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At the start of educational psychology 2102 this student mentions in their learning journal having an interest in psychology and the many areas it is used. However, they felt apprehensive about their ability to absorb and understand the vast amount of knowledge that would be delivered to them over the next thirteen weeks. In the students first few journals it is apparent that time management and the vast amount of study they have to achieve each week is a concern to them. After reading all of the student's journals and analysing their questionnaire results, it is apparent this student is also having problems with self-motivation and self-efficacy during the completion of individual assessment tasks and the thought of exams. These types of problems can hinder the abilities of students to complete and produce quality assignments on time. Also these types of behaviors can have undesirable affects such as stress and sleepless nights. Too much stress can have an effect on the ability of the learner to retain information and recall it clearly when it is needed. Said student does identify having problems processing new information and also feels without any pier knowledge of certain topics they are unable to store this information in their long term memory. In one of the student's journals they identify a specific link to their memory rehearsal practice (maintenance) and understand how this practice is inadequate at moving newly learnt information from working memory to long term memory. Although this is not reflected in the student's questionnaire results, it would appear this student is struggling with their cognitive ability. The student admits being easily distracted, however has problems knowing when their chain of thought is broken and how to develop and use repair strategies to keep the learning process moving. Said student has many positive attributes that will help them progress as a learner, by also addressing their weaknesses using the right theories and practices they will become more proficient and find learning more enjoyable and be on their journey to self-actualisation.
This student like many others has a problem with time management. The student recognises the need to structuring their study time so they can complete readings and assessment tasks on time. Research by Snowman, Dobozy, Scevak, Bryer, Bartlett and Biehler (2009) into self-regulatory skills found that inadequately regulated academic behaviours can have long-lasting detrimental effects on student outcomes such as, lower than average grades and reduced prospects for gaining professional qualifications and employment later in life. To overcome this problem the student downloaded the semester planer from blackboard and allocated time for each subject area and breaks on completion of readings and parts of assessment tasks. Snowman et al. (2009) also recognised that self-control and self-regulation are essential to achieving higher level of academic achievement and that some students are better at acquiring these skills than others. Snowman also acknowledged the attributes that are closely associated to and best explain variations in self-regulation are perceived self-efficacy and self-motivation.
Self-motivation is a crucial part of being a proficient learner, without it the learner will struggle with assessment tasks and exams and are liable to fail. Lacking self-motivation can also lead to low self-esteem, if this is not dealt with promptly it can spiral out of control and have long term affects on the student. This student is aware of their lack of motivation when completing individual assessment tasks and is unsure why this is. This is reflected in both their learning journal and questionnaire score. William, Gloria and Irving (2003) suggest there are four theories when dealing with student motivation during task completion. Their desire to choose one task over another, the level of determination with task even when faced with difficulty or tiredness, the achievement and course grade and the most powerful being the student's personal characteristics and beliefs. The student needs to have an interest in the task and place a value on its completion to maintain motivation. By analysing the above theories and the students graphed questionnaire results it would appear this student's lack of self-motivation is caused by their perception of themself to do will in assessment tasks and their reflection on past failures, which would relate to a theory termed learned helplessness. Learned helplessness theory would explain to some degree why this student lacks motivation when completing assessment tasks, according to this theory failure or lower than expected grades in prior assessments destabilises the student's motivation to attempt future tasks. This can also affect the student's ability to perform in group work assessment, the reason for this is a theory termed self-esteem protection. Self-esteem protection theory is based on the notion that the student doesn't apply themselves in group work in fear of being labelled as having poor intellectual skills (Witkowski & Stiensmeier-Pelster, 1998). However the students score in regards to group work is high and they admit they are more motivated in this type of learning environment. After researching the causes behind poor motivation skills, it is apparent that self-efficacy is a main contributor to self-motivation.
Some aspects of the student's self-efficacy and self-regulation are evident in their questionnaire results such as, general self-efficacy 2.3 and difficulty making decisions 3. However some of their other results don't reflect the self-motivation problems they have such as, knowledge of cognition 3.7 and a deep approach to learning 4.7. By interpreting these results one would say this student is aware of their abilities to be a proficient learner, but maybe unaware of how to utilise these abilities affectively. Their results indicate that they have a deep approach to study processes. Butler's (2002) research recognised that efficient self-regulated learners decide on, adjust and may even create tactical strategies to complete assessment tasks. Self-regulated learners also analysis feedback and marks given by teachers on previous assessments. They use this information and comments from peers to evaluate their own performance and make adjustment accordingly. Also they appear to be comfortable with interrupting the new information they are reading and can relate to it. knowledge of cognition
By evaluating Butler's research in regards to the student's questionnaire score about Need for Approval High score indicates avoidance of tasks where external approval is at risk, Unable to take help Fear of exposure if external help sought.
This is because, during monitoring, students generate judgments about progress and make decisions that shape further learning activities. Therefore, to promote student self-regulation teachers must assist students to engage flexibly and adaptively in a cycle of cognitive activities (i.e., task analysis, strategy selection and use, and self-monitoring).
Further, key instructional targets include promoting students' construction of (a) metacognitive knowledge about academic work, (b) strategies for analyzing tasks, (c) metacognitive knowledge about task-specific strategies (e.g., for managing work, history reports, reading textbooks, writing paragraphs, learning math), (d) skills for implementing strategies, and (e) strategies for selfmonitoring and strategic use of feedback.