see if they work in practice

You dislike situation where there is no clear, practical outcome

You work well to deadlines.

You learn well when:

You are expected to make practical decisions

Using simulations and case studies

Learning from proven good practice, using the examples and the expertise of others.











Pragmatist Total =


Interpretation of Learning Style

A pragmatist is a practical person who likes to solve problems. They enjoy experimenting to improve techniques. They regularly come up with the answer to a problem. Their only interest in theories is to see if they work in practice. They dislike the situation where there is no clear practical outcome.

Pragmatist learns well when:

They are expected to make practical decisions

Timescales are tight

They must better find better ways to do things

Learning from proven good practice

Learning from examples and the expertise of others

They are expected to plan the next step

Pragmatists will particularly benefit from training which involves simulations and case studies

Pragmatists learn less well when:

They are expected to come up with new ideas themselves

The practical relevance of what they are doing is unclear

They are expected to work out why a technique work

Because a pragmatist learner I love to solve the problems which occurs in my personal and professional ways. According to this learning style time scale is always tight, there I always attempt to finish my assignment on time. As a pragmatist I learn a lot from practical examples and good practice. I understand when I start my practice in personal and professional life. As a pragmatist I am less creative due this some problems are happened when someone expect to come up with new ideas. Some time lack of practical relevance it is not clear for me what is happening. This practice is really very helpful to me because after this I came to know my learning style. So through this I will over come my weakness and attempting to learn more and improve my strengths.

Task 3

Personal Goals

As I said earlier that my communication and presentation skills are not as good as it should be. My personal goal is to improve my communication and presentation skills.


These are very specific goals. One reason to have communication and presentation problem is that the English is my second language. So communication and presentation skills will be improved as by improving my English language.


These goals are also measurable because I am keeping check on this goal day by day.


My goals are also achievable to improve my communication and presentation n skills I am trying my level best. I am reading grammar, English books, watching English documentary and lot of practicing on presentation to improve in every sense. So, I am struggling very hard to get command on English language.


Yes these are very realistic because these are the such goals that can be achieved by struggling hard. There are lot of example in front of me, people came here and have a same problem like me but worked hard improved the skills. I am also following that way.


Yes the time period is also specified by me. The goals will be achieved by 15

January 2011.

Professional Goal

As, I said earlier that my leadership and coaching abilities are not so good also need to be improved more. My professional goals are to improve my leadership and coaching abilities.


These are very specific professional goals. My goals are to improve my leadership and coaching abilities. The main reason of this professional weakness is that because I haven't got any opportunity to lead or coach a team or group of people.


These are also measurable goals because now I am practising and looking leadership and coaching qualities to improve my skills.


Nothing is impossible in this world if some one is determine to achieve it. Improving leadership and coaching qualities are also achievable goal. Very soon, I will achieve these abilities to struggling hard.


The goal is very realistic. Work hard capable me to improve and learn leadership and coaching abilities.


The time period keeping in mind to achieve these professional goals is by 15 January, 2011. So I am working hard to achieve it by dead line mentioned earlier.

Personal Development Plan (PDP)

The personal development planning is well structure method, which is lope along with our studies and broadens to our career. The plan is very helpful for learners and also reflects their learning and achievement and also gives a brief plan for their own personal education and career development.

Learning and development need

How does this support your professional and personal goals

Learning actions to be taken including resources needed to achieve them

Date of achievement

Try to write professional need and attempt to give presentation

Through practice I will achieve my personal and professional goals

Submit my report to Mirrium in order to gain feedback

14th January 2011

Reflective Analysis

What have I learnt from my experience?

As I described that my personal goal was to improve communication skill, in start I have so much problems to communicate in front of people and in fact this was my shyness which was big hurdle in the way to improve my communication skill. On the other side my professional goal was to improve leadership qualities. Leadership also partly connected to communication. A good leader must have well communication skill. To learn more about leadership I am still reading books which were written on life of our great leader Quid-e-Azam. These books are really very helpful to improving my leadership qualities.

What went well?

Before the practicing and learning my communication and leadership qualities are not so good but after this course and tutor guide really very help me in improving my both personal and professional skills.

What could have gone better?

My personal gaol communication and professional goal leadership quality are gone better. And proper feedback of my work related to my goals from tutor also lead me to improvements.

How can I put into practise what I have learnt?

The skills communication and leadership ability which I have learnt are really helpful for me in future. Like now I can communicate very well and also lead some group of people.

Task 4

Report on "Project Management: Is there A Crisis?"


The report literature is about the software project failure and main objective is to highlight the reasons of software crises. There are many key researchers who have done different researches to find out the causes of software project failure. In addition the piece of paper suggested that the funds and time was wasted on poor planned, misconduct management and delayed information technology projects. The end result shows that the problems linked with software crises still exist and there is still need to re check the software development phenomenon

Table of Content

Introduction .................................................................................................................15

Symptoms of Software Crisis.......................................................................................16

Primary Causes of Software Crisis...................................................................... ........16




The software industry has been developed over a decades and this is computing and information Technology age and these things are become our necessary needs because made our life easier as before earlier. Computing and software technology is becoming more complex, influential and powerful day by day and intruding new software markets in the world. And on the other side client determined, pushy and are making more demanding requirements. Unhappily, the software industry is still marked by problems, such as costs over budgeted and not meet dead line and poor product quality. Like these problems called as the software crises.

Therefore, we argue that one main reason is software project management and linked conventional approaches. Chartte (2005) has been complied some shocking failure statistics related to software crisis. Where he stated that failure of software project occurs in roughly every country, like USA, UK, Australia and Canada on each level. According to him that the software crisis cost was $18.33 billon in America. After soon a comprehensive survey was conducted by KPMG using sample of 175 UK based companies. Where he found about 65% companies had at least one major software failure.

Symptoms of Software Crisis:

Through out the research the researcher finds out many symptoms of software crisis. Some researchers have pointed out a crisis within the software industry. Gary (1998) highlights that there is no such comprehensive study resulting that what percentage of software project fail. There is three main elements cost, delivery time and quality which are identified as symptoms to measure the failure and success of a project. Anecdotal is another piece of evidence is used to highlight the symptoms and basic causes of project failure which provoke serious issues of software crisis. Almost the all researcher find out the same symptoms which guide to software project failure, the common causes like budget laps, ill planned also causes of money wasted, poor management and delayed information technology projects which directs to project failure.

Primary Causes of Software Crisis:

The key researcher Charette (2005) and Glass (1998) exposed many key causes of software project failure. Some causes are under below mentioned.

1. Unspecified objectives and bad planning: According to Glass (1998) the primary causes of software project failure are the targets were not properly specified and on the other side they also did not made proper planning before project starting. There is also a poor estimation about the needed resources before they start project and which cause the software project failure.

2. Poor Methodology: The poor methods were used for project management and they did not be familiar with all methodologies. And they were not so capable to choose relevant methodology of different projects.

3. Inadequate senior staff and project complexity: Another primary cause for software crisis is not well trained staff and most of the projects were too much complicated. As a result, it was so tough for new and less experienced staff to handle the project complexities.

There is too many causes and problem to effect the software project such as commercial pressure, shareholder politics and unmanaged risk etc.


The detailed study enables us to conclude the symptoms and causes of software project failure. There are so many factors engaged in the software crisis but one thing can be minimized the risk of failure, before start any project the analyst should implement or apply it in a small/ limited area, after the trail it can be seen that it will apply as whole or not. To produce the better result in future it is necessary to re examine the software development phenomenon.