Explore to what extent the managerialist model of management and leadership adopted in England and Wales has influenced management culture in China and the impact that this has had on my management and leadership style.
Managerialism is a set of beliefs and practices, and it assumes that better management can solve the various problems existing in the public sectors (Pollitt,1993). In either England and Wales or China, Managerialism has been a stable indispensable ingredient in the policy of government in order to operate state schools, in contrast to the traditional bureaucratic ideals, it provides high priority to management and leadership (Pollitt 1993).
Educational leadership, is a diverse research field, and it has been studied and developed over many years (Bush 2003). It is a process in which an individual influences the group of individuals to accomplish the common goals and targets. Educational leadership is born in an institutional context, that is to say if there is no institutions then there can be no educational leadership. Educational leadership includes focus on goals, which means it impacts in contexts where everybody is moving toward a goal. It therefore seems like a power relationship existing between leaders and followers (Northouse ,2007).
Management is defined realistically in the context of an organization. That is to say that management is a process which enables organizations to set and achieve their objective by planning organizing and controlling their recourses, including gaining motivation from their employees.
Although it is being argued that the application of some managerialist approaches cause problems, in England and Wales, education is overseen by the Department for Education according to managerialist principles. Almost all state-funded schools are maintained schools funded by the government in which the local authority, Ofsted and the TDA are influential partners.
Proponents of the new managerialism in education argue that managerial methods are necessary to respond to the demands of a changed environment with dramatically increased degrees of uncertainty in a knowledge-dependent society. In this paper, I argue that the ongoing changes in education management are better understood in England and Wales as well as in China. I will focus on as follows:
To explore and contrast how government in England and China control schools in their respective countries.
To compare and contrast how leadership is exercised in schools in China and England. (trait, style, transformational leadership)
To reflect on what leadership theory I might be able to apply when I return to China.
2.1)Managerialism in English Education
Managerialism has become the predominant ideology in English educational management. Although there are different definitions of managerialism, as a fad and buzzword, it has been given various names including, New public Management, New Managerialism, Entrepreneurial Governance and Neo-Taylorism" (Power 1997 cited in McGrath. 2004).
Managerialism was introduced to English education in 1980s and there has been as a belief that effective leadership and management is considered as the most important element for operating successful schools and colleges (Bush 2004 cited in McGrath).
Educational management is a field of study and practice concerned with the operation of educational organisations(Bush 2003.p1). although there are no single definition of management, three definitions should be taken account of. Glatter(1979) argue that education management studies have to consider and be responsible to two parts, those are that internal elements and external environment including communities they set and government bodies who make policy for education. Bolam(1999,p.194) detailed this deification and describe it as: " education management is an executive function for carrying out agreed policy".
Although it is controversial about definition about education management, Bush (2003.p1) insists that "educational management has to be centrally concerned with the purpose or aims of education. In other words, the principle of linking management activities and tasks to school or college aims and objectives remains vital."
Bush (2003) analysed that the typical traits lead to popularity of managerialism in education system. That is (1) managerialism empowers managers' right to manage (2) It achieve greater financial control. (3) It organises sub-units. (4)It connects the individuals' aim and the objectives of organisation. (5) It promotes competition and transforms students into customers.
In England and Wales,almost all maintained schools are funded by local authorities(Las), teachers working in such schools are employed according to policy of School Teachers' Pay and Conditions Document made by state.these schools are required to follow the national curriculum and inspected by the office for standards in Education(Ofsted).Ofsted usually used the report to modify or replace the governing body and leadship. In addition.
Type of school.
Running of the school
Land and building
Staff and headteacher
GB in consultation with LEA
Voluntary controlled school
Voluntary aided school
GB in consultation with LEA
(local educational maintain )
Type of school
Running of school
Land and building
parents and, sometimes, charitable trust funds
the local education authority
the head teacher with the backing of the governing body
the head teacher or the governing body may buy in and administer support services
city technology colleges
the DCSF and commercial sponsors
GB buys the support services
( not by LEA maintain
In England, Although oppositions to managerialism are existed because of over intervention of government, the government continually emphasises the effective management and leadership in schools, colleges and universities as the means by which governmental and organisational goals may be achieved (Simkins cited in McGrath 1999). However, it is a fact that managerialism has developed and improved the education management system, and the trend has shown that it will continue to play an important role in education system.
2.2) Managerialism in Chinese education
China is a country that its educational management system experiences from zero, to exploring and studying, and then to developing and reflecting. The development of educational management system in China can be divided to four stages should be mentioned.
The budding stage ,in 1952, China has set education institution, but because of a lack of experience of educational management, the education system is centralized and unified by central government. The first stage began in 1958, state council published " previsions to expand their management and decision-making powers ", which symbolized a transformation form centralization of authority to decentralization.
The second stage happened in 1963, the State Council published "interim previsions for enforcing unified leadership and level-level administration in high education" , which developed " unified leadership, level-to-level administration, power is relatively centralized to central government". It is a milestone that is Chinese educational management system in its own way.
The third stage started in 1985, "the regulation on educational management system" was published, the local authorities have to be responsible for education, level-to-level administration has become a feature for education system, which further developed reform of educational management system.
Entre in 2001ï¼Œthe State council announced " regulation on basis educational reform" and "notice of compusolry education in rural area" published in 2002, basis education began implement the policy"local governments are responsible for educationã€level-to-level administration, give a place on county "
Content of reform
Influence and result
In 1952interim premoryand secondary management
Copy model from former soviet union
The birth of educational management system
Â 1958 " previsions to expand their management and decision-making powers
a transformation form centralization of authority to decentralization
solve the problem in chinese context
Â 1963å¹´"interim previsions for enforcing unified leadership and level-level administration in high education"
" unified leadership, level-to-level administration, power is relatively centralized to central government".
unified leadership, power is relatively centralized to central government".
Basically correct out of control of educational development of education
1985"the regulation on educational management system"
local authorities have to be responsible for educationã€running a school in deferent levelã€level-to-level administration
local authorities have to be responsible for education
solidify the outcome of reform before
2001 regulation on basis educational reform" and "notice of compusolry education in rural area in 2002
local governments are responsible for educationã€level-to-level administration, give a place on county
Take priority for county
Sooner after implementï¼Œhave a initial achievement about solving some probeloms about default salary of teachers, schools funds not enough and headteachers and senior manager's right and responsibility
Step by step to legalization
More Scientific and democratic
Different timedifferent emphasis and policies to sovle the existing problems
Study advanced experience and sovle existed problem while establish educational management system in chinese way
The simplification of administration and delegation of authority were made the bases for improving the education system. In the basic education, this devolution of management from central government to the autonomous regions, provinces, municipalities and special counties made local governments have more decision-making power.
For high education, considered a reason that the education system in China is highly centralized for the long time in the past, Lee(2006)argued that decentralization in education in China has some evident features and the administrative system and funding system of higher education is main aspects in which decentralisation took place in. In the sense, the provincial governments should carry out responsibilities and accountabilities to fund local universities.
Although the new Ministry assumed a central role in the administration of education, the reform decentralized much of the power it previously wielded and its constituent offices and bureaus, which had established curriculum and admissions policies in response to the State Planning Commission's requirements.
Although hierarchy management is running in basic education and excessive government control over colleges and universities was reduced( the Ministry of education) than before, it is clear that government control exerts strong in informal channels.
2.3) Compare and contrast
Admittedly, government control in education system has been placed at a different level in England and China
In England and Wales, Educational management system is simplified with the Department for Education(DFE) and Local education authority(LEA), on the top level, the education system is overseen and inspected by The Department for Education and the Departement for Business, Innovation and Skills. On the local level, LEA is engaged in monitor and inspect the progress and is responsible for implementing policy to education institution.
Education is a long-term priority in China, it has never been ignored by Chinese government Since the founding of New China, the Chinese government has always attached great importance to education, It is establishing the world's largest education system (Basic Education in China(2010)). Compared with England and Wales, educational system is more complex either in basic education or high education.
Although the reform of educational management system never stopped and devolution administrative power to lower level has achieved partly, a fact can been seen from char 1 and 2, the formal control imposed by the bureaucratic hierarchy. In another words, the power to manage schools is still hold by government in some informal channels.
Compared with China, government control in educational system is less than that in China. Firstly, Britain is country with perfect law system and Independent legal entity of school is explicit so that local government and educational departments are not able to intervene administratively to school without evidence of law. More importantly, In terms of governing body of school, the head teacher is commissioner of school and responsible to school board that is decision-making body. The head teacher implements the decision made by school board and manage school monitored by school board. As we know that governments have the constitutional power to impose schools that they have to implement their policies in the England and Wales. Bush (2004.p 4) explained if teachers and leaders believe the policies are not suitable for teaching and learning, which should give rise to a lack of passion and enthusiasm to implement an initiative. Therefore, government should encourage schools to have visionary leadership as long as the visions and values of school are close to government imperatives. However, "The government is very appreciative of school leadership who continue to give their time and energy to the voluntary work of serving on school governing bodies" (Bush 2003.p5)
2.4 Leadership theories in common use in England schools
Undoubtedly, managerialism needs high quality management or leadership and policy maker have placed great emphasis on the good leadership. So the model of leadership has been promoting. Although there is no unified definition of leadership at present, it is different from management. Yukl(2002) and Northhouse (2007) described that leadership is an influenced process where individual influences a group or organization through his or her actions and motivation. Bush(2004) clarified this by suggesting three dimensions to define leadership. that is, "leadership as influence", "leadership and values" , and "leadership and vision" .
Because the significance of effective leadership has been increasingly acknowledged, not true because its important new theories have been developed researchers never stop to study and analyse leadership theories. In consequence, there are many leadership theories according to different concerns the style approach emphasized on and various social context. However, in England, every leader has their own leadership style which very often can be analysed using trait, style and transformational leadership.
Trait theory is leadership theory with long history. It originated in the 19th century, is based on the Great Man theory of leadership. Where from The Great man theory believes that a successful leader should have certain innate characteristics that make them special and concentrate on their success. Trait theory developed out of the Great man theory and emphasises the identification and analysis of the superior qualities of leaders. This theory concentrate on the personality which are innate traits that a leader requires. (Power 1997 cited in McGrath. 2004)
As a theory, the traits leaders should hold have been studied since its birth. Although no one has been able to provide the definitive list of traits which are different between leaders and non-leaders, there are seven typical traits that have been considered important. That is: self-confidence, intelligence, helicopter effect (explain it) , persistence, integrity, motivation and responsibility, which emphasise what qualities a leader should have. ( McGrah. 2004)(reference)""
For the reason that trait theory is still important at present, two strengths should be mentioned. The greatest one is that it is very easy to understand, people likely think about what their leader is and what their leaders should be like. Another great function of trait theory is that trait theory can be used to filter candidates and identify those with leadership qualities. These strengths also affect following new theories, but as a theory, the greatest weaknesses also constrict its development. The greatest weakness is that the definitive list of traits has not been agreed. That is to say, if a new list is identified the recognized leader should be in dilemma, because they likely do not have all the traits specified. ( McGrath. 2004 )(quotation if u copy other words say situation some
Compared with trait theory that focus on the personality, style theory concerned with the behaviour. Northouse (2007) comments that generally there are two kinds of behaviour which should be considered. One is task theory which aids goal achievement and other is relational theory which assists interpersonal support. Style theory seeks a way to help leaders to effectively combine these two behaviours. As a theory, the greatest strength is that it established the idea that the leader's style is composed of two major components- task and relationship, more importantly, the key to good readership is finding the right balance, which changes the focus of research to what leaders do and how they act while it provides leaders with an insight into how others see them. However, there are three doubts about this theory. First, how does style of leadership impact on performance and attitude of staff? Secondly, whether there is a style that is effective in all situations? Thirdly, it does not take account of the context or situation in which leadership is exercised (Northouse 2007).
Currently, the Transformation Leadership theory (TL) has become popularised in the educational leadership field. Transformation Leadership theory focuses on values, ethics standards and long-term goals. A connection leaders create is characterized by raising the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and followers.
As opposite to them, Bennett et al(2003) argued that because this theory put too much on the top leader as a "heroic" figure and encourage manipulation of followers, it gave rise to overemphasis on conception of distributed leadership. ( for leadership )Similarly, Bush(2004) discussed that transformational model is popular in the literature but the contemporary policy climate cannot provide enough condition for its growth, because "the English system increasingly requires school leaders to adhere to government prescriptions which affect aims, curriculum, content and pedagogy as well as values"(Bush 2004,p78). Bottery (2001) holds a the same view that "the more centralized , more directed, and more controlled educational system that has dramatically reduced the possibility of realising a genuinely transformational education and leadership." (2001: page) However, transformational leadership theory is consistent with the collegial model in which a challenge should be faced is that leaders and staffs have shared values and common interests.
2.5) Management and leadership approaches used in China
Government control, on the one hand, built a solid basis of education; on the other hand, it produced a constriction on leadership. Although being one of the major public policies, educational decentralization is a popular reform of governments around the world including China. Admittedly, there are considerable autonomy and variations in and among the autonomous regions, provinces, and special municipalities, but decentralization is by no means an entirely new policy initiative or a recent policy product. Leadership has to be impacted by local government and it has to adopt diversified strategies to obedience to authority. (reference ? why )
Indeed, in China, leaderships in school are strategic compliers of policy and government. The reason is that "what is extent of which the government policy can be changed by leaderships who develop alternative approaches based on school-level.
In general, the aim of schools for basic education is to enter higher school and the target of high education is to be in business in China, In face of increasing financial constraints and under increasing pressure of government inspect and social intervention., on balance, leaderships in school have to pursue three "Es" (efficiency, effectiveness, and economy) to follow the policy of government.
2.6 Reflection: what extent could that trait, style and transformational leadership used in China
Despite a fact that government control, to some extent, impacts the development of leadership in China, with managerialism development, leadership theories also exerted influence on leadership style. Trait, style and transformational leadership theories are paid attention more. Exactly, trait theory is the oldest theory and the earliest used in china, this theory is not solely copy of the Great Man theory, but it is based on Great Man theory, summarized the common traits of successful leaders.
Up to now in China, likelihood, if an organization wants to look for a leader or someone want to work as a leader in educational institution, the basic qualities as first sieve should be required, these traits are as followed:
Intelligence: leaders should have professional knowledge and be intellect to deal with issues and problems.
Self-confidence: it is quite different between leaders and their followers. No matter how hard the leaders confront with challenges, leaders should be confident to tackle them, it is not fake it but positive to seek effective way due to a believe you can deal with them.
Helicopter effect: China is a country whose thought is more collective, as a leader, she or he should be able to encourage everyone's aim to be same with organization. leaders need to motivate not only themselves but also staff.
Persistence: as good quality, the leader must have it. As leaders in education, they should meet challenges, obstacles and results that are not expected. Never giving up and keeping forward are ever objectives.
Integrity: it come from respect and trust and integrity is foot of respect and trust.
Responsibility: leaders should put responsibility before accountability.
Reference here who wrote it With popularity of transformational leadership theory in western, this theory is permeating to China. It is part of the new leadership paradigm that give more attention to the charismatic and effective elements of leadership. It meets the needs of today's work groups who want to be inspired and empowered to succeed in times of uncertainty, because this theory focus on the intrinsic motivates and follower's development. It provide easier way for leaders to combine the aim of organization and individuals targets. It is more humanism, and it consider emotions, values, ethics, standards and long-term goals and includes assessing followers motives, satisfying their needs and treating as full human beings. That is why this theory is broad researched and applied in China.
These three theories have their own strengths and weaknesses, how to exert their advantages and avoid their disadvantages is strategy and tactic.
Conclusion : 500
In conclusion, therefore, it can be seen that despite widespread opposition to managerialism. It is common sense that there are two sides for everything in the world, although opposition of managerialism has never stopped, managerialism has become a dominant ideology in educational management either in England and Wales as well as in China. It is a production of development of society even though the application of managerialist approach can cause some problem.
However, managerialism emphasizes on manager's right to manage. It is typified by a set of practice including the assumptions, techniques, ideas and behaviours, so the practice of management is raised above importance of the function being managed. So the introduction of manageriamlism led to a greater emphasis being place on management and leadership as these skills were necessary to meet the new requirements. Reference here who said quotation
According to managerialism, government needs the good management and leadership to control education. However, the government policy cannot be changed by leaderships who develop alternative approaches based on school-level. In other words, governments in England and Wales have the constitutional power to impose their will but successful innovations require the commitment of those who have to implement these changes; while in China, central government controls and manages at different levels. On the one hand it keeps educational development stable; on the other, it limits innovation.
Management and leadership
As a predominant ideology in educational management, managerialism needs the effective management and leadership which are required by governmenal and organizational. Management is of mind so it is important. As a science, it is concerned with now and here, which means manager need to do things right; while leadership is concerned with future, as a art, leadership is sole and heart, it need to do right things. So management and leadership, in most time, could not be divided.
Indeed, leadership theories have provide a dramatically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. As is mentioned before that in England the trait, style and transformational leadership are very often analysed by most leaders even if they have their own leadership style. During the process of development of leadership theory, the researchers and leaders have been looking for the best way to obtain the sense and avoid their weakness. This is why some good strengths of old theory (traits and style theory) are still important for today. With the development of leadership theory, the new theories always fit requirement of age in order to fit effective management and leadership.
Areas of weakness in what you have done
I have done my best to show the educational management and leadership in England and Wales and China. Because the aims of education are more diffuse and contested. As is known, the educational aims are tied up with people's values and beliefs, so educational management and leadership should be different with other public areas. In addition, because of the differences of context and tradition in different countries, management and leadership in China and England are in different way, although it is in very subtle, implicit ways. The analysis and discussion have been shown; some of these were somewhat out of date. Although it is not clear which leadership style is the best for England and China, at least, the strengths and weakness mentioned before are meaningful for further research if it is merely reflecting way for me to see my own leadership style.
However, in the long run, negative effect of managerialiam and leadership theories should be attractive my eyes. As we know that things will change, but only slowly. Research in these areas is important, the eventual solution would identify the better way to manage schools, colleges and universities - in other words, a greater respect for aims of education to look for a fittest management method. (3982)