Lesson Delivery To English Lessons In Miravalle School Education Essay

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This article aims at describing how to adapt some features of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol SIOP component: Lesson Delivery for the teaching of English in sixth grade at Miravalle School. Despite some school efforts to offer students the best second language learning, some English language lessons have been taught with Spanish overuse. After data collection, three lesson plans, which focused on SIOP features and students' needs, were designed. The findings demonstrated that the overuse of Spanish was reduced when in addition to implementing the Lesson Delivery component, the teacher developed vocabulary activities. Finally, it was suggested that teachers have SIOP training for teaching content, and focus more on students needs.

Keywords: Lesson Delivery component, SIOP model, teaching and learning English language.

Este artículo tiene como objetivo describir cómo adaptar algunas características del componente de SIOP: Desarrollo de Clase para la enseñanza de inglés en grado sexto del Colegio Miravalle. A pesar de algunos esfuerzos del colegio para ofrecer a los estudiantes el mejor aprendizaje de segunda lengua, algunas clases de inglés han sido enseñadas con excesivo uso de español. Después de la recolección de datos, tres clases enfocadas en SIOP y las necesidades de los estudiantes fueron diseñadas. Los resultados demostraron que el uso excesivo de español se redujo cuando además de la implementación del componente Desarrollo de Clase, se desarrollaron actividades de vocabulario. Finalmente, se sugirió que los profesores tuvieran formación en el modelo SIOP para la enseñanza de contenidos, y enfocarse más en las necesidades de los estudiantes.

Palabras claves: Componente Desarrollo de Clase, enseñanza y aprendizaje del idioma Inglés, modelo SIOP.

Introduction

In the process of learning a second language, apprentices have been using and trying several methodologies and strategies. Some learners have obtained great results while others have not. It is difficult, almost impossible, to establish a specific way of learning for a person or a group of people. No matter if they have almost the same environment and educational background, there are always some slight differences that make teachers adapt teaching according to students' needs. As a result, these differences have been some of the reasons for pedagogues to implement bilingual education programs. Second Language Learners (SLL) have immersed themselves into the target language or second language (L2), for instance, living in a city where the target language is used (speaking, writing, reading and listening). Recognizing the target language as the language that a non-native speaker is in the process of learning (Target Language, no.date., paragraph 1), and second language as the language whose acquisition starts after early childhood (Second Language, n.d., para 1). L2 is described as any language that is not the mother tongue or native language. On the other hand, a great number of SLLs have taken the challenge to study in an immersion program, in a non-English speaking city where the target language is not the means of communication for the majority of citizens. This forces SLLs to be in touch with in a language other than English, such as Spanish. In these immersion programs, SLLs must use (speaking, writing, reading and listening) the target language all the time, in many kinds of activities. In Colombia, most schools are willing to become bilingual. This desire obeys to the fact that Colombian Ministry of Education has created programs that foster bilingualism such as Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo and Bogotá Bilingüe en Diez Años. As result, elementary and high school students take English classes provided by their respective schools varying in different bilingual educational programs. Among the most common, one may find English Immersion Method (EIM) and Two-Way Bilingual Education Method (TWB) with the latter being the most preferred since English teaching courses may include students' mother tongue, in this case Spanish. Law 115 of 1994, articles 21 and 22 highlight the importance of second language acquisition:

m) La adquisición de elementos de conversación y de lectura al menos en una lengua extranjera (art 21) and l) La comprensión y capacidad de expresarse en una lengua extranjera (art 22).

Following the guidelines of this law and the desire to improve the knowledge of a foreign language, the Colombian Ministry of Education established a plan called "Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo 2004-2019" in order to foster the command of a foreign language, as a way to improve the academic, cultural, and economic factors around the country (Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo, 2010). Later on, after Agreement 253 in 2006, the Council of Bogotá established the project called "Bogotá Bilingüe en Diez Años" (Agreement 253, 2006). Its main objective is to provide an appropriate environment for citizens to achieve the ability to communicate in English based on the international standards found in the Common European Framework (CEF). The Bogotá Bilingüe project suggests public and private schools adopting their own bilingual programs and models. For instance, Miravalle School, located in the south of Bogotá, set up the EIM for their English classes. The main objective of EIM is to develop second language proficiency while learning academic content, such as Science and Maths (Peregoy & Boyle, 2009). However, the reality of this school is completely different; there is no English instruction for any content area. Students take English lessons for three hours and twenty minutes per week and the real English language contact during lessons is uncertain since most of the time during a lesson; delivery is in the students' native language, Spanish. Therefore, it is necessary to use immersion models to support the bilingual process in schools like Miravalle. One of these models is the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol which according to Echevarria, Vogt and Short (2008), is an approach for teaching content to English learners in strategic ways that make the subject matter concepts comprehensible while promoting the students' English language development. The purpose of this study is to explore how teachers can adapt features from the Lesson Delivery SIOP component to foster the use of English in a group of sixth graders at Miravalle School. Moreover, although SIOP was designed to teach content areas to English language learners (Echevarria, Vogt & Short, 2008), in this project, it was tailored towards English lessons. Bearing in mind teachers at Miravalle plan lessons following the steps: routine, explanation, application and clarification; Lesson delivery component provides guidance to keep teachers on track according to their lessons preparations. For this action research project, it is suitable to say that use and application of SIOP components implies changes and acceptance by teachers and school in order to avoid extensive use of Spanish.

Research Question

How can teachers adapt features from the Lesson Delivery SIOP component to foster the use of English in a group of sixth graders at Miravalle School?

Sub Questions

What are the key features of the lesson delivery component when implementing SIOP in an English class?

In what ways does the implementation of features from the Lesson Delivery SIOP component provide teachers with opportunities to foster the use of English?

Theoretical Framework

This project is based on the desire to identify how to apply SIOP in English lessons in a public school in Bogotá, Colombia. First of all, it is worthwhile to revise some theories and their application to the objective of the project. They will appear in the following order: Additive and Subtractive Bilingualism (Lambert, 1974), Bidirectional Interdependence (Cummins, 1979), and Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) (Echevarria, Vogt & Short, 2008).

Additive and Subtractive Bilingualism Lambert (1974) stated two categories for bilingualism, which are additive and subtractive bilingualism. An additive bilingual situation occurs when the addition of a second language and culture is unlikely to replace or displace the first language and culture. It therefore stands as an expansion to the linguistic repertoire in which both languages are considered useful and valued. In contrast, subtractive bilingualism reflects a situation where the learning of a majority second language may undermine a person's minority first language and culture. This is an important theory to take into account during the project, because it illustrates the two states that our students can experiment while learning a second language. Besides, it is a suitable theory at the moment to show students the importance of both languages and the advantages to add a new language to their repertoires.

Bidirectional Interdependence Cummins' (1979) theory Bidirectional Interdependence states that certain L1 knowledge can be positively transferred during the process of L2 acquisition. The L1 linguistic knowledge and skills that a child possesses can be used to develop the corresponding abilities in the L2. This theory has two significant contributions to this project. First, second language learners need to know that while learning a L2 they can implement and apply their L1 knowledge as L2 learning support. Second, SLLs must compare and recognize the relationship between the L1 and the L2. As Spanish and English share some language properties, students need to identify those circumstances and use them effectively in the second language learning process.

English Immersion Method (EIM) This method applies the idea of not using any L1, instruction is entirely in English. Teachers strive to deliver lessons in simplified English so that students learn both English and academic subjects (edweek.org, 2004). It could be possible to say that when people want to learn a language they must use - in speaking, writing, reading and listening - the target language all the time and for any situation. Besides, one of its goals is to develop strong academic literacy skills and to give students access to subjects taught in the second language (McGroarty in Celce-Murcia, 2001). According to Gómez and Hincapié (1998), some linguists believe that if people have been able to learn their L1 without using any language model, they should be able to learn an L2 in a similar way. Since Miravalle's English curriculum was based on EIM, it is important to understand its methodology and characteristics.

Two-way Bilingual Education Method (TWB) Two-way Bilingual Education Method is a variant of the EIM; it was designed to assist students of minority and majority languages, who want to learn and develop literacy skills in both of them (McGroarty in Celce-Murcia, 2001). It is the most common teaching methodology for ESLs in elementary and high schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Through this method, lessons are given in two languages to students (in this case Spanish and English). The main goal of this method is that students become proficient in both languages. However, this method could present diverse difficulties, since at the beginning of this research Spanish was used almost all the time and for any situation. Following TWB characteristics, learners could use their L1 as a support when learning an L2; as Cummins (1979) stated in his Bidirectional Interdependence theory. Furthermore, in this instructional program the importance of becoming proficient in both languages is taken into account as Lambert (1974) declared in the Additive Bilingualism theory.

Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) SIOP was the English language instructional model adapted and applied for this action research. It was developed with the need to assist non-English speakers in their process of learning content areas, such as Science and Maths science or math, while learning the English language (Echevarria, Vogt & Short, 2008). In addition, it includes eight components for instruction (see table 1). For the development of this study, the Lesson Delivery component was tailored from instruction in English language lessons. This component guides teachers to follow their lesson plans by practicing some useful and easy tips: Content and Language Objectives Clearly Supported, Students Engaged Approximately 90% to 100% of the Class Period, and Proper Pacing of the Lesson to Students' Ability Levels. This component is completely appropriate for this project, as lesson delivery was recognized as the point where teachers lose their paths and forget their English or bilingual instruction.

Table 1. SIOP Components (Echevarria, Vogt & Short, 2008)

Lesson Preparation

Examines the lesson planning process, including the language and content objectives, the use of supplementary materials, and the meaningfulness of the activities.

Building Background

Focuses on making connections with students' background experiences and prior learning and developing their academic vocabulary.

Comprehensible Input

Considers adjusting teacher speech, modeling academic tasks, and using multimodal techniques to enhance comprehension.

Strategies

Emphasizes teaching learning strategies to students, scaffolding instruction, and promoting higher-order thinking skills.

Interaction

Reminds teachers to encourage elaborated speech and to group students appropriately for language and content development.

Practice/Application

Provides activities to practice and extend language and content learning.

Lesson Delivery

Ensures teachers present a lesson that meets the planned objectives, promotes students engagement and paces the lesson appropriately.

Review and Assessment

Considers whether the teacher reviewed the key language and content concepts, assessed student learning, and provided feedback to students on their output.

Review of Related Literature

Throughout language learning, great amount of theories and methods have been proved. A relevant quote from Harbord (1992) states that "in any situation teachers' use of Spanish must not be as a time-saver or to make life easier." Then, taking into account the great number of bilingual education programs, few research studies on English immersion and two-way bilingual education method are presented. It is suitable to take as point of reference two research projects developed in Bogotá, Colombia: Torres (1998) and Gómez and Hincapié (1998). The first research was done in an important English institute, where L1 was not allowed at any time during the lesson delivery. This can be described as an immersion program. In contrast, Gómez and Hincapié project was developed in two schools, where L1 was used as the basic tool most of the time and applied for any situation in the classroom. This can be described as a non-immersion program.

The Use of the Mother Tongue in the Foreign Language Process: a Tool or a Hindrance. The study was based on the English Immersion Method (EIM). A group of 16 to 35 year-old students were distributed in four classes; two were experimental groups (EG) and the other two were control groups (CG). In the EG a guideline, designed by Torres, was used for ESL teaching. Through this guideline, the teacher and the students had specific situations for using some Spanish, thereby increasing L1 use. Besides, the other CG continued their classes without any modification. After a survey, most of the English learners agreed with the idea that L1 was a useful tool, and disagreed with the concept of only using L2 as a means of communication. Therefore, the EG wanted to use more L1 in their lessons. However, the CG preferred to only use L2, despite the recognition of L1 as a helpful tool. So, all groups shared the idea that L1 use depends on situations, for example to give instructions, to explain grammar or to make corrections. However, students would not like their mother tongue to be put aside all the time. As well, they did not want an English class with complete L1 exposure because they paid for L2 exposure (Torres, 1998). In the English institute where the guideline designed by Torres was applied, 70% of students passed the course which was higher than the CG results. As a result, students from the EG obtained better outcomes because through this L1 use they had new opportunities to facilitate learning. As it was stated by Harbord (1992), a brief clarification in L1 could be a more efficient path to comprehension. Subsequently, the EG had benefits from clarification of grammar and vocabulary questions in L1. Also it was appropriate to correct mistakes in L1. Finally, ESL teachers in English immersion programs need to identify when and why to use L1. And for this action research it is important to remind Torres (1998) results, the smaller amount of L1 the better. Torres (1998) demonstrated that the mother tongue should not be ignored in an ESL setting but it needs to be used appropriately. English teachers need to keep appropriate activities in mind for using L1.

The Use of First Language in a Low Intermediate Level for Teaching English as a Foreign Language: a Guideline. This research project was based on the two-way bilingual education method (TWB). It was built up in two non-bilingual high schools in Bogotá where students were seventh graders around 12 and 13 years old. Participants were organized in two groups, one EG and other CG. The EG followed a guideline planned by the authors, which was based on the four main parts of lesson activities: before, during, post, and feedback of the activity; the CG did not use any guidelines, though. Through this guideline, the teacher and the students had specific situations for using Spanish, thereby decreasing L1 use. After a questionnaire, the teacher and the students agreed on the situations in which L1 must be used: giving instructions, complicated tasks, and grammar explanation. EG and CG were assessed in the four basic language skills through a test. As it was previously said, EG obtained better results than CG in the pre-test, although, in the post-test both groups improved their outcomes but EG showed a tendency of better results, especially in one skill: speaking. These results could be associated with the guideline designed by Gómez and Hincapié (1998) as they proposed specific moments in class delivery for using Spanish. Throughout, this guideline EG increased L2 contact, developing more L2 knowledge. The researchers concluded that through L1 application learners could have problems in grammar, semantics, syntax and pronunciation, and that L1 differences are not helpful. Language differences will provoke language interference, which clearly will affect language learning. As Atkinson (1987) said "teachers need to be conscious of the quantity of L1 use and why, otherwise it will really damage the ESL process." However, in this study the L1 amount was reduced and it produced an improvement in speaking for the EG, showing a significant difference with the CG results. According to Gómez and Hincapié (1998) the EG obtained such a better result in speaking because through the guideline students were more able to use English in any task, in activities where they asked and answered questions using L2. Since English level was increased through more exposure, and Spanish was reduced just for specific situations in the EG, students could have better outcomes. Teachers need to identify specific situations and quantities of L1. Concerning these results, we can conclude that the less L1, the better. This research was presented and analyzed two main reasons. First, it was taken as a point of reference to create the observation checklist used to observe the English lessons and identify the research problem. Second, this study was done in two schools in Bogotá, Colombia the same city where the present action research was developed. Here, both sides of the issue about the English Immersion Method and the Two-Way Bilingual education method were presented. The amount of L1 use in ESL classrooms must be identified and applied precisely: not as much as in non-bilingual schools, and not completely avoided as in English institutes. Furthermore, any English program, school, institution, or teacher should first ask her/himself some questions. Who are the learners? Who are the teachers? What is the necessary program? How will it be implemented? (Gómez & Hincapié, 1989). As a result, through these questions, they will identify basic principles, needs, methodologies, and the future of English language learners.

Method

Data collection In this action research project, qualitative data collection techniques were used as primary tools. The main sources of information were daily observation checklists of teachers during English lessons and field notes to record extra information after English classes. Also, surveys were applied to gather opinions about the use of Spanish in the English classroom. Finally, artifacts were collected to follow students' processes of English knowledge.

Data Sources Observation checklist: based on Gómez and Hincapié (1998) and Torres (1998) an observation checklist was designed. It was used during lesson deliveries in order to gather information about the use of Spanish throughout English lessons. Consequently, the student-researcher checked for specific situations when the English teacher needed to employ Spanish in the English classroom. (See appendix A) Field notes: as they are a way of reporting observations, they were taken into account for the second observation, as the English teacher began to use Spanish for some unexpected situations, which were not calculated on the observation checklist. Field notes were written after each English lesson and provided data as to when the English teacher used Spanish to control students' behaviors, for example. Surveys: since they are useful to collect information about specific aspects of the teaching method, for this action research, surveys were provided to six English teachers and 41 sixth A grade students from a public school in order to find out their opinions about the use of Spanish during the English lessons. Students' surveys were designed to verify their attitudes about Spanish use during English lesson since in previous observations some students do not agree about Spanish instruction. And to evaluate how effective, useful, and interesting the planned lessons were for the sixth graders. (See appendix B & C) Teachers' surveys: they were designed with the main objective to find out if teachers' answers were following their English methodology and the school's English methodology (EIM). Also, they were used to discover teachers' opinions about the use of Spanish in the classroom specially when thinking about bilingual contexts. (Appendix D) Artifacts: In this action research, portfolios were managed as artifacts. Students designed portfolios during class time, they wrote helpful information for English lessons divided in two sections: Useful questions and Vocabulary. Portfolios were planned because previous observations showed that students were using Spanish most of the time, when they did not know the correct vocabulary or how to ask a specific question. So with portfolios help the L1 use was reduced. As result, 6A grade students applied the useful questions section to clarify doubts during instruction like "How do you say correr in English?" Furthermore, the vocabulary section was a kind of dictionary, where students define words by drawings, key words, synonyms or antonyms. However, Spanish was not allowed. (See appendix E)

Table 2. Matrix

Research Questions

Source 1

Source 2

Source 3

How can teachers adapt features from the SIOP component: lesson delivery to foster the use of English in a group of sixth graders at Miravalle School?

Observations checklist

Field notes

Surveys

What are the key features of lesson delivery component when implementing SIOP in an English class?

Observations checklist

Field notes

Surveys

In which ways does the implementation of features from the SIOP component: lesson delivery provide teachers with opportunities to foster the use of English?

Observations checklist

Surveys

Artifacts

Implementation

Since the main goal of this action research project was to explore how teachers can adapt features from the SIOP component Lesson Delivery to foster the use of English in a group of sixth graders at Miravalle School, three English lessons were planned and delivered by adapting the following features from SIOP model: Content Objectives and Language Objective Clearly Supported, Students Engaged Approximately 90% to 100% of the Period, and Pacing of the Lesson Appropriate to Students' Ability Levels. Furthermore, vocabulary activities were developed during lessons in order to present, develop and assess useful words for class activities: Word Wall, Matching, Flash Cards, Cloze Sentences, and Personal Dictionaries. Finally, the teacher clearly presented correct grammar structures to fulfill lessons' tasks. An example is the structure of can: subject + can + verb in infinitive form, My Alebrije can fly. The vocabulary activities and grammar structures were developed for two main reasons. First, to follow the SIOP features: Key Vocabulary Emphasized and A Variety of Techniques Used to Make Content Concepts Clear, techniques such as Provide a model of a process, task, or assignment. And second, after observations and students' surveys, it was found that English lessons provided very few vocabulary activities and grammar structure explanations, so consequently some students suggested it as a necessary procedure for language learning. Keeping in mind the purpose of adapting features from the Lesson Delivery component, before it took action, a vital component was needed to successfully continue: Lesson Preparation. The lesson plan template used for this action research project was modified from the Lesson Plan Template #3 found on Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2008). The lesson presented in Table 3 shows how sixth graders go through several tasks in order to achieve a final objective, which is to identify a Mayan mythology creature, an Alebrije. Through the lesson template, the student-teacher researcher clearly organized a lesson sequence based on vital SIOP features such as content and language objectives, key vocabulary emphasized, links between past experiences and learning, supplementary materials, and so on. The first step is to identify the topic, in this case following Miravalle's curriculum, Mayan mythology and its topic-based Alebrijes. Then, it is suitable to recognize the group of students involved for several reasons, such as adaptation of content, appropriate speech, scaffolding techniques, higher-order questions, and pacing the lesson appropriately. Furthermore, this action research project was developed with a group of forty one sixth graders during their English classes.

Table 3. First Lesson Plan

Topic: Mayan mythology - Alebrijes

Class: English class - 6A grade

Date: 25 - Oct -2011

Content Objective

SWBAT identify a Mayan mythology creature, Alebrije.

SWBAT apply reading info about Alebrijes by creating, drawing and describing one Alebrije.

Language Objectives

SWBAT practice reading skills by reading "Los Alebrijes" reading.

SWBAT write a description for their Alebrijes using the following structure: It has a lion's head.

Key Vocabulary:

Beak

Body

Claw

Ears

Eyes

Face

Fin

Fingers

Head

Horns

Legs

Mouth

Nose

Tail

Teeth

Tongue

Wings

Materials

Markers

Word wall poster

"Los Alebrijes" reading

High-Order Questions:

What can your Alebrije do?

What illness can your Alebrije cure?

Answer the questions using the following structure: my Alebrije can fly - my Alebrije can cure cancer

Time:

10

20

30

40

50

Lesson sequence:

Students will read the language objective

Building Background

Links to Experience: The teacher will ask:

Have you ever dreamed?

Have you ever dreamed of strange situations?

Have you ever dreamed about animals?

In pairs, students will read "Los Alebrijes" reading.

Links to Learning: The teacher will make

Review of pronoun "it", third person neutral singular.

Review of verb "has", meaning and difference between have and has.

Review of possessive 's

Key Vocabulary:

Teacher will present a word wall poster, each word with its corresponding drawing

Beak - Body - Claw - Ears - Eyes - Face - Fin - Fingers - Head - Horns - Legs - Mouth - Nose - Tail -Teeth - Tongue -Wings

Teacher will explain structure to describe students' Alebrijes: It has a lion's head - It has eagles' wings

Students will draw an Alebrije and write its description using word wall vocabulary and structure of a description.

Teacher will ask the higher-order questions:

What can your Alebrije do?

What illness can your Alebrije cure?

Teacher will remind students of the "can" structure, used in a previous lesson, in order to answer the questions.

Students activities

Scaffolding: _X_ Modeling _X_ Guided _X_ Independent

Grouping: _X_ Whole Class ___ Small Group _X_ Partners _X_ Independent

Processes: _X_ Reading _X_ Writing ___Listening ___Speaking

Strategies: ___ Hands-On _X_ Meaningful _X_ Linked to Objectives

Review and Assessment:

Answer the questions:

What can your Alebrije do? My Alebrije can fly

What illness can your Alebrije cure? My Alebrije can cure cancer

Individual _X_ Group _____ Written __X_ Oral ____

Teacher Reflection

Taking into account the Lesson Preparation component (Echevarria, Vogt, & Short 2008), content objectives are required to focus the lesson appropriately in order to support school and state standards for content areas. However, Miravalle School did not use English as a means of communication to teach any content area. On the other hand, the English language class designed its curriculum following a topic-based structure where different topics were stated like Mayan mythology, Colombian festivals, Love and Friendship, Halloween, and Christmas. Based on the Language Objectives from Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2008), the teachers should incorporate in their lesson plans techniques that support students' language development. For instance, in Table 3 students developed reading and writing skills. Furthermore, as the main objective of this action research is to adapt features from Lesson Delivery component to English lessons, the Alebrijes template presented in table 3 demonstrated activities that reinforce features 23 and 24: content and language objectives clearly supported by Lesson Delivery. Then, Key Vocabulary was presented in order to achieve the SIOP Feature Key vocabulary emphasized and its corresponding activity, a word wall poster. This was a double- purpose activity: first, to present, develop and assess vocabulary, and second, to show students that with the help of simple images, they could understand vocabulary, and it was not necessary to use Spanish. Supplementary materials, which were necessary to develop the lesson, were presented, such as a word wall poster, copies of the reading about Alebrijes, and markers. Also, according to Echevarria, Vogt, and Short (2008), materials are especially important for students who do not have the appropriate English level, academic backgrounds and/or who have language and learning difficulties. As it was stated previously, this project was developed with a group of forty-one sixth graders who were in a low intermediate English level. The word wall poster was a great help for most of the students to understand vocabulary easily. Also, in the group of sixth graders there were two students with learning difficulties who could take advantage of the vocabulary activity supported by a poster with simple images and words in English. During lesson preparation it is important to plan questions that promote higher-order thinking skills, which is SIOP Feature 15. Most of the time, these questions are based on Bloom's (1956) taxonomy of educational objectives that includes six levels: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. In this first lesson about Mayan mythology, the higher-order questions were: What can your Alebrije do? and What illness can your Alebrije cure? To answer these two questions, the teacher presented a grammar structure as a model to follow. Students practiced the "can" structure, because they already studied it in a previous lesson, to answer the questions my Alebrije can fly and my Alebrije can cure cancer. These answers showed students' understanding about "can" structure and their use of imagination. Furthermore, Building Background was presented and it contains two SIOP features, Links to Experience and Links to Learning. First, Links to Experience is based on students' prior knowledge. This feature was addressed with some questions: Have you ever dreamed? Have you ever dreamed of strange situations? Have you ever dreamed about animals? The Links to Learning were the material, vocabulary and concepts that were covered beforehand in class. In the Alebrijes lesson, there was a short review of pronoun "it", verb "has", and possessive 's. After the lesson sequence, students read the "Los Alebrijes" text in pairs. Concerning the Lesson Delivery component, students worked in pairs to achieve SIOP Feature 25 about students' engagement, and feature 24 regarding tasks that support language objectives. Following the lesson sequence, students used their imagination and drew an Alebrije; later on English learners described their Alebrijes keeping in mind the teacher's model: It has a lion's head. Finally, in lesson preparation, it is necessary to identify how students will develop their activities taking into account four stages: Scaffolding, Grouping, Processes and Strategies. Also, it is necessary to plan how the topic will be reviewed and assessed. In this case it was individually and in written form (See Appendix F and G for other implemented lessons).

Final Findings

Table 4. Matrix

Research Questions

Source 1

Source 2

Source 3

How can teachers adapt features from the SIOP component: lesson delivery to foster the use of English in a group of sixth graders at Miravalle School?

Observations checklist

Field notes

Surveys

"Divertido aprender las partes de los animales usando imágenes"

What are the key features of lesson delivery component when implementing SIOP in an English class?

Observations checklist

Field notes

Surveys

"Es un reto tener objetivos e intentar cumplirlos"

In which ways does the implementation of features from the SIOP component: lesson delivery provide teachers with opportunities to foster the use of English?

Observations checklist

Surveys

Artifacts

"Me gusto aprender los sonidos f y v y jugar con los trabalenguas"

As the implementation was designed to respond to the research questions, they are presented below with their corresponding answers. How can teachers adapt features from SIOP component: lesson delivery to foster the use of English in a group of sixth graders at Miravalle School? Adapting English lessons based on the SIOP template, students admitted that lessons were easy to understand; they learned more vocabulary and could use their imagination. In order to maintain students engaged most of the class time, teacher used images to present, develop and assess the new vocabulary, for example animals' parts and words with /f/ and /v/ sounds. Besides, following the Lesson Delivery component from SIOP, Spanish was reduced in several categories. However, the teacher used Spanish to establish rapport and assist students with learning difficulties. Also, teachers and students agreed on the idea to use Spanish when comparing L1 and L2, controlling behavior, and giving the school's administrative information. And employing SIOP strategies such as key vocabulary at the beginning of the class, review of grammar and tenses structures, and personal dictionaries made students increased the English language use participating actively most of the class time and reached the class objectives. What are the key features of lesson delivery component when implementing SIOP in an English class? Taking into account Lesson Delivery features and the data gathered, they showed that students liked the idea of having objectives; most of the time at the end of the lessons sixth graders wanted to achieve them. Besides, students liked to share, help and work with other classmates, following the Lesson Delivery feature of promoting students engagement. It is important to know students' strengths and difficulties in order to pace the lesson appropriately, plan objectives and group configurations correctly. In what ways does the implementation of the SIOP component lesson delivery provide teachers with opportunities to foster the use of English? Since students were engaged most of the time in class activities, they could easily apply their English knowledge. Following a proper pacing and group configuration in the English classroom sixth graders had more opportunities to practice their English knowledge. Besides, they were conscious about the importance of English language, "si hablamos más en inglés, podemos aprender más y mejor." At the same time, sixth graders were aware of the importance of English and the need for Spanish, "Español para explicar, inglés para practicar." Most of the students actively worked on their portfolios, personal dictionaries and useful questions. The need and use of English increased in students.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this study shows that some of the findings from the literature review confirmed the findings of the action research. Following the research project developed by Gómez and Hincapié (1989), in this project the use of Spanish was reduced and narrowed to specific situations and as a result, students shared better English results. Similarly, in this study the use of Spanish was decreased to foster the use and need of English. According to Cummins (1979), L1 knowledge can be positively transferred during the process of L2 acquisition. In the same way, sixth graders from this action research frequently compared L1, Spanish and L2, English grammar structures. Finally, as previously stated before, the bilingual program of Miravalle School is based on English Immersion Method (EIM) but based on the observations, results and findings from this action research, the school could make an appropriate use of Spanish, if they focused the English curriculum on TWB standards. Besides, since this research project demonstrated that the SIOP model effectively worked in English lessons, the school could use it as an English language instructional program. Through TWB implementation and SIOP adaptation, the suitable bilingual program to Miravalle School should follow Two-Way Immersion SIOP (TWIOP) model.

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