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The Divergers take the experiences and they think deeply about them, the diverging from a solitary experience to the multiple possibilities is in terms of what it might mean. And they are like to ask the question 'why', and they will start from the detail to the constructive work which is up to the big picture. They also enjoy in participating and in working with the others but they are like a calm of the ship and they fret over the conflicts. The Divergers are normally influenced by the other citizens and them like in receiving a constructive type of feedbacks. The Divergers like to learn through the logical instruction or by the hands-one exploration with the conversations which will lead to the discovery. (Rickettes)
The convergers consider about the things and then only try out in their ideas in order to see if they can work in practice. They always like to ask the question 'how' about the situations, they have well understanding of the things as how effects work in practice. The convergers like the facts and they will seek to make the things efficient in making minute and cautious changes. They wish to work with themselves, they thinking very carefully and like acting very autonomously. The Convergers learn through the interaction and have a computer-based education which is more efficient than the other methods learned by them.
The accommodators have most of the hands-on the approaches, with a brawny predilection which is for doing rather than for thinking. They all like to ask the question 'what if?' and also 'why not?' in order to support their action-for their first approach. Convergers do not like the routine and will take artistic risks in order to see what is going to happen. They very much like to explore the complexity by the direct interface and to learn healthier by them than with the other peoples. As they might be expecting this because they like their hands to be in the practical learning's rather than on the lectures.
The assimilators are having the most cognitive type of approaches; they prefer to think than to act. Assimilators like to ask the questions like 'What is there I can know?' and they like the organized and the structured type of understandings. The assimilators prefer the lectures for learning and with the process of demonstrations where it is possible, and it will be respecting the knowledge of the experts. Assimilators will also be learning through the conversations that will take a logical and a thoughtful type of approach. So it is very much clear for how to design the programs for these types.
The designing of these training programs can be undertaken only when there is a clear concept for the training of the objectives which has been formed. The preparation objectives is clears to what the goal has to be gained till the ending of the training programs that is what the trainees are to be unsurprising to be able to complete at the ending of their training programs. The training objectives always assist the trainers for the designing of the training of the programs.
The different strategies should be laid down for the different kinds of the trainees for those who are believing in theories should have those kind of programs and the learners who believe in practical knowledge for them practices should be organized and the overall conclusions which comes is that the camps should have an overall program process which should start from theories to the practices. (Kirkpatrick's foour-level training evaluation model, 2010)
First of all, Gagne's theory does provide a great deal of valuable information to teachers and the trainers. The famous Robert Gagne's had a theory for the instruction that has provided a huge integer of precious ideas to the instructional the designers, the trainers, and the teachers but it really very useful to everyone during all times. Driscoll has broken the Gagne's theory into three major or areas which are the taxonomy for the learning type of outcomes, the conditions of learning, and the events of teaching According to my belief it is the most appealing way for those trainees or the trainers who may be very early in their teaching careers and now they are in the need of the structure for their session kind of plans and having a holistic sight of their teaching or for the development of the training programs. The given kind of theory is in very methodical and unbending at the majority of the points. However, by the methodical environment of the hypothesis it may be like a turn-off for many of the training programs, and particularly for all those training programs which are like to be creative. (Kirkpatrick's four level of evaluation)
As earlier explained the Gagne's theory of the education is usually wrecked into the three fields. The first one of these fields is discussed under the nomenclature of the learning type of outcomes. The Gagne's taxonomy for the education type of outcomes is like somewhat comparable with the Bloom's taxonomy type of the cognitive, emotional, and the psychomotor outcomes where some of the taxonomies were projected by theory of Bloom, but in fact it is completed by the others. Gagne supposed that it was significant to smash down the humans who learned the capabilities into the categories or the domains. The gagne's taxonomy is consisting of the five categories for the educational results like the verbal type of information, the intellectual kind of skills, the cognitive type of strategies, the attitudes, and the motor skills. Gagne with the help of Briggs and Wager in the year1992 clarified that each of these categories had leads to the different classes of the human performance under the guidance programs. Indispensable to the Gagne's ideas of the instruction where he calls the "conditions of the learning's" and he differentiated these ideas into the internal and the external type of circumstances. The one with the internal circumstances deal with earlier learned skills of the learner. In the other words, it can be said that what the beginner knows previous to the training programs. The present external circumstances have to deal with the purely behaviorist type of term that is presented outwardly to the beginner. For example:
What kind of instructions is provided to the trainee?
So there were the processes or the ways by which Robert classified the outcome system. And all his process is very relevant in developing the training programs. So we can conclude that Gagne had a huge and vast contribution in the development of the training programs. (Cunningham, 1996)
Kirkpatrick's four level models for the evaluation of the training programs are:
Level One - Reaction:
As the word itself implies, that the evaluation at this level measures for how the learners do react with the training programs. The level is very often measured by the attitude of questionnaires that are approved out after the most of the training classes. This level of it measures one thing that is the learner's perception or the reaction for the courses. The learners are very often keenly aware for what they require to need to know in order to accomplish the tasks. If this program fails to gratify their needs, then a determination should be completed as to whether it's the responsibility of the program plan or liberation. (Four learning styles, 2011)
This level is not only indicative for the training's presentation of the potential as it do not measures what the new skills does the learners have gained or what they will have to learn so that it will transfer back to the working type of surroundings. This has lead to cause some of the evaluators for the down play of its values. The interest, motivation and the attention of the participants which are often very critical with the success of any of the training process which the people often learn enhanced when they respond positively to the education environment by considering the significance of it. (Using kolb's learning styles to improve a lesson, 2011)
Level Two - Learning:
This is the only extent at which the participants have change in the attitudes, with improved knowledge, and their increase in the skill as an effect of participation in the knowledge process or in the camps. It additionally addresses this question that did the people who were participants learned anything? This learning of the evaluation requires some of the types of post-testing in order to ascertain with what kind of skills were erudite during the time of training. And in addition, to the post-testing it is only valid until combined with the pre-testing, so that the trainees can distinguish between what they previously knew preceding to the training programs and what they have actually learned in the training program. (Condition of learning)
In measuring of the learning's that have taken place in a training plan is very important in array to authenticate the learning of the objectives. The evaluation of the learning that has taken place will typically focuses on such type of questions as:
What kind of knowledge was gained? (Lacin, 2011)
What type of skills were enhanced or developed?
What attitudes were to be changed? (Robert's Gagne's Instructional Design Approach, 2011)
The learner assessments are to be created in order to allow the judgments which are to be made for the learner's capabilities of the performance. There have been two parts for this type of process firstly the congregation of the information or the evidence which is the testing of the learner and in the judgment of the information like what does this data represent. The appraisal should not be puzzled with the evaluation. The assessment is all about for the progress and the achievements of the entity learners, while the evaluation is all about the learning of the program as a whole. (Gagne)
Level Three - Performance (behavior):
This type of evaluation basically involves in the testing of the students capabilities to execute the learned skills during the job to a certain extent than in the classroom. The level three evaluations could be performed very formally testing or which are informally in the surveillance. It then determines that if there is correct performance now happening by answering of the questions (david a. kolb on experiental learning, 2001)
"Do people use their newly acquired learning's on the job?"
While in the Kirkpatrick's unique four-levels of the evaluation, the names for this level of performance but the behavior is the only action that is done, while in the final effect of this behavior it is the performance. (The kirkpatrick four levels: A fresh look after 50 years 1959-2009, 2009)
The performances have two aspects firstly the performance being the revenue and its result being the end. If the one going to organize the training were only concerned about the behavioral type aspect, then it could only be done when in the training surroundings. The outcome of the actions or the performance is what people are actually after and the question is "can the learners now execute and produce the wanted results in the operational environment?" (Reiser, 2005)
Level Four - Results:
This is the final results that occur. It only measures the training programs and its effectiveness, that is, "What type of impact has the training achieved?" These impacts can be taken in account of such items such as the monetary, the efficiency, its moral, the teamwork, etc. (Training Design, 2007)
As we have moved from level one to the level four, then the assessment process becomes more and more hard and lingering; however, if the higher level provides the information that is of gradually more significant value. But perhaps the most regularly type of measurement is the level-on. It's e because it is the easiest way to measure, but yet it provides the slightest valuable data. Measuring of the results that affect the association is often significantly trickier, thus it is conducted fewer frequently, even though it yields the majority precious information. (Kirkpatrick's learning and trainign evaluation theory, 2009)
So, all these measures helped a lot in the training programs. (Kolb learning style, 2010)