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Learning disabilities affect individuals across the life span. Adults with learning disabilities face challenges in finding the right college and succeeding while there, as well as challenges in preparing for and succeeding in the work world and in social settings. This writing intended as the review on Learning Disability, and after this denoted as LD, student across the Special Education program and beyond. In respect on this title, we will go through four chapters: the classification of LD which has dogmatic issues, preference for LD either general or vocational curriculum, transitional stage for LD, and dyspraxia among LD.
Before going further, it is better to look inside into the definition of LD. Learning DisabilitiesÂ refers to a variety of disorders that affect the acquisition, retention, understanding, organization or use of verbal and/or non-verbal information. Despite that, LD been diagnosed in at least four types of views. These might influence the accuracy of LD's definition.
Stefan (2007) presents a paper on philosophical worldview framework on classifying LD, since there is a limit and dogmatic insularity within LD diagnosis. According to his work, identification of LD is discussed in relation to four root-metaphorical world views, which are mechanism, organicism, contextualism, and formism.
Mechanism, is the action of instrument, which narrowing the information into small-single outcome. Types of professions applying this are scholars and psychologists, whose tend to believe that all phenomena can be reduced to their component parts for analysis and manipulation piece-by-piece without loss of meaning (Stefan, 2007). This type of view comes from hypothetico-deductive, experimental-quantitative studies, on predictable and controllable mechanisms of the phenomena. Look into LD diagnosis, use of mechanistic concept would be a very specific: diagnosis been defined solely on the basis of medical properties that not necessities qualify on student.
Contextualism, is the action of applying social interaction that has a wide view on the diagnosis, holistically. Ethnographic influence are seen inside this view. They belief that human thought and action largely derive from very complex, nuanced, and inescapable ecological influences reaching into the mind from local and distant cultural, socioeconomic, political, and historical dimensions of our reality (Stefan, 2007) . The effect of ethnographic also has control instead of medical condition mechanism. For instance, Stefan also cited that socioeconomic status and multicultural influences might improve perceptive of why a child's struggles in academic well beyond the insights, as provided by a specific LD diagnostic.
Organicism, view a human as a growing organism that develops throughout predictable stages toward a particular end, highlights the coherence and totality of systems, the integrative connections among the elements of those systems, and the integration of subsystems into larger systems with different properties emerging at higher levels (Stefan, 2007). Example is Piaget's stage theory of development.
The concept is mind was an integration of various systems that each grows and has developmental milestones, but at the same time, coordinates together in functioning on each developmental stage as needed. Concept of whole child: the integration of cognitive, emotional, and physical subsystems into a stronger whole.
Refer to LD, organicist perspective not rigid to medical mechanism only, that lead to a specific cognitive/academic process. Children with emotionally disturbed is entitle for LD services based on mechanistic framework. This mean, LD classification requires a more comprehensive assessment of children to explain the variables that might miss out by mechanistic view. Support is should be given, for an assessment of cognitive processes such as phonological awareness, memory, and processing speed, as the child's effort on academic can be seen (Siegel, 1999). Also, the ecological characteristics such as classroom and school environment, belief to contribute to child's academic struggles (Pianta, 1999).
Formism, highlight patterns of correspondence in diverse phenomena. For instance, discovering patterns of similarity in the behavior of human brains, animal populations, chemical interactions, ecological networks, immunological responses, and other complex, adaptive systems. Formism is evident in conceptions of mind based on complexity theory (Kelso, 1995)
The asynchronous development displayed by many great scientists and artists can remind the psychologist that a child may harbor considerable hidden abilities. Formism, then, can remind those involved with LD classification that the cognitive and academic profile of a child may be very complex, possibly hiding significant gifts that should be investigated and nurtured. This perspective emphasizes the importance of maintaining awareness of broader patterns and typological profiles with respect to LD diagnosis, as well as attempting to discern potentially uncovered unique qualities (Stefan, 2007).
Chapter two is about preference for LD, either general or vocational curriculum.
As the current Individualized Education Program (IEP) can no longer continue being the curriculum guiding instruction for students in the mild to moderate range, IEP looked as a certificate enabling of supports needed for the child with disabilities to receive benefits from the general curriculum. Since students with LD has cognitive ability, analytical skills, and prior knowledge that may be below the levels necessary to access the standards curriculum, it is seem to be a challenging curriculum demands for them (Woodward & Montague, 2002). A vocational curriculum prepares students for the real workplace by providing education through work, education about work, and education for work (Castellano, Stringfiled, & Stone, 2003).
Then, comes the work of Dupoux on 2008, The Vocational Academic Choice Survey (VACS). It used to measure high school students with LD's perceptions of the suitability of the academic curriculum compared to the suitability of the vocational curriculum. Using three independent-samples t-tests to compare students' scores, which are first t-test to evaluate students view on academic curriculum is less suitable if they have repeated grades compared to students who not, second t-test to evaluate students view the academic curriculum as less suitable if they plan to work or go to vocational school compared to students who go to college, and third t-test to evaluate students view the academic curriculum as less suitable if their GPA is below the level needed for graduation (2.0) compared to students with enough GPA for graduation. Interestingly, the results of this study showed not all LD notice consistently of having either an academic or a vocational curriculum. Some high school students with LD, have a clear idea of their future plans and aware of their requirement for success. So, the academic curriculum is suitable for LD who are planning to further study (Dupoux, 2008).
Looks into Gottfredson's theory, individuals with age 14 and older seek occupations that best match their interests and abilities, but that final choices are made within perceived boundaries. At rest, results indicated that students who did not plan to go to college choose the vocational curriculum. Action pursuing a vocational including career and technical education is associated with low performing (Dupoux, 2008). However, need to update the vocational course since it may no longer meet the today's job market that use mechanics versus computer technology, limiting opportunities for a successful transition to work.
Students must learn to channel how their LD impacts them in a variety of situations, especially those require for learning and performing work related tasks. Preparing for job interviews, look forward to barriers throughout the employment, and develops ways to handle these barriers are essential skills that must be learned.
Chapter three is about transitional stage for LD student from secondary education, is that preferred by student itself?
Adolescence, including those with disabilities, is recognized an important developmental period bridging early childhood and adulthood. The purpose of study by Karen on 2007 is to investigate contributing factors that lead to successful transition into postsecondary education settings. Three factors being the focus, including personal (personal, familial, cultural and socioeconomic), characteristics of secondary programs (resources, instruction, expectations, etc.) and characteristics of postsecondary programs (resources, supports, etc.) (Karen, 2007). She found that many participants spent most of their time in the general education setting while others were in self-contained classrooms or programs.
Hence, he develop four survey questions focused on the individual's goals after leaving high school. The result, most of the participants itself wanted to attend postsecondary school while some choose to work. From family's goals for them, postsecondary school is much preferred than work. From teacher's goals, more required them to postsecondary school, compared to work and others indicated they did not know. Teachers shows their roles by provide support and direction to help LD achieve goals while in high school.
Now, comes to chapter four, is discussing about dyspraxia among LD that influence performance as student.
Having poor motor control, low attention spans, hyperactive, and being impulsive, often related to children with learning dysfunctions. These include dyspraxia which is an impairment or immaturity of the organisation of movement with associated problems of language perception and thought (Chu, 1995; Kirby, 1999). Motor skills can be difficult to acquire and language development may be delayed. Thus, LD child will have difficulty in planning and organising their thoughts.
Handwriting is an essential skill in the educational setting (Wallen, Bonney, and Lennox, 1996). How about if the speed of a child's handwriting is relatively slow? It will effect the amount of information that can be written down and some importance information could be missed. Portwood and Kirby (1999) conclude that fine motor skills improvement was mentioned in the literature as being a possible area of improvement after a physical exercise intervention programme. Based on study by Boyle on 2007. The result, the control group showed no significant levels of improvement, whereas the test group displayed significant levels of improvement.
From the results analysis, the handwriting skill of the pupils is poor. By using intervention, LD pupils can be helped to improve their handwriting speed with a simple intervention programme that does not interfere with the curriculum of the pupils (Boyle, 2008).
Though not always, dyspraxia often co-exists with other learning disabilities, such as dyslexia (difficulty reading, writing and spelling) and dyscalculia (difficulty with mathematics); as well as AD/HD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). The symptoms from these learning disabilities can be similar to those of a person with dyspraxia and regardless of whether there is an overlap in disabilities, the severity and range of difficulties can vary widely.
Other common difficulties facing people with dyspraxia include low self-esteem, depression, mental health problems and emotional and behavioral difficulties. Weaknesses in comprehension, information processing and listening can also contribute to the difficulties experienced by people with dyspraxia.
One of the most powerful and data-based procedures to improve classroom behaviors has been to employ a token economy (Kazdin, 1977, McLaughlin & Williams, 1988). A typical classroom token system involves the use of the rules for earning and/or losing tokens (McLaughlin & Williams, 1988; Naughton & McLaughlin, 1993). Some from of exchange of tokens for consequences is required. Finally, students all are allowed to take part in such activities either at school, in the home, or both (McLaughlin & Williams, 1988).
In conclusion, based from review on several study above, transition of LD student into next stage, either post secondary institution or vocational programme, cannot been finalize clear state. Much more reviews and involvement of rigour source of evidence are required to finds the accurate answer.