The change in the attitudes and beliefs improves the student learning as (Thomas R. Guskey 2002) said "The three major outcomes of professional development such as significant change in teachers' attitudes and beliefs occurs primarily after they gain evidence of improvements in student learning and these improvements typically result from changes teachers have made in their classroom practices and a new instructional approach and the use of new materials or curricula or simply a modification in teaching procedures or classroom format".
(Huberman, 1995) said "teachers see professional development not only as a way to combat boredom and alienation but also as a pathway to increased competence and greater professional satisfaction. Professional development activities frequently are designed to bring change in teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions". Professional development leaders, for example, often attempt to change teachers' beliefs about certain aspects of teaching or a particular curriculum or instructional innovation. It is assumed that such changes in teachers' attitudes and beliefs will lead to specific changes in their classroom behaviors and practices, which in turn will result in improved student learning (Guskey & Huberman, 1995).The research model of Guskey & Huberman on teacher change indicates, however, that the assumptions of it may be inaccurate when considering professional development programs for experienced teachers. This modern time, demands the young generation of province to work and interact differently in new way to face the fast speed of globalization, the shifting from an industrial to a modern and an innovative economy and the explosion of networked communications.
Change in Teachers' Beliefs & Attitudes
Change in Student Learning Outcome
Figure 2.1 A model of teacher change (Guskey & Huberman, 1995).
Source: T. R Guskey, & Huber man, m (1995). Professional Development in Education: New paradigms and practices (New York, Teachers College Press).
Our young generation today needs to be creative, innovative, and show developing aptitude in various areas such as information, media, and technology and finance skills. If we want today's students to be prepared for the future challenges, then schools supervisors, leaders or education administrators must recognize that teachers need to expand their skills and receive training and support to apply those new skills into the 21st century classroom. This research demonstrates that experienced teachers avoid showing commitment with new innovation as instructional approach until they use it practically in their classrooms. The change in teachers' attitudes is seen when there is change in student learning. Professional development explained variation in the impact of its programs and approach to evaluation and placed emphasis on working in collaboration with policy makers and providers for identification of essential and critical features of the model (Lawrence Ingvarson, Marion Meiers and Adrian Beavis 2003).
In this model, there are background variables and features such as time span of program. It includes opportunity to learn features like active learning or follow up. Professional community is a mediating variable in this model. There are also types of impact in this model. Development programs also aimed to make professional community stronger in schools to enhance the impact of program on classroom practice.
Figure 2.2 Relationship between structure, learning process and impact of professional development programs
Background Structural Opportunity to Mediating
Variables features learn factor Impact
Content focus Active learning Follow up Collaborative examination of student work
Feedback on practice
Source: Lawrence Ingvarson, Marion Meiers & Adrian Beavis (2003), Evaluating the quality and impact of Professional development program, Published by Australian council for educational research, pp 27-34.
So, the professional community teachers who share teaching and learning with their colleagues, increase collaboration in planning, teaching and assessment activities. The model is identifying the assumptions about teacher learning and assessing that how the features of the model link to each other to lead the change. The outcomes of this collaborative work identify the main components in the design (inputs, structures, activities, initial outcomes, longer term outcomes) that are expected to link together in practice to promote teacher learning. The theory of action underpins their project (i.e. the mechanisms by which project activities will lead to change in classroom practice).
(Carlos Marcelo 2009) has criticized earlier modÂels for being linear and not representing the complexÂity of the teacher learning processes in professional development programs. They propose a new model that is not linear but interrelated. According to this model, change occurs through the mediation of application and reflection processes on four levels: the personal domain (teacher knowledge, beliefs and attitudes), the field of teaching practices, the conseÂquences in student learning and the external domain. The author defended that professional development is produced as much by teacher reflection, as by the application of new procedures (clearly reflection does not always lead to learning). (Carlos Marcelo 2009) further said "The professional development of teachÂers includes all the experiences of natural learning as well as the more planned and conscious ones which try, both directly and indirectly, to benefit individuals, groups or schools and which contribute for improving the quality of education in the classroom". It is a process through which teachers, whether alone or accompanied, review, renew and further their commitment as agents of change, with moral teaching aims. Moreover, they acquire and develop knowledge, competencies and emotional intelligence that are essential to professional thinking, planning and practice with children, adolescents and colleagues throughout each stage of their teaching lives".
Figure 2.3 Inter relational professional development model (Carlos Marcelo 2009)
Field of practices
Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes
Field of consequences
Source: Carlos Marcelo (2009), sísifo / educational sciences journal Â· no. 8 Â· jan/apr 09, University of Seville (Spain).
The education system's survival is linked with teachers' growth as many other researchers have already done research on professional development of teachers who are engaged in professional development activities to become better teachers. (Meher Rizvi 2003) said teachers see professional development programs as among the most promising and most readily available routes to growth on the job. The mentoring is an important variable for new teachers who need to develop themselves to meet the challenge as (Sandra Sytsma 2006) said for teachers of all ages and stages, mentoring offers the "real voyage of discovery" that supports and challenges professional and organizational growth and develops the new eyes that we all know we need to serve our students and ourselves better. As (Ward Robin A 2005) said that effective teacher in the classroom is potential for increase of student learning where as mentoring of new teacher increases motivation and critical thinking skills and reduce attrition in students. So, new teacher's participation in mentoring program is must to succeed and learn and it is also essential for senior or veteran teachers for maintaining their focus for their own careers which affects teacher efficacy for both teacher and students.
The collaborative efforts make peer coaching feasible as (Sarah Marray and Xin Ma 2009 P-205) said peer coaching is a feasible vehicle for instituting collaborative efforts, therefore, peer coaching warrants consideration as potentially serviceable solution for strengthening field based training for prospective teachers.
Learning is made easy for teachers when their needs are identified whether it is training or coaching, but it needs the identification of needs. In-class program of coaching has the potential to identify individual teacher's needs and to provide the level of support and development appropriate to these needs (Kay Hawk and Jan Hill 2003). The in-class coaching will rarely be subject related. The needs are generic to all learning areas, as is good assessment practice. These needs are primarily:
Building an appropriate relationships with students
Achieving individual student and class locus of control
Using good formative assessment techniques
Planning and delivering the program at appropriate levels
Using effective pedagogical approaches including cooperative learning
Meeting individual and group needs in a class
Managing behavior appropriately.
Effective teacher questioning and feedback
Modern schools of 21st century also demand teachers to improve themselves and give quality in teaching by means of peer coaching. Teacher should learn teaching methodologies and new ways to explain topics in the classroom for maximum understanding of learners because Peer coaching affects classroom practice.
The teaching profession needs support for sustained teachers' professional development and its implementation. According to (Dr. Waseem Qazi, Dr. Khalid Jamil Rawat and Noor Ahmed Khoso 2007p55-71), "the follow up support enabled the teachers for sustainable implementation of their learning. Follow-up support became more effective with other elements like collegial support, head teacher's encouragement and favorable school culture. It helped teachers to sustain their changed role after professional development". In this regard the attitude of school leadership is most important such as it has to play a role to support the school teachers, any innovative idea from teachers and to implement the technology in their schools. But before the implementation of new technology, they must equip themselves with knowledge pertaining to new technology through participation in training workshops. When they are equipped with new knowledge then their attitude toward the use of technology in their schools or education system will be most important. If they are well trained in use of technology then it will be easy for them to support the idea of using the technology in classrooms.
(Derar Serhan, 2007) said that whenever the individuals in leadership positions in schools are involved in the process of introducing technology into their schools, the process becomes easier: By introducing school principals to the different available technology resources and the role of technology in advancing their schools, they will assume an effective role in advocating and supporting the use of technology in their institutions. Modern technology enables teachers to become source of knowledge as (Scott Reid 2002) said schools and classrooms are forms of technology and they are obsolete and not suited to meeting the educational needs of students now and in the future and claims that classrooms are "a technique designed for a learning age when the teacher was the dispenser and source of all knowledge" suitable for an industrial age, but obsolete because new technology enables more individualized, high speed, and customized education.
Moreover schools in future will be looking like modern office environment as (Scott Reid 2002) further said schools in the future will not be organized into classrooms, but rather will resemble a modern office environment and students will meet with teachers who will help them put together an individualized program of study that covers the core curriculum requirements as well as taking into account each student's interests and goals. Teachers now require the use of technology in classroom as (Lynne Schrum and Kelly F. Glassett 2007) said that Research has identified a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to the integration of technology that includes lack of time for professional development, lack of teacher training in pre-service education programs, general resistance by teachers to utilize technology, and lack of technical support. But, now teachers are expected and required to use educational technology in one form or another in their classrooms. The adoption of new technology improves teaching and learning as (Lynne Schrum and Kelly F. Glassett 2007) further said "With continual increases in new technology, many school districts have or are in the process of adopting new methods to improve communication, teaching, and learning".
This is 21st century and the current and weak situation in literacy rate needs specific support in education sector where teacher is identified as an important factor that has to play the key role in producing the developed workforce by means of quality in education. It is fact that the teacher can produce developed workforce only when teacher himself/herself is professionally developed with knowledge, skills and emotional intelligence and needs to be engaged in development process. (Regina M. Oliver 2007) said that he (teacher) must have ability to manage the classroom which is a basic requirement for teaching and behavior of students for achievement of educational outcomes. So, improving the ability of teacher to effectively manage the classroom behavior requires a systematic approach to teacher preparation and ongoing professional development. Classroom management needs teacher to be a good teacher and give good teaching. The good teaching requires a good learning environment in the classroom which can match the students' needs. For this purpose teacher has to be involved in certain activities for a good learning which needs professional development in how to create a learning environment in the classroom as (Julie Winneur Ankrum 2006 P-26, 27) describes specific activities as follows.
Use high quality literature.
Integrate word study into reading/writing instruction.
Use multiple texts.
Balance teacher-led and student-led discussions.
Build classroom communities.
Provide small group instruction and individual practice opportunities.
Provide time for independent reading.
Balance direct instruction in decoding and comprehension with guided instruction and independent reading.
Use various assessments to inform instruction.
As (Shaukat Hussain 2004 P 17) stated that when teacher is given opportunity to grow and show maturity by involving himself in different situations then he will responsibly be involved in different situations linked to teacher's professional functions which need skills and abilities to develop suitable methods of teaching children, handling problems and tackle the classroom situation.
The negative behavior of students disrupt the teacher and students in classroom as (Robert E. Deacon & Markus P. Bidell 2010 pp-3) said Disruptive classroom behaviors (DCB) can be defined as overt actions in the classroom that disturb the teacher and/or other students. Some examples of this behavior include refusal to cooperate or participate in classroom activities, disregard for others, interrupting others, inattention to learning requirements, making noise, and not staying in one's desks. Obviously such behaviors can create significant emotional and academic problems for students as well as place heavy demands on school services and resources.
Teachers are the most important and powerful factor that needs its due role because it affects student achievement and learning. According to (Thomas Carroll 2005, p6-12), "teachers are the single most important factor in student achievement. Lower achieving students are most likely to benefit from improvements in teacher effectiveness". The teacher quality through explanation is the most reliable predictor of student achievement as (A. A. Adediwura and Bada Tayo 2007 P-166) stated, "The teacher whose understanding of topic is thorough use clearer language, their discourse is more connected, and they provide better explanation than those whose background is weaker. The way the students perceive the teachers in terms of their (teachers) knowledge of content of subject matter may significantly affect the students' academic performance". A teacher can only effectively transmit the 'new values, ideas and skills when he is thoughtful, skillful, committed, and devoted to his profession. In fact this along with the role of teacher determines what goes on in the classroom and ultimately what filters down to students' minds is what a civilized society expects from a trained teacher. How far the teacher comes up to these expectations of the society is the major concern of the management, parents and society at large (Dr. Abdul Sattar Almani 2006-07). The teacher needs to possess some Malaysian teacher qualities in him/her to be an ideal teacher as (Azizah Abdul Rahman, Sharifah Md Nor Halimatun Halaliah Mokhtar and Faridah Halimi 1993 P-29) stated Ideal Malaysian Teacher Is Stated as One Who
Is Noble in Character;
Has Deep Moral And Religious Convictions;
Is Human, Yet Progressive And Scientific
In Outlook [Sic];
Upholds The Aspirations Of The Nation;
Cherishes The National Cultural Heritage;
Has A Positive Attitude Towards Learning, The School And Society; And Endowed With These Attributes,
Promotes The All-Round Development Of The Child;
Is Loyal To His Profession;
Ensures The Preservation Of A United, Democratic, Progressive And Disciplined Society.
The academic and school success is related to Youth self-concept as (Robert E. Deacon & Markus P. Bidell 2010 pp-4) said Youth self-concept includes competencies and adequacies such as behavioral conduct, physical attributes, academic competence, and social acceptance. It is a multidimensional, developmental, hierarchical, and organized construct influenced by environmental reinforcements, self-appraisal, and evaluations from important others. The importance of a healthy self-concept in youth has been widely examined and is related to academic and school success.
Moreover, a consistent help, support and time is most importantly required for disrupted classroom as (Robert E. Deacon & Markus P. Bidell 2010 pp-6) further said less effective teaching, teacher student conflicts, and lower teacher morale are all associated with disruptive classroom behaviors. In fact, teachers report that dealing with disruptive classroom behaviors is a leading cause of professional burnout since classroom disruptions require considerable time and energy as well as institutional support that may or may not be available.
The reporting person becomes frustrated due to negative consequences of report for both child and school staff as (April Sikes, Theodore P. Remley Jr. and Danica G. Hays 2010 pp 4-5) said "Lack of support is a common concern for professionals who are required to report suspected child abuse and neglect, especially school personnel. Administrators, including school principals and vice principals, do not always support the reporting of suspected child abuse or neglect. School counselors, as well as other school staff, are in an arduous position and have to decide whether to make reports when they are not sure whether their supervisor will support them after they have made a report. Other common barriers to reporting suspected child abuse and neglect include negative consequences for the child, negative consequences for the professional, lack of evidence, and holding a negative view of the reporting agency".
There is a question about the school counselor whether he should have related educational qualification and teaching experience as (David M. Stein and Scott DeBerard 2010 pp 6-7) said the researchers found that both groups of counselors rated themselves at the favorable, high end of the scale. There was a modest, statistically significant difference i.e., teacher-counselors were somewhat higher than non teacher counselors. The difference in teaching confidence dissipated however, when counseling experience in schools per se was considered. The researchers suggest that additional research examining teacher versus non-teacher counselors' actual performance and competence in various counseling roles and activities is needed.
The school Principal must understand the contribution of school counselor to students' achievements as (Dilani M. Perera-Diltz & Kimberly L. Mason 2010 pp 3) said each principal must invent a counseling department and function with the most minimal guidance and expertise. At times, principals make decisions on school counselor duties based on work demands, which supersedes any educational training. The communication of strategies and classroom visits can prevent ethical issues as (Janet G. Froeschle and Charles Crews 2010 pp 4-5) said the literature describes several additional strategies to prevent misunderstandings and manage ethical dilemmas. For example, publishing information and conducting staff trainings on informed consent, student confidentiality, and counseling services can be helpful for both parents and school faculty. Further, visiting classrooms and educating students about confidentiality and counseling programs can proactively prevent future problems. Finally, the literature touts the use of decision making models as well as the importance of consultation with other professionals when managing ethical issues.
An effective teaching makes teacher different and teachers are required to be differentiated in teaching in real sense as (Julie Winneur Ankrum 2006 P-9) described teaching may be differentiated by adjusting time allotted to instruction, pacing of the lesson, materials used with students, personnel who support the lesson, and the approach to teaching and The sustained professional development in classroom management is more likely to have an impact on enhanced teacher knowledge and skills, and ultimately student achievement. Disappointing effects of teacher education have inspired policy makers to supplement their teacher training by providing in-service teacher professional training, Policy makers have today realized and consider. The best teachers and schools influence the students' learning as (Meher Rizvi 2003) urged "To have the best school, we must have the best teachers. What teachers know and can do is the most important influence on what students learn". Teachers variable are also noted to have effect on students' academic performances. These includes, teachers' knowledge of subject matter, teaching skills, attitude in the classroom, teachers, qualification and teaching experience (A.A. Adediwura and Bada Tayo 2007 P-167). Therefore, to improve the quality of teaching, teachers should be given opportunities to grow as professional. The students who belong to low income families' face more problems as (Tim Grothaus and Rebekah Cole 2010 pp 5-6) said low-income families' youth are also more likely to face mental, educational, and physical problems. Compared to students from families that earn higher incomes, they are more likely to struggle academically in school, attend and finish college at a lower rate, and have higher high school dropout rates. In addition, these young people may have feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and low self-esteem when facing difficult schoolwork and have unmet health and nutrition needs due to poor healthcare and lack of nutritious meals. Despite these deplorable and documented inequities, classroom instruction, school counseling programming, and institutional policies often appear to be geared toward assimilating students into the existing system rather than engaging in meaningful systemic change. The children success in education is also linked with their family involvement in school or education matters as (Tim Grothaus and Rebekah Cole 2010 pp 6-7) further said research over the last few decades confirms that family involvement in their children's education enhances the potential for students' success specifically with higher achievement, increased rates of attendance, fewer disciplinary referrals, better homework completion, more course credits accumulated, and an increased likelihood of high school graduation and college attendance. Yet families with lower income levels tend to be less involved than their wealthier counterparts. Despite perceptions of school personnel that families with low income don't care about their children's education, research indicates that these parents do care. Reasons for this difference in the level of involvement may include economic struggles, work obligations, lack of confidence in their own academic abilities, obligations or problems in the home life, cultural differences including a sense of cultural discontinuity between home and school.
(Melinda M. Gibbons, Joel F. Diambra, and Deborah K. Buchanan 2010 pp 4-6) said the many research studies have revealed that frequent communication, joint concerns and goals, family involvement, and supportive school climate positively affected school collaboration. A lack of common knowledge, understanding, expectations, role perceptions, time limitations, conflicting goals, and failure to follow through on decisions were cited as obstacles to collaboration and it is a means for solving problems and obtaining goals through a voluntary process whereby two or more stakeholders come together as equally valued participants to work on a mutual goal. Collaborating stakeholders share their resources and assume joint decision-making responsibility.
Linking of school teacher's job career with professional development in Pakistan is must and in the interest of strong education system as (National Education Policy of Pakistan 2009 P-43) stated Pakistan government makes commitments for quality in education through its National Education Policy that the school teachers shall be given opportunities for professional development through a program on a three-year cyclic basis and Progress in career shall be linked to such professional development, the In service school teachers in mathematics shall be given due attention to develop a conceptual understanding, problem solving , procedural knowledge and practical reasoning skills and the In service school teachers training in courses shall be based on real life situations, use of science kits and provision of science kits to all primary and middle schools.
Groups and communities are highly helpless as (National Education Policy of Pakistan 2009) further stated "The targeted groups for Education for All (EFA) goals belong to disadvantaged communities with minimum opportunities. These groups are highly helpless; communities are without access to learning facilities, or public sector facilities which are not functioning at most favorable levels". (Ulrika Peppler Barry 2000 P 15) said "World is committed to achieve six Dakar Education for All Goals within the specified target dates decided in world education forum held in Dakar, Senegal on 26-28 April 2000 Education for All meeting our collective commitments adopted by the World Education Forum".
The knowledge about the education system of any country makes it easy to understand worldwide to make decision for a sound education system and further decide how to improve education system of Pakistan that consists of different stages and the strong control system makes the education system more effective. The four provinces look after or administer the educational institutions established in all four provinces respectively under federal ministry of education of Pakistan headed by federal education minister. It is further divided into districts to be controlled by the Executive District Officer, Sub-district Education Officer and Supervisor or Assistant Sub-district Education Officer in all four provinces respectively.
Our study finds that teacher training as carried out at present is not working properly. Teachers in our case schools had been exposed to in-service training many times over, but with little by way of value added a large number of teachers are being trained annually in teacher training institutes in the public sector across the country. Donors run their own programs as well. We have also found that even where such donor-driven projects deliver training of relative quality, the impact on the quality of teaching remained limited due to the lack of alignment with the related ingredients. We suggest that professional development works better if there are systems in place that ensure continuity and alignment.
In public schools, professional development promoted child-centered and activity based approaches to teaching and learning. An environment in which the training took place was the recognition of the need for field support. In the public sector schools, support was scarce and dependent on external interventions. Regardless of how it was provided, where the schoolteachers had an opportunity for ongoing support, they seemed to be making better use of professional development activities in their teaching practice. According to (Tahir Jutt 2007), "this support was available to teachers in WSIP27 (refer to anecdote 5) and TCF schools. As mentioned above, in the case of public schools, such support was present in schools supported by donor funded projects such as GTZ28 in the case of NWFP, and ESRA29 in the case of Sindh and Balochistan (refer to anecdote 4). Where ongoing support was available, teachers were beginning to align their practice with approaches promoted by professional development. Classrooms in such schools appeared relatively more participatory, learner centered, and less didactic. Yet teaching practice was more a collage of methodologies. That is, while teachers were attempting new practices, they had not completely abandoned the traditional practices. As they were learning to manage children and classrooms differently, many still regarded traditional practices to be more culturally appropriate and useful in maintaining discipline in the classrooms".
(Balochistan Education Foundation) stated "The training will have little effect on teaching practices if adequate attention not paid to monitoring, accountability, and systematic budgetary provision for learning materials, in addition to textbooks and teacher guides and other support materials. The focus is on the following five key interrelated essential elements of teachers' professional development of which training is one part, development of core competencies for teacher's induction, training and in-service programs, their performance monitoring and generally for developing standards in the teaching profession. Holding of in-service training courses is an important part of professional development. Training is based on needs assessed through induction tests. Emphasis of the training is always on enhancing content knowledge, skills, methodology, quality and impact of training. Training content also includes techniques of multi-grade teaching, ways to make school environment attractive for the children, resources management and use of local no-cost/low cost materials, organizing co-curricular activities, classroom management and taking care of basic health and hygiene needs of the children. Duration of training in a year is 4 weeks at the minimum and at least twice a year, preferably in a batch of no more than 15-20 teachers to enable them practice the ideas, which are imparted through training. Linking training and incentives, if teachers are un-trained, training can lead to their certification by giving weightage to each training course and in-house assignments. This serves as incentive for teachers. If teachers further improve their professional and academic qualifications they can be given special increase in salary".
Balochistan Education Foundation) further stated "the work is carried out under National Education Assessment System (NEAS) and the Provincial Education Assessment Center (PEACE) for development of students learning competencies and tests for teachers are used. Students learning competencies also serve as teachers' competencies as far as content knowledge of various subjects is concerned. For competencies like pedagogical, multi-grade teaching and classroom management, lesson planning and learning needs of different groups, the help is sought from the PEACE Balochistan, federal NEAS center and Provincial Institute of Teacher Training (PITE) to develop such competencies, if not already available. NEAS and PEACE also help in developing student tests".