Lower female enrollment rates at secondary level

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Cambodia was a colony of France for more than a century and gained its full independence in 1953. People in Cambodia have a good tradition in supporting schools by offering in-kind, the repercussion of the 1970s, such as the revolution, wars, bombings, genocide, and miserable evacuation, has plunged Cambodian education system into a virtual bottom-line. The social consequences of the civil strife and chronic pathological illness of the society are inevitably required of infrastructural restoration and cultural and educational renovation. After the collapse of Pol Pot regime, Cambodia was controlled by People's Republic of Cambodia. With its effort, the government in that period that commenced from zero-point infrastructure resumed its educational system by means of collecting those who could have knowledge to instruct the students. Practically, the philosophical education is that the more knower is to teach the less knower due to the fact that a large number of educators and teachers had been killed. Therefore, this culture remains in effect until presently. Since September 24, 1993, Cambodia, renamed as the second kingdom, implementing the regime of constitutional monarchy with free-multipartite democracy. Given that the importance of education is socio-economic and human resourced orientation, the Royal Government of Cambodia has paid great attention on the development of human capital which is undeniably derived from educational sector, as it is to reach the citizens of capacity building and productive forces which effectively respond to the demands of labor market as well as the people with high creativity, responsibility, good discipline, virtue and morality, and professional ethics. Basically, the human resource must be coincided with the well-developed educational system, that is, the education is to be quality-oriented. The Royal government of Cambodia has recognized that quality of education is the key element to achieve the socio-economic development. With the efforts of the Royal government of Cambodia as it has reclaimed the commitment to the United Nation Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the World Education Forum on the Dakar Framework for Action on Education for All (EFA) by 2015, the Royal Government of Cambodia has put the highest priority on educational sectors as stated in Rectangular Strategy of government. It is widely recognized that the social problems, like delinquency, gangster, and drug use, poverty, violence, crime and discrimination, are stemmed from illiteracy, labor or cash. Normally, the support has been provided by the community through "Parents' Associations" or "School Supporting Committees", to raise money to cover not only the recurrent expenses, but also to sponsor all types of sports and art activities. To supplement their family income in rural areas, in many cases a number of students drop-out from schools. Therefore, only some students from few provinces enter the University for higher education. The MoEYS has role and is doing its best to use all available resources and seeking financial, technical and material assistance from different sources to improve the quality of education of all levels of education. Non-refundable aid and low-interest loans are the practices of international cooperation in Cambodia. International cooperation can be seen in the form of multilateral or bilateral aid. The agencies that provide aid to support the education system include ADB, UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, UNESCO, WB, EU, bilateral donors and several NGOs.

The Present of lower female's enrolment rates at secondary levels and higher

Drop-out rates among girls in the Cambodia cause by a lot problem

In Cambodia country can the same almost developing countries on the world. They are parents always mistakes thinking that the boy have right than girls; parents don't give heavy to boys. Our brothers go to school but girls aren't allowed because they have lots of housework to do. If they parents are too poor, daughters should stop going to school because they can help in housework and in earning income. The boys can continues their schooling because they can't do housework compared to girls especially they cannot do a lot of work.

Therefore in the past oldest ideas of they parents often said "daughter should always be around kitchen" {ekµgRsImancMeNHdwgb:uNÑak¾enAEtbgVilcRgáanminCMuEdr} And moreover " Girls are not as claver as boys" {ekµgRsIminqøatrWQøavév CagekµgRbus }. They never seen girls even with higher education get job after they graduate and can't become leadership seem men. Especially they parents always worried environment around bodies their daughter from poor families in rural and remote areas can face various disadvantages all time when the school is too far from house. Security risks on travelling to and from school. They are afraid to sending their daughter to study in a faraway school because of risks of kidnapping and rape. They think authorities are never able to solve the roads in the village is not safe. School in their village is incomplete, it has only primary school and higher schooling is too far away .Poor roads, not transportation. Not toilet facilities in school for girls. They family is poverty, parents not see the benefits and importance of education for their oldest daughters are usually to stop her schooling because they are expected to help their mother in housework, child care and the work in the field, they'll become discouraged and later drop-out from school. She has a responsibility to help parents in various work and outside the home such as to worker (seamstress) in the factory employment in the city for caught a little money or earn income to sponsor for living standard her families at countryside. She hasn't nice uniforms compared to friend and classmates. It marks feel ashamed and would decide not to go to school.

Furthermore, most of importance involves culture and traditional/Early marriage. The girls will become mothers and housewives and will not need much education. Her husband will be responsible to earn income and support their family, so she not needs to study. The Cambodia culture restricts girls to travel away from home. If she goes away far way from home her reputation will not good. Parents would discontinue the schooling of their daughters for marriage because girls ages 18 so that can make or increase new family in society by marriage during she studying at secondary or higher education.

Finally, they parents have too poor in the remote or rural area always say that daughters do not need to study so much, just learn more how to read and write , because they will be only working around the kitchen and may not do anything better that kitchen work. It marks there many girls dropping out. Many of girls do not go to school or would drop-out from school because they have to earn money thought by selling something or souvenir to tourists in resort or tourist place, culture place near by their home or village. Another one became poverty, parents would plus or traffic their daughter to the sex trade or work in garment factories in the Phnom Penh city. And would ask the village chafe to temper document of age records of their daughters to increase their ages 18 so that they can be eligible for factory employment or working in house of rich families in the urban area or city.

Supply-side and Demand-side factors which may causes in disadvantages of girls in education


The education sector is really important to improve the quality of education and to achieve the human resource. Global Monitoring Report, in the year 2005, the total public expenditure on education of Cambodia in 2001 is 1.4 percents of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). There result is much lower than the regional average for East Asia of 3.6 percents and of developing countries at 4.2 percents. The expenditure of the Royal Government of Cambodia is not to satisfy the actual needs of improving the educational system. Although the expenditure within educational sector covers more than 60 percent of the total education budget between 1997 and 2002, Cambodian educational system is still frailty in quality (World Bank, 2002). The repetition and dropout rates in secondary are remarkably high; especially, most dropouts girls than boys. Usually, the girls are at greater risk of dropping out than boys, while girls in remote area are more than twice as likely to drop out as girls in urban areas. Therefore, the government is to be contingent on the private sector and the community investment. The government expenditure a secondary school student is not enough. This means that the government expenditure impossibly respond to the poor households. This is to lie with the family that is associated with the household direct costs such as uniforms, pocket money, transport, scholarship and supplementary tutoring. Moreover, the teachers' salary is not enough for them to live appropriately, that is, the living standard of the teacher is abysmally low. Therefore, the teachers are to sell the paper to the students. Particularly, the certain specialized subject teachers are to teach the private class (Bray and Seng, 2004). This can be considered regressively deteriorated as it is a cost that poor households typically cannot afford. On the other hand, the expenditure is not in the right target. Which results in under-disbursement of funds; The actual annual PAP disbursement, although, has been abysmal and unpredictable, increasing scholarship for girls at secondary and caused misunderstanding as school directors and teachers are not clear if the funds they were receiving were from current or last year PAP budget. Such payment delay, however, make the students still pay their money for the test and the markers. PB budget implementation and clearance do not respond to the targets; their guidelines issued by some technical departments are still vague and change frequently; and the headmasters who regularly attended seminars would restrict the time workable for PB management. In addition, School budget managers apparently reshuffle. It is truly estimated that only around 80% of the Program of Budget (PB) activities spent.

Therefore it cause by the teacher. These determinant factors are due to the low salary. The teachers usually tend to absenteeism. They need to work in other business to support their living. The teachers' postings will sometime quit their jobs and they return to work in the city. However the Cambodia still remains high proportion of incomplete school, meaning that the classrooms and teachers do not commensurate with the specific demands of enrolment rates. The commonality of incomplete schools in Cambodia is the most salient indicator of high level of dropout and repetition rates.

Furthermore, for supply-side this problems should promote equality access, schooling process, equality and quantities of educational output and external results. And caring on the meet an identified need and necessary of the students, be grounded in sound gender analysis, promote learning and schooling or curriculum, bring about systemic changes allow form curriculum anther developing country, and last on transform the power dynamics between the sexes.

Finally for supply-side their should to do such as:

- Situate school (secondary and high school) in close proximity to students' home in the village or their district.

- From girls' students allow from by the good situation.

- Raise parents' awareness of their rights of girl, responsibilities and motivate girls.

- Reintegrate ex-combatants and other children and youth affected by conflict by providing education well-being or continue special skill or lives skill.

- Provider scholarship for girls has poor families at rural or remote area. the importance of education with parents and fostering more positive attitudes in teachers.

- Train communities in controlling access and quality by parents-teachers association and school management committees and another involve, ensuring that women are part of their.

- Improve and promote the ability of schools to provide education service thought education finance and decrease parental payments that may inhabit student attendance.


The girls students that studies in secondary or high school lack of motivation, commitment, and confidence as issues that affect drop-out at high school and lower enrollment in secondary and therefore also success factors at higher education. Motivation is often taken as a contributing factor dropping-out .and relevance to in addition to general issues described above there are some issues related to studying cultures at other institution. However, girls students attrition has been discussed greatly over secondary or higher levels there are many studies concerning students' drop-out. There are many differences between required subjects when studying at the secondary level and studying at a higher level. Insure of demand side cause by social aspect is strong evidence that factors play a part in the learning process, demands of independent living confronting all these new requirements at the same time can be overwhelming for some students. In the poor families at remote or rural area they don't send their daughter to secondary or decided to drop-out at higher levels because they have a lot of work at home for earning income such as farming, caring sisters or brother , coking for family, working any where such as factory employment (garment) . Some characteristic of girls student have three factors were found to significantly determine girls' attendance and continued stay in school:(1)adequate school facilities such as classroom

and water and sanitation facilities; (2) quality of interaction between teachers and students/ girls, and among students themselves; and(3)quality of teaching relevance of the curriculum. Poverty seems to be the rationale for adhering to gender traditions and restricting access of girls to school by letting them stay at home, and also a compelling reason to defy these same traditions by allowing them to leave the home and travel far way to earn income in the name of family survival as predominant reasons why girls do not attend secondary or would drop -out from school to high school in highly significant rates compare to boys. It confirms that constraining gender socialization and rigid ideas of gender roles in the household division of labor combined with parental perception of benefits on girls' education and socio-economic and geographic disadvantages result to marked gender imbalances in the education outcomes in the Cambodia which significantly favors males more then females. Furthermore, girls' characteristic to be deiced not enrollment at secondary and drop-out at higher level cause by:

Parents/girls do not see the value of education in the Cambodia.

Girls are needed to help in housework and in the field.

Poverty (especially almost families in the rural or remote area).

Girls start school at a late age and then will drop-out upon reaching puberty.

Girls want to earn income and would get married.

The Cambodia's Government does to reduce the influence of this factor

Education girls achieve even greater result. When girls go to school, they tend delay marriage, and contribute more to family income and national productivity. In face, education is "One of the most effective development investments countries and their donor partners can make" and "Adequate investments in education facilitate the achievement of most other development goals and increase the probability that progress will be sustains".

The Cambodia government policy and action recommendations call for equal important attention to principle of gender equity along with poverty issues in improving access and equity in opportunities in Cambodia. There is a need to strengthen the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) commitment and capacity to systematically integrate gender concepts in education planning, implementation and monitoring. It also call to immediately put in place affirmative measures that will address socio-economic, culture and geographic disadvantages of girls' access to education and women's representation in the education management and delivery service at all levels. This should be supported with a massive multi-media campaign to promote women's role in society and girls' equal access to education directly targeting parents, communities and schools/teachers, Government and the Ministry of Education, and NGOs.

The vision of education is clearly stated in the Education Strategic Plan (ESP) .(2006-2010), which is to establish and develop human resources of the very highest quality and ethnics in order to develop a knowledge-based society within Cambodia.

In order to achieve this vision, Ministry of Education Youth and Sport (MoEYS) has the mission of leading, managing and developing the Education, Youth and Sport sectors in Cambodia in responding to the socio-economic and cultural development needs and the reality of globalization. The MoEYS long-term mission is to ensure that all Cambodian children and youths have equal opportunity to access quality and envisage that the graduates from all institutions will meet international and regional standards and will be competitive in the job markets worldwide and act as engines for social and economic development in Cambodia. In addition, the MoEYS intends to engender a sense of national and civic pride, high standards of morals and ethnics and a strong belief in being responsible for the country and its citizens. Policies of the Ministry of Education Youth and Sports:

-To universalize 9 years of basic education and developing opportunities for functional literacy.

- To modernize and improve the quality of education through effective reform.

- To link education/training with labor market and society.

- To rehabilitate and develop Youth and Sport sub-sectors.

- Explain the value of education for girls to the parents and the girls themselves.

- Provide assistance to poor girls and their families by scholarship

- Girls should encourage and support each other.

- Establish vocational courses in the secondary or higher level relevance life skills.

-Build more complete schools in village; provide high school education in the village

- Recruit local teachers in communities; provide incentives for teacher to work in rural and remote area.


Cultural, poverty and change. The overwhelming response that girl schooling is discontinued because she has a gender role to help in housework (including sibling care, farm work, and contributing to family income), indicates that there will be no substantive change in improving girls access to education if the principles of gender equity will not be given equal important attention along with poverty and other social issues in education outcome in Cambodia. The two factors in this regard are exactly the hurdles to educational quality and the educational goals of EFA that enables Khmer citizens to stay away from illiteracy as well as for the sake of socio-economic development. In fact, it is impossible to eliminate all the dropout rates of the world. In order to solve these problems, the government is to play the significant roles to reduce the dropout rates and deprivation of secondary education among the poor people and the whole Cambodian people. For the capacity building and literate society to be accessible, Cambodia is to work with other partner groups to design and adopt the educational curriculum and materials for community-based program, train the community facilitators who can assist community in developing and operating low-cost programs for the family and children, On the other hand, the need to overcome poverty poses signification to the gender socialization embodied in the Khmer culture. Parents and girls would defy gender traditions when girls would allow to leave home and travel far away to earn income for the family. Many girls would be drop-out from school at higher or don't enrollment at secondary to work in garment factory in Phnom Penh. This is in complete contradiction to the traditional idea: when women travel away from home, their reputation will not good. We can't let our daughter travel far to go to school. Moreover, the government should implement the pro-poor education policies, which oriented towards the abolition of enrolment fees and the provision of school operational budget, policies to reach the students specially students girls in rural and remote areas, exactly completion of incomplete schools, and provision of encouragement to redeploy teachers to rural/remote areas.