Lifelong learning is essential to participation in society

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Abstract: Lifelong learning is essential to participation in society, and presents important challenges for educational gerontology. This study compares

Canadian and KSA educational system focusing on three elements, (a) structures, (b) curriculum, and (c) school Infrastructure in both countries. The paper shows that KSA has more innovation in educational system to be aligned with the development country like Canada. The question for further studies is, what is the impact of school infrastructure on gender students' achievement?

Introduction: Each country has its own educational system which fit with its students. This paper will present two educational systems in two different areas. One of theses educational is in Canada. The other on is in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Educational system in Canada:

First: A Historical overview:

Canada is the second largest country in the world - almost 10 million square kilometres (3.8 million square miles) - with a population density of 3.3 people per square kilometre, one of the lowest in the world, and a per capita GDP in 2003 of C$38,495. A very large portion of the population of 32.1 million live in four major urban centres, as well as within 300 kilometres of the southern border with the United States. One of the major challenges to the provision of quality educational opportunities for all Canadians is meeting the needs of both urban students and those in small, remote communities, as well as those in Aboriginal communities.

The history of education is a central theme in Canada's social, economic and political history. In the 17th century education was usually an informal process in which skills and values were passed from one generation to the next by parents, relatives and older siblings. Four hundred years later, informal learning has become an adjunct to extensive systems of formal schooling under the jurisdiction of provincial governments. (The Canadian Encyclopaedia)

By the end of the nineteenth century, most provinces had established compulsory, tax-supported elementary schooling. Public interest in education grew, and commercial and industrial leaders supported the drive toward universal basic literacy. Traditional interpretations see these industrialists as practicing a kind of bourgeois "noblesse oblige" because they recognized the need for an educated electorate in a democracy. More recently, revisionist historians of education have reinterpreted the nineteenth-century compulsory education movement as a capitalist plot to oppress the common people (Prentice, 1977; Spring, 1972). Such historians see compulsory schooling not as a way to provide commoners with the means of upward social mobility and intellectual liberation, but as a training and conditioning mechanism to transform an agricultural society into an industrial one, and to prepare children to become punctual, diligent, and submissive workers. Such views are probably extreme, but by the end of the nineteenth century, when sizeable numbers of pupils began to remain in schools beyond the standard eight grades, the industrial lobby began to question the kind of education being provided at the secondary school level (Gidney & Millar, 1990).

Second: Structures:

The basic structures of provincial and territorial education systems across Canada are similar. Each has three tiers - elementary, secondary, and postsecondary - although the grades at which each level begins and ends vary. All jurisdictions provide universal, free elementary and secondary schooling for 12 years, with the exception of Quebec where it is for 11 years. Education is compulsory to the age of 15 or 16 in most jurisdictions. In Manitoba, it is compulsory until the age of 17 and in New Brunswick, until the age of 18 or graduation from high school. (CICIC,2009)

All school districts/boards across Canada offer educational programs from Kindergarten through to Grade 12 (5-18 years). However, which programs are offered to international students will vary.

  School structures and grade groupings also vary throughout the country. The following definitions are intended to assist in explaining the terminology and help prospective students and parents understand some of the different organizations they may experience.

1- Elementary schools : Elementary schools provide educational programs for students from Kindergarten and Grade 1 through to Grades 4,5,6 or 7.   These early years provide an important foundation for lifelong learning.

2- Middle Schools: Middle schools typically enrol students in grades 5, 6,7 and 8 however the specific grades offered may vary by school and region. Middle school prepares students for junior high and high school grades.

3- High Schools:

A- Junior High Schools

Junior high schools generally include Grades 7,8 & 9 and provide a transition for students from elementary to high/secondary school.

B- Senior (Secondary) High Schools

Secondary or high schools offer opportunities for students beginning in Grade 8, 9 or 10 to continue their studies through to Grade 12 in order to complete graduation requirements. These schools offer students more choice and opportunity to 'specialize' in their particular areas of interest while preparing for post-secondary education and future careers.  Where offered, qualified students may also enrol in the International Baccalaureate Program or take Advanced Placement (AP) courses. (CAPS)

Postsecondary education is provided by public and private institutions. They may be "recognized," "registered," or "licensed" by government, or they may not be regulated in any way. Postsecondary institutions issue degrees, diplomas, certificates, and attestations depending on the nature of those institutions and the length of the programs. At universities and university colleges, there is an emphasis on degree programs. A certain number of colleges offer applied degrees. At all other institutions, the emphasis is on diploma, certificate, and attestation programs. (CICIC,2009)

Private school in Canada:

About 8% of students are in private schools. A minority of these are elite private schools. These schools are attended by only a small fraction of students, but do have a great deal of prestige and prominence. It is not unusual for the wealthy and prominent in Canada to send their children to public schools, especially in the lower grades. A far larger portion of private schools are religious based institutions. Private schools are also used to study outside the country. For example CCI has an Ontario curriculum, but the students study in Italy.

Private schools have historically been less common on the Canadian Prairies and were often forbidden under municipal and provincial statutes enacted to provide equality of education to students regardless of family income. This is especially true in Alberta, where successive Social Credit (or populist conservative) governments denounced the concept of private education as the main cause of denial of opportunity to the children of the working poor. These rules lasted longer than Social Credit; it was only in 1989 that private K-12 schools were allowed to operate inside the boundaries of the City of Calgary.(Wikipedia,200)

Third: School Curriculum in Canada:

I. Elementary school programs

The following programs are taught in elementary school:

- The Arts, Grades 1-8

- French As A Second Language, French Immersion, Grades 1-8

- Health and Physical Education, Grades 1-8

- Language, Grades 1-8,

- Mathematics, Grades 1-8,

- Native Languages, Grades 1-8

- Science and Technology, Grades 1-8

- Social Studies, Grades 1-6;

- History and Geography, Grades 7 and 8

 

II. Secondary school programs:

The high school program is based on a credit system. Students must earn a total of 30 credits to obtain their high school diploma. Eighteen of the credits are compulsory, from a list of subjects that every student must take. The other 12 credits are optional, from a list of courses offered by the school.

Students must also complete 40 hours of community involvement activities and must pass the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT), which is taken in Grade 10.

1- Compulsory Credits (total of 18)

- 4 credits in English (1 credit per grade)

- 1 credit in French as a second language

- 3 credits in mathematics

- 2 credits in science

- 1 credit in Canadian history

- 1 credit in Canadian geography

- 1 credit in the arts

- 1 credit in health and physical education

- 1/2 credit in civics and 1/2 credit in career studies.

- 1 additional credit in English, or a third language, or a social science and the humanities, or Canadian and world studies

- 1 additional credit in health and physical education, or the arts, or business studies

- 1 additional credit in science (Grade 11 or 12) or technological education (Grades 9-12)

2- Optional Credits (total of 12):

In addition to the 18 compulsory credits, students have to earn 12 optional credits in courses of their choice, selected from the full list of courses available in the school. Optional credits allow students to build an educational program that suits their individual interests and meets university, college, apprenticeship, or work requirements. 

III. CO-OP Programs

High schools offer the opportunity to enroll in Cooperative education programs. This program lets the student get work experience in a workplace setting.

The programs includes:

- Pre-course interview to determine if the placement is appropriate to the student's goals and interests

- Pre-placement instruction, including workplace safety instruction

- A Personalized placement learning plan (PPLP)

- Assessment and evaluation

- Regular in-school integration sessions

Benefits to the student are:

- They can test-drive a career

- Build job skills

- Get hands-on work experience.

Forth: School Infrastructure in Canada:

The Government of Canada is taking action to improve the education system. Investments in school infrastructure projects will help ensure students have a strong and productive educational experience, which starts with access to quality infrastructure that is conducive to learning.

Funding, programs, and resources continue to be increased in all the provinces and territories to benefit school-aged and adult learners achieve higher levels of literacy, including such activities as:

• Increased access to books and resources in the classrooms;

• More professional development opportunities to prepare teachers to respond to literacy needs;

• Expansion of successful programs to more classrooms and schools;

• Extension of full-day kindergarten and enhanced programs to help parents prepare their children to be more ready to learn when they start school;

• Increased funding for cost-shared programs for adult literacy;

• More grants for community based programs in literacy for youth and adults;

• Awareness and motivation programs involving community role models aimed at increasing young boys' reading;

• Increased funding for coordinated action involving government, school districts and boards, and communities;

• More support for family literacy programs;

• More emphasis on the development of reading materials that reflect the culture and stories of the learners.

I. Students with Special Needs:

The principle that guides education of special needs students in Canada is inclusion in the regular classrooms to the greatest extent possible. Education for students with special needs, whether in regular or separate classrooms or facilities, operates on the belief that every child can learn and deserves the opportunity to achieve to the furthest extent of his/her abilities. The inclusion of special needs students n mainstream classrooms places increased demand on the teachers and the school boards. To respond, each jurisdiction has developed detailed policies and procedures, customized resources and supports, set up collaborative efforts with education, health, and social service authorities, enhanced staffing levels, and provided specialized teacher training. The challenge is that the provision of supports is not always adequate to the complexity and scope of the needs.

II. Healthy Schools:

The physical and emotional health of students, in conjunction with safe and caring schools with healthy social and physical environments, are significant contributors to academic success. Schools promote healthy living in terms of nutrition, physical activity, injury prevention, the integration of health-related content into the curriculum, and smoking cessation and healthier lifestyles programs. Safety interventions include safety audits, entrance cameras, bullying prevention programs, and initiatives such as Effective Behaviour Support to provide training and support so that school communities can effectively work with all students, including those with challenging behaviours. In areas of vulnerability, schools are being tested and reinforced against possible natural disasters. The ministries of education are taking advantage of the reality that the school setting provides a unique opportunity to significantly influence the multiple domains of student health in and outside the classroom. Collaboration is key as teachers, school administrators, parents, and students work with local health and safety authorities, governments, community groups, and researchers.

III. Technology and E-learning:

Information and communications technologies (ICT) are seen as essential in education, and investments have reflected this. Computers are used for educational purposes in over 99 per cent of Canadian elementary and secondary schools, with an average of 72 computers per school. The median number of students per computer in a school is five. As of the 2003-04 school year, virtually all elementary and secondary schools were connected to the Internet, and these computers were available for student use. Students also had access to word-processing software, educational and drill and practice programs, spreadsheet and database programs, and presentation software on a very wide basis. The enhanced incorporation of ICT into curriculum, teacher training on curriculum and learning management applications, and funding for technology maintenance and upgrades are issues that demand continued attention. Technology in postsecondary education is also being extended to provide institutional information, registration and financial aid services, direct delivery of programs and courses, career counselling and job opportunities, library and research resources, as well as advanced networks for educators and researchers. Canada as a nation succeeded in linking every school and library to the Internet in the 1990s. Even in remote provinces, Canada's schools have vowed to have one computer for every five students by 2005. It has more computers in households than any other country. Canada's universities, though few in number, are the envy of most industrialized countries in quality of computer technology programs. (Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, 2005)

Educational system in Sudia Arabia Kingdom:

First: A Historical context:

Saudi Arabia's first monarch, King Ibn Saud, regarded education as a means to foster national unity and to enlighten the Saudi people. In 1925, public education did not exist. There were only four private elementary schools in the entire country. Therefore, a centralized educational policy was entrusted to the newly established Directorate of Education. Although compulsory education was mandated for a six-year elementary education followed by a five-year secondary cycle, enforcement was difficult without an adequate number of schools. Saudi Arabia's first educational system was modeled on Egypt's system, which, in turn, was heavily influenced by the French educational model. Saudi Arabia's educational system was designed to observe the teachings of Islam, disseminate knowledge, and construct schools. The 1930s witnessed many changes in education: the first Religious Sciences School (1933); the issuance of rules for private schools (1934); and the first secondary school, Tahdeer Al-Baathat School, to prepare graduates for a university education (1935). In 1938, the General Directorate of Education was given full control over all education except for the military. Saudi Arabia's first technical secondary school and school of higher learning, the College of Sharia (now, Umm Al Qura University), were founded in 1949. During the decade of the 1950s, three more colleges were granted charters, the Teachers' College (1952), the College of Sharia in Riyadh (1953), and the College of Arabic Language in Riyadh (1954).

In 1961, education for women was mandated, with the responsibility given to the newly created General Directorate of Girls Education. There was considerable resistance to female education within the kingdom, but it abated and during its first decade, 16 primary schools for girls were built with 148 staff members educating 5,200 females.

Education in Saudi Arabia has four special characteristics: an emphasis on Islam, a centralized educational system, separate education for men and women, and state financial support. (Saudi Arabia, Educational System)

Second: Structures:

The educational system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia consists of the following levels:

1 - Pre-Elementary Level:

The pre-elementary level prepares boys and girls for elementary education. The Children are taught at this level for the duration of two years. Children are enrolled at the age of four years old in the nursery school and at the age of five in the preliminary school.

2 - Elementary Level:

Elementary level schooling is compulsory in Saudi Arabia and is also regarded as the foundation for the development of an overall educational program. Children are enrolled at the age of six and spend a total of six years at the elementary level. The school year consists of two semesters, each with at least 15 weeks of classes and a two-week examination period Grades 1-4 are exempted from these examinations and are instead regularly evaluated by their teachers. The daily elementary school schedule has six 45- minute classes. The standard curriculum is studied by boys and girls in separate schools.

3 - Intermediate Level:

Upon finishing the elementary level, students between the ages of twelve and fourteen are encouraged to continue their education at the intermediate level (the equivalent of grades 7-9 in the U.S. education system). The school year at this level consists of two 15- week semesters and a two-week examination period. There are thirty-three class periods per week, each of which is forty-five minutes in length. At this level, English becomes a required subject and remains compulsory throughout secondary school. Passing a completion examination is necessary to receive the Intermediate School Certificate, which is a prerequisite for entering secondary school.

4 - Secondary Level

4-1 Regular Secondary Education:

Secondary school education spans three years and generally serves students in the fifteen to nineteen year-old age group. All students in the regular secondary schools study a general curriculum for the first year and choose for the remaining two years one of the following majors:

• Administration & Social Science

• Natural Science

• Shariah & Arabic Studies

Students who maintain high grade-point averages in mathematics and physical science at the 10th grade level are encouraged to enrol in the natural science program. The school year consists of two semesters, each of which is twenty weeks long, including a two-week examination period. Class periods are forty-five minutes long, and weekly schedules vary between a total of twenty-six and thirty-three periods, depending on grade and subject emphasis. To earn a Secondary School Certificate students must complete the required credits and pass their individual subject examinations with a grade of no less than fifty percent of the maximum score.

4-2 Vocational and Technical Secondary Education National development policy makes a compelling case for the importance of technical education and vocational training in Saudi Arabia. The technical and vocational skills of the Saudi work force is a critical factor in increasing productivity and staying apace with the rapid technological developments sweeping the international business world. The programs in industrial, commercial, agricultural and vocational training described here play an essential role in preparing more highly skilled Saudi workers.

Technical education is divided into three types:

1- Industrial.

2- Commercial.

3- Agricultural.

These institutes have three year programs for intermediate school graduates.

5- Higher Education Level:

The post secondary system of education in Saudi Arabia is, to a certain degree, similar to the educational system of the United States. The patterns and procedures of these educational systems have been adopted in accordance with Islamic systems, traditions and customs. (Educational system in Saudi Arabia,2006)

Private School in KSA:

The majority are managed by and run for English-speaking western expatriates, although many local families choose to send their children to these schools, perhaps in the belief that the tuition will be better and also because of the international importance of the English language. There are schools for the children of Americans, British, French, Germans, Egyptians, Indians, Pakistanis, Filipinos, Japanese and many other nationalities, as well as international schools catering for a variety of nationalities. The vast majority of private schools teach in English, including the Indian and Pakistani schools. Minority expatriate groups such as the Japanese, French and Germans tend to send their children to international schools, at which the main teaching language is English.

In general, standards at private schools are high, with small class sizes and modern facilities, but some parents find that their children have some catching up to do when they return to their home country. Some schools catering for pupils from India and Pakistan face heavy demand for places, due to the large number of workers from those countries. There can be severe overcrowding, pupils sometimes being taught in shifts.

Private foreign and international schools tend to have more relaxed, flexible regimes and curricula and to be less formal in terms of dress, behaviour and pupil/teacher relationships than their equivalents in Europe and North America. Some see this as a good thing, others as a negative. A drawback of private schools in the region is their high staff turnover. Like other expatriates, teachers tend to change jobs and locations quite frequently. This can lead to a lack of continuity in children's education and be a disruptive influence. Private Schools(2009).

Third: School Curriculum in KSA:

I. Elementary education:

Elementary education consists of six grades.

Students start at the age of six.

Elementary education focuses mainly on Islamic religion and the Arabic language; mathematics, history, geography, and science.

I.1 Elementary School Curriculum:

Subjects

Hours Per Week

1st Grade

2nd Grade

3rd Grade

4th Grade

5th Grade

6th Grade

Islamic Studies

9

9

9

9

9

9

Arabic Studies

12

9

9

9

8

8

Social Studies

0

0

0

2

2

2

Science

1

2

2

2

3

3

Mathematics

2

4

4

5

5

5

Art Education

2

2

2

1

1

1

Physical Education

2

2

2

2

2

2

Total Hours

28

28

28

31

31

31

II. Intermediate education:

Passing the sixth grade examinations is required to enter the intermediate level.

The age of the intermediate student is between 12 and 15 years old.

Students in the intermediate level study, besides Islamic and Arabic language courses, more general education courses.

Completion of the third year of the intermediate level and passing the examination, students can select one of three options: (1) regular secondary school, (2) vocational education, (3) Qur'anic schools. (AL-Abdulkareem,p,6-7)

II.1 Intermediate School Curriculum

Subjects

Hours Per Week

1st Grade (7 grade)

2nd Grade (8 grade)

3rd Grade (9 grade)

Islamic Studies

8

8

8

Arabic Studies

6

6

6

English

4

4

4

Science

4

4

4

Mathematics

4

4

4

Art Education

2

2

2

Physical Education

1

1

1

History

2

2

2

Geography

2

2

2

Total Hours

33

33

33

For girls, instead of Physical Education they have Feminine Education in all levels.

III. Secondary Education

There are three types of secondary education available in Saudi Arabia:

(1) general (academic) school,

(2) Religious Secondary School (Qur'anic school), and

(3) vocational (professional) school.

(1). General Secondary School

Duration: Three years (ages 15 to 18)

Compulsory Subjects: During the first year, students share a common curriculum, and in the final two years are divided into scientific and literary streams. Students scoring 60 percent in all first-year subjects may choose between the two streams. Those who score under 60 percent must opt for the literary stream.

General Curriculum: Arabic, biology, chemistry, English, geography, history, home economics (for girls), mathematics, physical education (for boys) and religious studies

Leaving Certificate: Shahadat Al-Marhalat Al-Thanawiyyat (General Secondary Education Certificate), awarded to students who successfully pass the Tawjihi (General Secondary Examination)

(2). Religious Secondary School

Duration: Three years (ages 15 to 18)

Curriculum: Arabic language and literature, English, general culture, geography, history and religious studies

Leaving Certificate: Shahadat Al Thanawiyyah Al 'Aama lil Ma'aahid Al Ilmiyya (Religious Institute Secondary Education Certificate). Graduates are admitted to university in the humanities and social sciences only.

(2). Technical Secondary School

There are three types of technical education offered at the secondary level: vocational/technical, commercial and agricultural. Admission to a technical school requires the Shahadat Al-Kafa'at Al-Mutawassita (Intermediate School Certificate).

All technical and vocational training comes under the authority of the General Organization for Technical Education.

Duration: Three years (ages 15 to 18)

Curriculum:

Vocational/Technical: architectural drawing, auto mechanics, electricity, machine mechanics, metal mechanics, radio and television. In addition to technical subjects, students take Arabic, chemistry, English, mathematics, physical education, physics and religious studies

Commercial: Arabic, bookkeeping and accounting, commercial correspondence, economics, English, financial mathematics, general mathematics, geography, management and secretarial and religious studies.

Agriculture (partial listing): agricultural economics, agronomy, animal husbandry, applied biology, applied chemistry, applied mathematics, applied physics, Arabic, English, farm management, horticulture, religious studies, marketing and plant nutrition

Leaving Certificates:

Technical: Diplom Al Madaaris Al Thanawiyyah Al Mihaniyyah (Secondary Vocational School Diploma)

Commercial: Diplom Al Madaaris Al Tijaariyyah (Secondary Commercial School Diploma)

Agriculture: Diplom Al Madaaris Al Ziraa'iyyah (Secondary Agricultural School Diploma)

Further Technical and Vocational Training:

Programs ranging between one and one-half-years are offered at vocational training centers. Admission to these programs requires five to six years of primary education.

Leaving Certificate: Vocational Training Certificate. (Sedgwick. 2008)

Fourth: School Infrastructure in Saudi Arabia:

Over the last three decades, Saudi National Development Plans have provided for a massive program to improve the physical facilities of the educational system. This has included the construction and furnishing of new schools and the upgrading of existing schools. Most schools in Saudi Arabia are now furnished with science laboratories and appropriate equipment and supplies. Audio-visual media are fully integrated into the curriculum and schools are provided with a full complement of equipment. Schools, from the elementary level through the secondary level, can produce their own media materials, such as educational videos that can be broadcast through an in-house closed-circuit television system. Some schools also have photographic equipment and photo processing laboratories. The government provides all schools with computers. They are introduced to students beginning at the elementary level. Software in Arabic is abundant and specific programs are used in the teaching of Islamic studies, reading, mathematics, Arabic language and social studies.

Students with Special Needs:

Saudi Arabia offers educational opportunities for students with special needs. There are schools within the kingdom for special education, the blind, the deaf, the mentally retarded, and those needing physical therapy and training. Training for special education teachers is offered at King Saud University in the College of Education and at the College of Applied Medicine for the speech and hearing impaired. Additional special education teacher training needs are satisfied by study abroad at accredited institutions of higher learning. The Ministry of Education and the General Presidency of Girls' Education offer adult education programs that focus on the mastery reading, writing, and elementary arithmetic skills. Graduates receive a Literacy Certificate. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia offers special training programs through the Institute of Public Administration in the fields of banking, electronic data processing, hospital administration, library science, personnel studies, secretary studies, and store administration.

Conclusion: As we see that each country adopts the educational system which fit with their needs, religion and traditions. The educational systems for both Canada and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have some similarities and differences features. Here, I will mention the general comparison between Saudi Arabia and Canada in their educational system:

Both Canada and KSA have educational system for both boys and girls from primary level to university, with education for the country's citizens being provided free through government schools, colleges and universities. There are also an extensive private education sector.

In Canada, the education is compulsory up to the age of 16 in every province in Canada, except for Ontario and New Brunswick, where the compulsory age is 18. In some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at14. While in KSA, Only elementary education is compulsory.

In Canada, there are two main levels which are elementary education followed by secondary education. The secondary education has two levels which are junior high school, then senior high school. On the other hand, KSA are generally divided into three levels. They are elementary schools, the intermediate school, and the secondary school.

In Canada, the private schools are less common. Just about 8% of students are in private schools. While in KSA, parents used to sent their children to private school, which its standards are high, with small class sizes and modern facilities.

In Canada, The high school program is based on a credit hours system. Students must earn a total of 30 credits to obtain their high school diploma. Eighteen of the credits are compulsory, from a list of subjects that every student must take. The other 12 credits are optional, from a list of courses offered by the school. Students must also complete 40 hours of community involvement activities. So, there is an optional for student to choose some of their subjects at their high school. While in KSA, the daily level schedule has between six to seven 45- minute classes. Sstudents have to study certain subject until grade 10. Then, they have an optional to choose any of these three school (1) General (academic) school, (2) Religious Secondary School (Qur'anic school), and (3) vocational (professional) school.

In KSA, boys and girls students are not taken the same subjects. For example, for girls, instead of Physical Education they have Feminine Education in all levels. While, this separating between boys and girls not occur in Canada.

In Canada, schools start to teach students the second language in the early years. For example, Canadian students from grade 1-8 , have 1 credit hour in French as a second language. While, KSA students learn English as a second language from grade seven.

Both Canada and KSA have a program during the secondary level which prepares the students for further jobs. For example, in Canada, High schools offer the opportunity to enroll in Cooperative education programs. This program lets the student get work experience in a workplace setting. While in KSA, vocational training centres offers programs ranging between one and one-half-years.

Both Canada and KSA integrate technology in their classrooms. Also, both of them have a special education for special needs students.

I draw a summary of both Canada and KSA educational system which is shown in Tables (1) & (2).

Education System in Canada

Structures

Age

Grade

Curriculum

Elementary

(5 - 18 years )

Kindergarten,1,2,3,4,6, or 7

- The Arts (1-8)

- French As A Second Language(1-8)

- French Immersion(1-8)

- Health and Physical Education(1-8)

- Language(1-8)

- Mathematics(1-8)

- Native Languages(1-8)

- Science and Technology(1-8)

- Social Studies (1-6)

- History and Geography(7 & 8)

Junior High Schools

Secondary

Senior ( Secondary) High Schools

7,8, & 9

students beginning in Grade 8, 9 or 10 to continue their studies through to Grade 12

Compulsory Credits (total of 18)

- 4 credits in English (1 credit per grade)

- 1 credit in French as a second language

- 3 credits in mathematics

- 2 credits in science

- 1 credit in Canadian history

- 1 credit in Canadian geography

- 1 credit in the arts

- 1 credit in health and physical education

- 1/2 credit in civics and 1/2 credit in career studies.

- 1 additional credit in English, or a third language, or a social science and the humanities, or Canadian and world studies

- 1 additional credit in health and physical education, or the arts, or business studies

- 1 additional credit in science (Grade 11 or 12) or technological education (Grades 9-12)

2- Optional Credits (total of 12):

Selected from the full list of courses available in the school. Optional credits allow students to build an educational program that suits their individual interests and meets university, college, apprenticeship, or work

Table (1)

Education System in Kingdome of Saudi Arabia

Strucures

Age

Grade

Curriculum

Comment

Pre-elementary

four

five

Nursery

Preliminary

-

Elementary

6- 11

1 - 6

- Islamic Studies

- Arabic studies

- Social studies

- Science

- Mathematics

- Art education

- Physical Education

for girls, instead of Physical Education they have Feminine Education in all levels.

Intermediate

12- 15

7 - 9

- Islamic Studies

- Arabic studies

- English

- Geography

- History

- Science

- Mathematics

- Art education

- Physical Education

for girls, instead of Physical Education they have Feminine Education in all levels.

Secondary

a- General Secondary School

b- Religious Secondary School

c- Technical Secondary School

C1- Vocational/Technical

C2- Commercial

C3- Agriculture (partial listing)

15 - 18

15 - 18

15 - 18

10 - 12

10 - 12

10 - 12

a- General Curriculum: Arabic, biology, chemistry, English, geography, history, home economics (for girls), mathematics, physical education (for boys) and religious studies

b- Arabic language and literature, English, general culture, geography, history and religious studies

C1- architectural drawing, auto mechanics, electricity, machine mechanics, metal mechanics, radio and television. In addition to technical subjects, students take Arabic, chemistry, English, mathematics, physical education, physics and religious studies

C2- Arabic, bookkeeping and accounting, commercial correspondence, economics, English, financial mathematics, general mathematics, geography, management and secretarial and religious studies

C3- agricultural economics, agronomy, animal husbandry, applied biology, applied chemistry, applied mathematics, applied physics, Arabic, English, farm management, horticulture, religious studies, marketing and plant nutrition

During the first year, students share a common curriculum, and in the final two years are divided into scientific and literary streams

Table (2)

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Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.