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Researchers in the field of education have long recognised the importance of motivation. As early as 1806, Herbart recognised the close relationship between interest and learning (Herbart, 1965) and again in 1913, Dewey highlighted the importance of interest as a motivating force in learning (Dewey, 1913). Although the concept was somewhat overshadowed during the periods in the history of psychology and education when behaviourism and cognitive science held the limelight, more recently theorists have acknowledged that a comprehensive theory of learning should incorporate motivational aspects (Boekaerts & Nenniger, 1999; Hidi, 1990).
Motivation of teachers has been a prime concern of school administrators. Every educator needs to be concerned about motivation. It is a quality that students, teachers, parents and school administrator and other members of the community must have if our educational system is to prepare young people adequately for the challenges and demands of the coming century. Of course, the way these various groups of individuals generate and use motivation differs greatly. Students need motivation to learn, parents need it to track the educational progress of their sons and daughters, teachers need it to become better teachers and school, college and university administrators need it to ensure that every facet of the schools, college and university they manage continues to improve.
Motivation is an important tool that is often underutilised by heads of institutions in today workplace. Heads use motivation techniques in the workplace to inspire teachers to work, both individually and in groups, to produce the best results for education in the most efficient and effective manner. It was assumed that motivation had to be generated from the outside, but it is now understood that each individual has his own set of motivating forces. It is the duty of the heads of institutions to carefully identify and address these motivating forces.
Motivation is the desire or drive within a person to achieve some goal. Within is the operative word here, for motivation is an internal condition based on a person's perceptions and needs (Ricks; 1995).
Motivation is getting others to do something because they want to do it. To motivate others is one of the most important management tasks. It comprises the abilities to understand what drives people, to communicate, to involve, to challenge, to encourage, to set an example, to develop and coach, to obtain feedback and to provide a just reward. Motivation is about cultivating your human capital. The challenge lies not in the work itself, but in you, the person who creates and manages the work environment (Cook, 1991).
This research will focus on the close relationship between teacher motivation and the rector's role with regard to this aspect of the work context.
The three specific objectives of this research are:
to investigate the motivation techniques used by the rectors of the secondary schools and the effect it has on teacher performance ;
To examine the views of teachers about the effective and ineffective motivational techniques used by rectors and the effect it has on student performance;
To identify the effect of the motivation techniques used by the rectors and the impact it has on student performance
The main research questions pertain to teacher motivation and instructional leadership, namely:
What is meant by the concept, motivation?
What factors motivate teachers to teach with inspiration?
What instructional leadership strategies may be employed by rectors to motivate their teachers?
Examples of research hypotheses to be tested in this study are:
H0: There is no relationship between motivation techniques used by rectors and the effect it has on teacher performance.
H1: There is a relationship between motivation techniques used by rectors and the effect it has on teacher performance.
H0: There are no differences between the performance of the teachers resulting from motivational techniques used by the rectors and the effect it has on student performance.
H1: There are differences between the performance of the teachers resulting from motivational techniques used by the rectors and the effect it has on student performance.
H0: There is no relationship between the motivational techniques used by the rectors and the performance of the students.
H1: There is a relationship between the motivational techniques used by the rectors and the performance of the students.
Nature of Motivation
Motivation is a very important factor in learning, creativity, responsibility, healthy behaviour and last change. Motivation is one of the most important components of learning. It holds a pivotal role in the teaching and learning process. Though a teacher's level of motivation occupies a very important position it always depends on the student' level of motivation which plays even more important role in the cycle of teaching learning process. A strong inner urge will mean stronger efforts. Adequate motivation not only sets in motion the activity which results in learning, but also sustains and directs it. It is concerned with the arousal of interest in learning (Chand, 1990).
Motivation refers to a state that directs the behaviour of the individual towards certain goals. Motivation has been defined as: the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction (Kreitner, 1995).
Arif (2003) states: "Motivation is an extremely complex concept and motivating students is critical task of teaching. Both environmental and personal factors influence motivation to learn. Needs, goals, beliefs, attributions, expectations, rewards and incentives all affect motivation. How to put all this knowledge into creating a classroom environment that encourages motivation? Teacher is the chief agent in creating this environment whose motivation itself is the key factor to inspire demotivate and uninterested students".
Importance of Motivation
Motivation is an important factor in the learning process. Motivation implies the arousal and maintenance of interest in learning. Interest is a basic factor in learning. No learning can take place without the interest of the learner. This means that motivation plays a vital role in learning. In fact no real learning can take place without motivation. Motivation brings the learner to the proper frame of mind for learning. It concentrates the attention and energy of a person on the activity or knowledge to be learnt (Bhatia, 1997).
Approaches of motivation
A manager's assumptions about employee motivation and use of rewards depends on his/her perspective of motivation. Practicing managers have been interested in applying motivational concepts in the workplace. Three distinct perspectives on employee motivation that have evolved are the traditional approach, the human relations approach and the human resources approach. The most recent theories about motivation represent a fourth perspective called contemporary approaches (Kreitner, 1995).
Kreitner (1995) states: "The study of employee motivation really began with work of Frederick W. Taylor on scientific management. Scientific management that pertains to the systematic analysis of an employee's job for the purpose of increasing efficiency. Economic rewards are provided to employees for high performance. The emphasis on pay evolved into the perceptions of workers as economic people who would work harder for higher pay. This approach led to the development of incentive pay systems, in which people were paid strictly to the quantity and quality of their work outputs".
Human relations approach
A more sociable employee in manager's mind gradually replaced the economic man. Hawthorne studies at a Western Electric plant, non economic rewards, such as congenial work groups who met social needs, seemed more important than money motivator or work behaviour (Kreitner, 1995).
Human resources approach
The human resource approach carries the concepts of economic man and social man further to introduce the concept of the whole person. Human resources theory suggests that employees are complex and motivated by many factors. This approach believed that earlier approaches had tried to manipulate that employee are competent and able to make major contributions, manager can enhance organisational performance. The static or content models of work motivation provide a somewhat perspective approach to work motivation. On the other hand the more dynamic theories, often termed process theories are more complex (Kreitner, 1995).
Three types of theories dominate contemporary approaches to employee motivation. The first are content theories, which stress the analysis of underlying human needs. Content theories provide insight into the needs that can be satisfied in the workplace. Process theories concern the thought process that influence behaviour. They focus on how employees seek rewards in work circumstances. Reinforcement theories focus on employee learning of desired behaviour (Kreitner 1995).
Types of motivation
Motivation can be considered as internal or external. Internal motivators are inside the individual. These are things that make him want to do a good job for his own reasons such as pride of accomplishment, a desire to live up to the expectations of a respected supervisor etc. External motivators are things outside the individual that cause him to work such as wages, the desire to avoid discipline from the boss and so on.
Reeve (2001) states: "Motivation can come from two sources, the extrinsic and intrinsic. People may be motivated by factors in the external environment such as pay, supervision, benefits and job perks. This is referred to as extrinsic motivation. They may also be motivated by the relationship between worker and the task. This type of motivation is called intrinsic motivation. These factors often simultaneously, but we will distinguish between them as they relate to specific levels of motivation.
According to Deci (1993), motivation is extrinsic as well as intrinsic and some psychologists stress the importance of extrinsic motivation. Working for externally determined rewards is extrinsically motivated behaviour while people's desire to learn for satisfying their curiosity and feel competent is intrinsic motivation. Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations are important for learning. Teachers must balance intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, especially when there is little immediate satisfaction in the learning situation. Intrinsic motivation can't sustain all activities. Extrinsic motivation is often necessary for persistence of motivated behaviour (Arif, 2003).
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivations
Extrinsic motives depend instead on needs that must be satisfied by external reinforces. It is related to 'tangible' rewards such as salary and fringe benefits, security, promotion and condition of work. It is what is done to or for people to motivate them. Extrinsic rewards result from the actions of others such as supervisors and are more easily controlled by mangers. It will be important in attracting and retaining employees and increasing effort and minimising dissatisfaction (Crowl, 1997)
Intrinsic motivation, then, is motivation which comes from the inside of a person. It is an emotional preference for a task that gives us pleasure and enjoyment. Intrinsic motives are those which are satisfied by internal reinforces.
Intrinsic motivations are the self-generated factors which influence people to behave in a particular way or to move in a particular direction. They are related to 'psychological' rewards such as the opportunity to use one's ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, positive recognition and being treated in a caring and thoughtful manner. They are those that individuals receive for themselves. Intrinsic motivation arises from having "a strong emotional interest in an activity and a sense of freedom and autonomy related to it" (Deci, 1975).
Principles of motivation
Basic principles of motivation exist that are applicable to learning in any situation. Principles directly related to motivation are numerous, but only those that provide the greatest help to the teacher are listed below:-
All behaviour is motivated. Everyone is motivated (just not in the same direction)
Motivation derives from needs or desires that are internal to the individual. Therefore, others cannot motivate an individual. They must manipulate the environment that will attract or repel individual behaviour.
Love or affection is a very complex form of general drive. Part of the complexity stems from the fact that in many ways love resembles the primary drives and in other ways it is similar to the secondary drives. In particular, the affection motive is closely associated with the primary sex motive. For this reason, affection is sometimes placed in all three categories of motives and some psychologists do not even recognise it as a separate motive (Luthans, 1995).
Social motives are the motives that seem to be the reason for the behaviour one sees daily among people, who physiological needs are more than satisfied. The social motives include need for social approval, for affection, for a respectable place in a group, for possessing money, gold, degrees and other status symbols. These motives seem to develop through experience, especially through social experience, such as early experience in the family or with friends during adolescence (Kundu, 1985)
Role of motivation in education
Education must transfer from generation to generation the core of our culture's accumulated body of knowledge. For this may think that to believe in an accepted body of knowledge that prioritises what is important to learn and what is not slang! "Is a mark" of elitism and exclusivity. Its important in educational administration is only beginning to be understood and applied for professional and other adult employees. Teachers motivate learners through a variety of strategies based on understanding of learner's growth and development patterns, individual ability differences, and of internal and external factors that may arouse and sustain the desire to learn more. These general principles may be adapted to adult motivational strategies of the administrator working with teachers, supervisors, other administrator and other adult workers. Recognition of the motivational value of intrinsic factors such as, desire for achievement or self fulfilment is need to balance what has been an over reliance, extrinsic motivator factor are external to the person and job satisfaction.
Motivation comes primarily from wanting to learn so that an authentic product can be constructed for an appropriate audience and wanting to create the product so that other swill not be disappointed. Motivation may also come about through external manipulation of the environment. Motivation is not the same for everyone. We have different needs, goals and different personalities. We are even motivated differently at different times in a single course of instruction. Good teachers are sensitive to the motivational needs of students and try to provide a climate in which a learning community can develop. Typically, learner motivated is likely to be intrinsic rather than extrinsic. Learner control increases the relevance of the learning and in turn improves learner motivation (Schunk, 2002).
The knowledge about motivation will be helpful to educators who are commonly faced with a variety of problems in situation where students react differently to teaching learning activities. Some plunge into new learning will glee. Some accept learning task with resentment and resignation and some block themselves to learn anything offered by the teacher (Ariff, 1992).
Teachers play a significant role in motivating students not only by translating the knowledge about motivation into teaching actions but also by their attitudes towards themselves and students. Teacher motivation consists of two beliefs. First, their belief into their own teaching ability and their belief into their student learning ability. Teacher efficacy refers to teacher's belief about their ability to teach. This attitude is reflected in the amount of effort they use in creating and inspiring environment for learning. Similarly teacher belief about student learning ability is also determined by his willingness to persist in finding ways to promote students learning. In short, motivated and successful teachers believe that they can inspire their students and that students can learn (Crowl et al 1997)
Introducing variety and novelty in teaching keep instruction at the students developmental level, encouraging students to hard work by personal example, making lessons interesting, relevant and meaningful, teaching students best strategies of learning reducing anxiety, teaching enthusiastically, conveying positives expectations about student learning ability, making classrooms no-threatening, physically and psychologically comfortable, extending more help to low achievers by giving them tasks appropriate to their ability, emphasising self improvement and comparison with self, building up self confidence of the low achievers, modelling achievement motivation, internal locus of control and balanced use of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation are a few techniques to motivate and inspire students for learning (Arif, 2003).
Theories of motivation
Motivation is essentially an area of psychology, human behaviour organisational behaviour and management, which attempts to explain why people behave in a certain manner. Although human can be motivated to act in a similar fashion but their level of commitment will differ substantially. Motivation is a useful device to think about why people do what they do.
Research on work motivation over the last 50 years can be thought of as adopting either a static or dynamic approach to explaining work motivation behaviour. The static or content models of work motivation provides a somewhat perspective approach to work motivation. On the other hand the more dynamic theories, often termed process theories are more complex. The major process theories make allowance for individual cognitive responses as being a major contributor to work motivation behaviour (Moorhed and Griffin, 1995).
Content Theories of Motivation
Content theories offer ways to profile or analyse individuals to identify the needs that motivate their behaviours. Content theories are primarily concerned with what it is within an individual or his or her environment that energises and sustains the person's behaviour. Content theories are useful because they lend insight into people's behaviour. Content theories are useful because they lend insight into people's need and help the managers understand what people will and will not value as work rewards of need satisfiers.
People have many needs and various content motivation theories help profile these needs in different ways. The content theories of motivation approaches that have led to our understanding or motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzbeg's two-factor theory, Alderfer ERG theory and McClelland's achievement theory (Moorhead and Griffin, 1995).
Maslow's need hierarchy theory
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a content motiational theory. Maslow's basis was human behaviour. He conducted his investigation between 1939 and 1943. the hierarchy of needs has five sets of goals that are called basic needs. Maslow's idea was "People will not be healthy and well=adjusted unless they have their needs met" (Greenberg, 1999).
According to Maslow (1943): An employee has five levels of needs physiological, safety, social, ego and self-actualising. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied the next higher level need would motivate employees.
In figure below depicts Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The three sets of needs at the bottom of the hierarchy are called deficiency needs because they must be satisfied for the individual to be fundamentally comfortable. The top two sets of needs are termed growth needs because they focus on personal growth and development (Moorhead and Griffin, 1995).
General Examples Organisational Examples
Achievement Self-Actualisation Needs Challenging Job
Status Esteem Needs Job Title
Friendship Group Belongingness Needs Friends in work
Stability Security Needs Pension Plan
Sustenance Physiological Needs Base Salary
Abraham Maslow developed a theory that humans have five sets of needs that are arranged in a hierarchy. He contends that people start by trying to satisfy their most basic or compelling needs and progress towards the most fulfilling. These needs are as follows:-
Process Theories of Motivation
Process theories seek to understand the thought processes that take place in the minds of people and that act to motivate their behaviour. These are Adam's Equity theory, Vroom's Expectancy theory and Goal Setting theory.
Adam's equity theory
Adam's theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ration of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employees outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965).
Vroom's expectancy valence theory
Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards. Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward, the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward, the less likely the employee will be motivated (Victor, 1964).
Goal setting theory
Goal setting theory is the specification of goal to increase performance. Assigning difficult goals usually results in higher performance. Goal setting has three components that have to be used to apply this concept successfully. First, the identification of process, then the characteristic and finally the feedback. The characteristic of goals setting consists of making the goal specific and challenging. The goal must be challenging to increase self-efficacy. It has been noted that a difficult task tends to increase an employee's performance. This may be because usually people work harder to reach a challenging goal, as long as it is believed that it can be done (Wheaton and Cameron, 1998).
A motivational technique is very relevant in educational institutions if the goals and objectives need to be achieved. The head of the institutions must ensure that the teachers and staff are well motivated.
Quality of Leadership
The rectors must know to lead organisations in which leadership and decisions making are shared, and continual learning is fostered for teacher and parents as well as students (Bernard, 1995).
Integrity of behaviour
Honesty and integrity are two factors that allow leaders to enjoy the support of staff. Without these qualities, there is a perception of mistrust and leads to a lack of confidence. A positive attitude is necessary for a head.
Attractive role model
Being a head of educational institutions one becomes a role model for others to follow according to the demands. A successful head has to display confidence in the integrity, discipline and regularity in his actions. Head should be friendly and supportive in all relationships with staff members and creates a favourable working environment.
Setting high standards
The teaching as a profession demands the highest level of competence with regard to knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour in the delivery of better results and performance with teachers, staff and students. The essence of professionalism requires head to serve the interest of the teacher and their staff and to adhere to the concepts of leadership, excellence, honesty , integrity and respect for others (Gibson et al, 1985).
Job characteristics describe how content an individual is with his or her job. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person's level of job satisfaction; some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness of the promotion system within an organisation, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationship, and the job itself. It means that the variety of tasks involved, the interest and challenge the job generates, the clarity of the job description/requirements (Bayrs and Rue, 1996).
Security of employment
Job security is one of the top goals that motivate employees. Heads need to communicate and clarify organisation policy and discuss job security to their employees. If teachers feel that the educational institution cares about their employment, they are more likely to be committed to the educational institution and therefore be motivated to work harder (Luthans, 1995).
Opportunities for growth
Head should provide all the elements or growth to the teachers like environment, support and facilities. Moreover, all problems and issues must be solved by negotiation according to the situations being fair with the profession (Reavis and Judd, 1942).
Setting goals and policies
Fixation of goals is a good means of motivating personnel's in an organisation, e.g an educational institute. If certain areas are specified and targets clearly defined and expressed to the students and the teachers, then their performance levels increase and the output brings about positive as well as encouraging results. Hence, for "teaching and learning, the objectives should be clear and predetermined. Predetermined objectives provide direction to do something" (Hokanson, 1989)
Clear lines of communication
Communication skills involved conveying goals and objectives in a clear and compelling manner, as well as hearing and understanding the unspoken or partially expressed thoughts, feelings and concerns of others. People with this competency are able to encourage, motivate and influence direct reports and other to achieve desired results.
The establishment of effective communication practices should serve as the foundation of an efficient and enthusiastic head, resulting in a more conducive work environment (Bayrs and Rue, 1996).
A head should be provided an attractive work place where teachers and students can work in a safe and healthy setting and where teachers, students and the authorities consider the working environment positive.
Treating employees with respect
Respect has great importance in everyday life. Head should deal with teachers and staff without any discrimination because of race, colour, creed, religion, gender, national origin, ancestry, citizenship status, age, marital status, physical or mental disability, veteran status. Head must create an environment free of hostility, harassment, discrimination and intimidation. All the teachers must be given the same treatment and there must not be any favouritism involved.
Beerrens (2000) states: "Trust is the key to success for an organisation and educational institute. If the head does not trust in his teachers, he cannot set standard for others to follow. To gain trust the head needs to deal with all his employees, like teachers, with fairness and equality. Along with this, personal relationships should also to be developed. As teacher must have trust in their heads, so that there performance must be trustworthy. As positive attitude towards others and strong emotional competencies are crucial for trust and leadership success".
Head should always use positive support to encourage teacher and students to continue appropriate behaviour, increase spirit and efficiency. Encouragement statements like 'Good', 'Great', 'Wonderful' and 'Fine' contingent upon appropriate performance can be a powerful motivational device.
Recognition and praise
Recognition is one of the most important and effective incentives for improved performance.
Recognition from the respective head of an institute results in improving status. Recognition could include public praise, expansion of a job appraisal or special attention. Its effectiveness to motivation depends upon the person (teacher) as to what value and position he gives to the recognition of the head (Ricks, 1995).
Head should personally support their teachers and staff at every stage. Taking time to listen to the follower's problem and showing empathy. Head should fully support the teachers and students (Bayrs and Rue, 1996).
This research will use a qualitative method to gauge the extent to which the motivational techniques used by rectors of secondary schools would have an impact on the performances of both teachers and students.
The qualitative research method is used in this study as the research questions in this research are descriptive and explanatory. The focus is on a better understanding of the phenomenon of teacher motivation and how the rector through his or her instructional leadership role, can contribute to motivated teachers. One of the advantages of a qualitative study is its capacity to understand and represent points of view which are often obscured or neglected (Hammersley 2000:2). Qualitative research has the capacity for reflective activity and can help secondary school rectors and educators to reflect on their practices in a holistic way (Hammersley 2000:3).
Research Methods and Techniques, Instruments, Data Collection
The research study will use the following research methods and techniques, instruments and data collection methods:-
Descriptive. This will help to identify key variables, their relationships and their potential linkage.
A representative sample of 3 schools will be used at this stage.
Reflective journals (RJs) will be used to record uncensored through emotions and behaviour of rectors, educators and students.
This will provide themes to prepare the semi-structural interviews.
A questionnaire with five point Likert scale based on themes from
RJs will be completed at peoples convenience. This may take up to 30 minutes.
Semi-structural interviews will be conducted nearly one month after completion of the RJs.
A structured questionnaire will be developed. It will include multiple item scales to measure the dependent variables.
1. How does motivation impact on teachers?
2. What factors motivate teachers to teach effectively?
3. What instructional leadership strategies should rectors of secondary schools employ to motivate teachers likert scales will be used.
Three secondary schools, situated in Port Louis, will form part of the selected research sites in this study. The researcher will use participants who will accessible to him, as far as his place of work and place of residence were concerned. As Stake (1995:4) makes the point, "Our time and access to fieldwork are almost always limited. If we can, we need to pick cases which are easy to get to and hospitable to our inquiry." Thus, purposeful and convenient sampling was used in this study. The researcher will try to obtain reliable information in a relaxed atmosphere where he will fell at ease during the semi-structured in-depth interview. For the purpose of this study, three focus groups consisting of five teachers in each focus group (one focus group interview per school) and three rectors will be individually interviewed. On account of completeness in terms of obtaining gender related perspectives, care will be taken to ensure gender representation in each focus group.
The RJ's will be examined for themes that reflect attitudes and beliefs. Results from semi-structured interviews will be used to clarify the themes from the reflective journals into statements. This will also be used to amend the questionnaire. Data collected will be cleaned. Diagrams, charts, scatter plots and graphs will be used to present data. Normality test (Shapiro-Wilk) will be used. Measures of central tendency (mean, median, â€¦), measures of dispersion (range, variance,â€¦), skewness and kurtosis will be used to describe the dependent variables. Bivariate analyses (correlation, chi-square test, t-test, Mann-Whitney U,â€¦) will be used to explore relationships and associations between pairs of variables.
Month 1: Literature review, collection of secondary data, research planning and administering reflective journals.
Month 2: Conducting semi-structured interviews and development of structured interviews.
Month 3: Sampling. Preparation for the pilot study and structured interviews
Month 4: Data collection through structured interviews.
Month 5: Data analysis and report writing.
The limitations of survey research would apply here. As this research is based on secondary schools in Mauritius its findings may not be used for other institutions.
Research ethics refers to the type of agreement that the researcher enters into with his or her research participants. The researcher has to seek the consent of those he or she is going to interview, question, observe or take materials from. Moreover, he or she has to reach agreements with them about the uses of the data, and how its analysis will be reported and disseminated. According to Bell (2004:41), the conditions for ethical research in practice are that all participants are offered the opportunity to remain anonymous, all information is treated with strict confidentiality, interviewees have the opportunity to verify statements when the research is in draft form and participants receive a copy of the final report. For this study, ethical codes in terms of data collection, data analysis and diffusion of findings will be conformed to.
USEFULNESS OF THE RESEARCH AND USER GROUPS
This research would help to identify and describe the factors that motivate secondary school teachers to teach effectively in the secondary schools of Mauritius and to explore the instructional leadership strategies that secondary school rectors should adopt to motivate teachers to teach effectively. This would shed light in the improvement of the Mauritian education system, whose aim is quality education to all, and be better informed and equipped to enhance teacher motivation for the sake of improved teaching and learning.