This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.
This paper presents a lesson plan that I have designed based on the provided materials, a rhyme entitle 'Nelly, Nelly, look outside!'.The lesson plan is primarily designed for young learners of second language speakers that come from various culture background and contexts, especially for Year 2, eight years old primary school children. My primary focus in this lesson plan is for the pupils to acquire vocabularies on body parts. The theme, body part has been chosen because it contains basic vocabularies that young learners are required to gain so that they are able to use the vocabularies in contextual situations and for their communication purpose. The integrated skills, listening and speaking are the focal skills required in this vocabulary learning lesson. The pupils are expected to have knowledge of clothes as their prior knowledge. My aim for this lesson is to enable the learners learns vocabularies in meaningful way. Thus, all the projected activities are designed to be linked with the theme and so to promote 'real' learning. This paper is hopefully could serve as a guideline of an effective teaching vocabulary lesson.
I would initiate the lesson vocabulary lesson with brain storming. Pitcairn (2009) claimed that brain storming involves both cognitive and affective depths among learners. The processes require the learners to have brain working on the language and make the connection with their own life. In this activity, the learners would be introduced with new words through ostensive definition, in which 'names for the things' as their primary learning. Basically, the learners will present their prior knowledge that relates to the topic. A diagram of body part is displayed in order to make them notice on the similarity of their body part with the picture. By looking at the diagram, the pupils will undergo top-down process and see the information from one dimension therefore, bring their focus attention into the lesson. Children would see the diagram and name the body parts by themselves after that. Even so, Cameron (2001) noted that, some of the foreign language words already familiar with them, however, second language children may struggle to understand most of the words by linking them to their first language. The different underlying meanings that they construct are probably due to cultural or other differences. Therefore in my lesson plan, I feel that it is important to explain the function of each body part so that the pupils could understand the words in depth. In term of vocabulary size, I believe that words families may help to provide further knowledge for the pupils, for instance, the based form 'foot' , and its derives form, 'feet' tell the plural form of the word. This verbal explanation also enables the learners to hear the words and how they are pronounced so that they can produce the sound on their own later on. As the teacher pointed at the body part and the pupils retell the words, the activity gives information on how much they gain from the listening. In short, I would provide the leaners with complete knowledge of the words before they can use them because i believed that vocabulary development is not about providing rote learning of words but also to understand them semantically.
As the words have entered the learner's short term memory, the next issue is to build up the memory of the words so that the words could permanently available in the learner's mental lexicon. Thus, I suggest Musical Flashcard Game in the next activity, which definitely helps the learners to memorise the words. Whenever their turn arrived, the pupils need to match up the words with the body parts in the diagram correctly. This activity requires them to recall the words which have been learnt previously. Besides, music element added in this activity aims to change the pace of the lesson and help to keep the pupils' motivation. Even though listening to music involved, focus attention is to train their memory and concentration. The flashcard activity enables them to have a 'deep' look at the spelling of the words. Yet, not all the pupils will be participating in this activity. This is because there are limited vocabularies on body part been taught in the previous activity. Brewster and Ellis (2002) suggest on integrated language practice in the games so that all the pupils are occupied most of the times. Therefore, I would recommend the teacher to provide opportunities for other pupils to help their friend works on the word. Therefore in this game, co-operative learning is emphasized. Vygotsky (Krause, et. al. 2010), a psychologist claimed that children acquire language best through social learning. Other pupils who are more knowledgeable can assist they friend to find the correct answer, hence, the pupils who is in turn will be motivated to do the task. Moreover, Cameron (2001) noted that children need to meet the words repetitively in order to assist their vocabulary acquisition. Hence, the teacher can play the games for second times so that everyone can involve in the game both directly and indirectly. In brief, flashcard game not only having the learners mentally engaged in the activity but also offer collaborative learning.
Stick puppet play
I reckoned that children probably have difficulties to understand the words without practice in contextual situation. Stick Puppet plays in the next activity offer the pupils opportunity to practice the new vocabularies by producing language for discourse. Muller-Hartman and Shocker Von-Ditfurth (2004) recommended on using 'comprehensible input' and 'creative construction process' as processes of learning discourse. While playing the puppet, the pupils will make use of the words and contextualize them into their comprehensible topic which is about clothes. Moreover, a script play will be given to guide their conversation occurred correctly. Even the script play is given, some words on body parts are left missing. The pupils need to complete the script with the help of pictures given. In this task, the learners are constructing the meaning through the combination of both bottom-up and top-down process, as they have to suit parts of the body that wearing particular clothes. As mentioned above, these pupils are expected to have vocabularies on World of Clothes. They may keep playing, involve in the conversation until they get all the answers correct. However, the practice of using vocabularies may not be successful if some pupils passively involved. They may remain quiet therefore lead to misconception about the words. As a solution, I would suggest a presentation of the stick puppet play at the end of the lesson. This task allows them to test their hypothesis about how the vocabularies works in the language through the feedback from teacher and peers. This activity is not only aims to provide fun and motivation for the pupils, but also excellent practice for improving their lexical usage. In addition, Brewster and Ellis (2002) revealed that physical actions in the puppet play help to develop memory, concentration, coordination, vocabulary, social skills and acting out. In sum, I believe that this activity is suitable as an application part of the lesson
Before end the lesson, I would like to estimate how far the pupils have gone through the lesson. Therefore, Simon Say game is allocated at the end of the lesson to assess the vocabulary acquisition of the pupils. During the activity, teacher who observes the pupils playing the game may identify area of weakness and their need for further language. After all, this activity should be done in a fun way, as if everyone enjoys following Simon's actions that somehow confusing and frenzy. An intrinsic motivation is instilled within the pupils as they try their best to focus on the language of command so that they would not be eliminated from the game. Nonetheless, there will be no tenses because this game would not seek for individuals lose at the end of it. Furthermore, it has become Simon's task to get everyone out of the games. This Simon is chunking the language, which is believed as learner's way of developing language fluency through his commands. For example, 'touch the ear'. In line with this objective of this lesson, according to Nattinger (1988, as cited in Muller-Hartman & Shocker V on-Ditfurth, 2004) "[them] of concentrating on each individual words as it is used by allowing them to focus attention on the larger structure of the discourse and on the social aspects of the interaction". Thus, this chunking of language enables the pupils to practise using the words of body parts in meaningful contexts and use the words in larger words, such as phrases and sentences with grammatically correct. On the other hand, the rest of the pupils will actively perform the actions as commanded. Out of ten strategies to learning the meaning words suggested by Nation (1990, as cited in Cameron, 2001), performing an action is one of the strategies that I think involved in this activity. These action performances could develop their understanding and so to engrave the words in their memory. Despite of this explanation, I would rather focus on promoting fun to the pupils so that content of the lesson remain as memorable to them.
In my opinion, vocabulary knowledge is the most basic resource in language acquisition. Early learning vocabulary for young learner of the second language speaker helps them to develop the meta-linguistic awareness especially in morphology that is useful for further learning. In classroom, teacher should be flexible to vary the teaching strategies so that the learners could learn by heart. However, the rote of learning should not be only the main focus in teaching vocabulary but also the practice of it. For example, games, rhyming and songs are the materials that encourage activity-based learning. Besides, teacher should be creative to modify the activities and encounter the difficulties by the learners in language learning; especially the learners who study foreign could be overcome.