Learners for the lessons are cyprus students

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The main purpose of this teaching is to introduce new vocabularies, the idea of simple grammar, and students will also gain speaking practice (casual conversation- survival English (?)) through reading a text and filling the gap after all in order to help students become more confident in using those patterns and to be aware of different meanings by providing both controlled and freer practice.

Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) is the methodological framework for a lesson where tasks are used as "the core unit of planning and instruction" (Richards and Rodegers, 2001: 223). By setting difficult but achievable tasks, the students are challenged which then facilitates learning. This lesson emphasises the process of learning and provides the students with a natural context for language use. Since nothing meaningful to the students can entail learning (Littlewood, 2004), through the tasks, which provides meaningful context the students use real communication and interact with one another. Their use of language, which is meaningful to them is essential and promotes the learning process (Larsen-Freeman, 2000). Based on the TBLT, some useful lesson procedures for teaching receptive skills are adapted. However, since the lesson is to teach language rather than skills, and I do not think there is only one method or principle to fit one set of teaching and learning environment, some other approaches are adapted to the lesson procedure.

Lesson Report

A career in education, or one related to it, covers a wide scope of responsibility. Since it is a 'people-oriented' field, there are many considerations to make in coming up with decisions that would benefit the majority. This peer-teaching practice has pushed me to the deepest level of introspection with regards to my own beliefs and principles on teaching and education.

Being in charge of a class of lower intermediate level learners is a great responsibility. I have learned that first hand in the time I have spent with 10 learners and I have also learned much in terms of the skills that are necessary in teaching before, during and after a class.

Before classes, the preparation of a developmentally- appropriate curriculum is planned out taking into account the students' level expectations, observed competencies and even their individual personalities. The concepts and activities that would comprise the lesson plan should suit their learning capacity and learning styles.

During classes, classroom management is of utmost importance, as the teacher balances multiple tasks - keeping my students motivated in class, adjusting to their behaviour and reminding them to behave in such a way that supports their own learning as well as others', while keeping the learning outcomes of the class in mind. Interactions within the class between students and the teacher, and among students themselves are to be kept positive as much as possible.

After classes, it is essential that the teacher evaluate the class performance as well as the teacher's own. Based on this evaluation, the teacher can make the necessary adjustments in the next class.

My small group gave me crucial experience to know how much a teacher does and can do. The small number enabled me to observe each student better and to address their individual needs to provide the quality of education they deserve. I am aware that in a real classroom setting where there are more than this practice, it would be much more challenging.

I believe that teachers should learn to be comfortable with grouping strategies. This reflects on the fact that the working world highly values teamwork and cooperation. Grouping puts together students of varying backgrounds and abilities.

Points to improve


Teachers need to monitor the learning environment so that each student is respected and given a fair chance to participate. They need to be reminded that some students need more attention than others.

Some colleagues pointed this out, and I realised it myself while they engaged in tasks such as role-play. However, when I had a chance to defend myself, I was so nervous that my legs shook uncontrollably. I, therefore, had to find an empty chair and sit down; otherwise, I would have collapsed. This nervousness is a crucial issue that I must overcome one day.

Explaining vocabularies

The majority of the students were complaining about this issue. I was expecting that my group's ability was sufficient to understand it, but I was mistaken and had not anticipated this problem.

Ability groups are often used to make teaching a class with a wide range of skill levels more convenient for the teacher because the teacher is able to aim lessons at the middle range of students without being concerned about lower and higher abilities since the specific groups will process the lessons at their own pace (Scholz 2004).

In my case, I was not as aware as I should have been of my students' skills and abilities.


This issue was the really unexpected one. My colleagues were saying that my voice is sometimes not quite clear and loud enough. I watched my DVD file and listened to the audio file too, and I was surprised that I had this kind of bad trait- it had actually happened quite often.

In addition to all the points above, time management is another issue that I need to improve. Regarding to this issue, one very interesting view was 'Did everything take as long as you planned? You planned a lot of good materials. How did their actual timing compare with your plan?' I assume that this feedback belongs to the large quantity of materials that I had prepared at the time of my peer teaching. My answer to this question is 'Yes' and 'No.' This person might have thought, "Can he finish all that materials within the time?" However, before starting my lesson, I was thinking that if everything in my lesson plan went well, then the class might finish earlier than I expected. Therefore, I had to prepare some 'Plan B' materials. However, the planning error was completely my mistake, and my back-up plan never worked.

Good points

Nevertheless, there were a few positive feedbacks as well. My attitude has been highly ranked, especially on creating a positive atmosphere.

A sense of humour was one of them. Even when it was not planned, my opinion is that students appreciated when I used it, because it made the class laugh and pay attention. Just because something is fun does not mean it is not good schoolwork.

Moreover, praising was another good point. I believe one of the most important things that I learned from this experience is to respect learners' ideas and way of learning, and praise them even if they make small mistakes. My initial feelings of inadequacy led me to take cues from them; and I realised that, in so doing, I can be more successful in establishing better rapport with them. Of course, a teacher needs to have enough knowledge to guide learners in their learning, but taking the time and effort to evaluate and respect their learning styles is, likewise, essential because students learn to make connections through guided practice and interaction with others. Respect for students' ideas is prevalent in the constructivist classroom.

This peer teaching practice was a unique chance to learn about myself in both positive and negative aspects. I learnt that I exhibit certain behaviours that I had never before realised, and the experience afforded me some clear vision about what I have to do next and where I have to move on. All of these issues will be resolved in my next segment. Therefore, I want to more focus on personality such as how to overcome fear and nervousness as a teacher (I have been thinking that my voice problem might be affected by the issues here, as well as somebody who had interrupted while I was teaching- see appendix I from line 21 to 26).



John Dewey (1944) said that all facets of human life allow us to learn bits and pieces of the world around us. The informal and fragmented knowledge, which people gain in the day-to-day activities and encounters with others, provide them with valuable insights pertinent to their life context. In the effort of becoming co-journeyers in the quest for meaning and knowledge, the school provides the formal venue or arena wherein things are learned, assessed, clarified and re-learned (Dewey, 1944). Moreover, it is in the actual experience of being part of a learning institution that one learns to value and appreciate learning more. However, this experience of learning is made more significant and poignant when one is the teacher. This is claimed on the premise that in the context of being the teacher, one is no longer just responsible for the things that one learns for oneself but one becomes responsible for the things that one will share with the class, of how to share it with the class and of engaging the class in the process of learning. And all of these are geared towards the hope that in the end, the aims and goals of the discussion are attained. In acknowledging the multidimensionality of the responsibilities of the teacher plus the personal context and condition from where the teacher is coming from, creates the feeling of nervousness in the teacher. Now it is known. Teachers, too, feel nervous in class (Fives & Buehl, 2010). And addressing this feeling is of primordial importance since teacher anxiety or nervousness affects the learning process both for the teacher and the students (Kaufman, 2003; Fives & Buehl, 2010; Coates & Thoresen, 1976; Mintz, 2007). Being such, looking into this concern is vital if an authentic and holistic learning is to be attained.


In recognising the reality of teacher nervousness or anxiety and its effect in the learning process, this part will be addressing the question: 'how can teachers overcome nervousness or anxiety in the classroom?'


In order to address the question raised by this paper, the mixed method was utilised. A literature review regarding the subject matter and a qualitative interview were undertaken. For the literature review, the electronic databases Academic Source Complete, Jstor, ERIC, and Primary Research were searched using the combination of the following key terms: teacher anxiety, teacher nervousness, English as a second language, classroom environment, classroom management, learning and language. Articles written only in English and published in journals from the period of 1976 till 2010 were selected. Moreover, articles that provide a conceptual analysis of teacher anxiety/nervousness were included. Likewise, articles that utilised qualitative and quantitative research in studying teacher's nervousness in the class were included. Correspondingly, excluded from the selection were editorials, position papers, pamphlets and monographs. The reference list of the articles was searched to identify additional relevant publications.

In this paper, data gathered from the interview served as the primary basis for the research. Qualitative data were gathered in order to get the thoughts, ideas and sentiments of the teachers who had experienced teacher nervousness in class. The qualitative research was opted because it tries to apprehend the incident based on the actual scenario and condition from where it happened. As such, "real world setting [where] the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the phenomenon of interest" (Patton, 2001, p. 39). Qualitative research, broadly defined, is "any kind of research that produces findings not arrived at by means of statistical procedures or other means of quantification" (Strauss and Corbin, 1990, p. 17) and instead, the kind of research that produces findings arrived from real-world settings where the "phenomenon of interest unfold naturally" (Patton, 2001, p. 39).

As the research method employs the use of qualitative research, one encounters the question of reliability and validity pertinent to the qualitative data gathered. However, since in this research what is intended is to arrive at a quality and good answers that respond to the authentic and actual experience of the people who actually experience teacher anxiety /nervousness in the classroom, then, qualitative research offers a good alternative (Golafshani, 2003). Since, insights are gained from their lived stories . Moreover, it should be noted that in opting for a qualitative study, it does not imply that it is more superior to quantitative study or quantitative research is less reliable or valid. But it holds, there are many ways in dealing with truth and qualitative research provides one genuine means in grasping it (Golafshani, 2003).


Horowitz et al (1991) in study claims that students of foreign language approached language learning with anxiety. They have attributed language learning anxiety to "a distinct complex of self-perceptions, beliefs, feelings, and behaviours related to classroom language learning arising from the uniqueness of the language learning process"(31). As this finding is later re-affirmed in a study conducted by other scholars (Aida, 1996), this assertion provides the backdrop from where the teacher may initially deal with the students' anxiety. However, the experience of nervousness is on the side of not only the students, but teachers as well (Coates & Thoresen, 1976; Mintz, 2007; Kaufman, 2003). In this regard, if nervousness permeates the classroom ambiance, then how can learning progress? Not relegating the importance of students' nervousness, this literature review will primarily focus on teachers' nervousness and try to address the question 'how can teacher's nervousness be overcome?

Coates & Thoresen (1976), in a landmark article, have already noted that anxiety and nervousness contribute to the ineffectiveness of the teacher (160). What makes this finding disheartening is that nervousness is seldom recognised as a legitimate variable in understanding teacher's personality vis-a-vis effective teaching (160). In a more recent study, Kaufman (2003) claims that there now exists several theories, which teachers can, utilised as they tackle nervousness. However, he notes that there is a wide gap between the theories and the actual practise so much so that there is a perception of "theory as belonging to an "ivory tower" and not relevant to practise" (213). Nonetheless, the reality of this gap does not deter the fact that theories help in practise and that there is a consistent endeavour on the part of both the scholars and practitioners in bridging the gap between theories and practise and thus providing the appropriate ambiance and environment for learning (Mintz, 2007; Kaufman, 2003; Coates & Thoresen, 1976; Fives & Buehl, 2010). In this scenario, teacher's nervousness can be approached by first knowing what are the causes of teacher's nervousness and then second finding means on how to overcome it.

In a study it has been found out that, the cause of beginning teachers' nervousness differ from that of experienced teachers (Coates & Thoresen, 1976). For beginning teachers, the cause of their nervousness are the following : "1) their ability to maintain discipline in the classroom 2)students' liking of them 3) their knowledge of the subject matter 4) what to do in case they make mistakes or run out of materials and 5) how to relate personally to other faculty members, the school system and parents" (Coates & Thoresen,1976: 164). While for the experienced teachers, their nervousness or anxiety is related more to "(a) time management (b) difficulties with pupils (c) large class enrolments (d) financial constraints and (e) lack of educational resources" (Coates & Thoresen,1976: 165). However, what is significant in this study is the fact that nervousness and anxiety experienced by both the beginning and experienced teachers (Coates & Thoresen, 1976; Kaufman, 2003; Mintz, 2007). Knowledge of the cause of teachers' nervousness creates the opening with which theories developed for teaching practise may be utilised in addressing the situation (Kaufman, 2003). Several theories like the adult learning theory, self directed learning, self efficacy, constructivism and reflective practise have all come up with methodologies that the teacher may use in order for him/her to cope up with her nervousness and not be overwhelmed by it (Kaufman, 2003; Tsien & Tsui, 2007; Daly 2004). In lieu of this, certain approaches have been recommended both by scholars and practitioners in order to help teachers cope up with classroom nervousness. These "strategies" are the following:

First, as nervousness is experienced by both the beginning and experienced teachers, it can be assumed that nervousness and anxiety are part of the craft. Teachers' nervousness is the same with artists' jitters before the play, musicians' anxiety before the performance and an athlete's nervousness before the game. In this truism, the necessary step that ought to be undertaken is not the complete and total removal of the nervousness in front of the class but the proper handling and positive utilisation of the nervousness (Mintz, 2007). In other words, it is healthy to be nervous in class, what is not healthy is when your nervousness petrifies you that you can no longer effectively communicate and deliver your lecture in class.

Second, gain sufficient knowledge of your subject matter (Daly, 2004; Tsein & Tsui, 2007; Fives & Buehl, 2010; Egel, 2009). An intimate knowledge of the field enables the teacher in becoming involved in the internal dynamics of the discipline, of the current trends and developments, of on- going debates, controversies and of the methodologies applied in the your field (Knotts et al, 2009). Just like the first strategy, this approach cuts across discipline and is in fact deemed as an ethos for all teachers - gain mastery of your subject matter. If students see and feel your passion for the subject matter, you imbibed it to the class and the teacher opens to them another venue for learning wherein they can sharers of knowledge.

Third, practise your lecture (Catt et al, nd). This can be done in front of the mirror or while you are preparing your lesson plan. This gives emphasis on the importance on the manner of delivery or the presentation of the lecture. However, the teacher should not only be concerned with the appropriate styles of delivery or presentation, because as a communicator of ideas, the teacher should be primarily concern regarding sharing of meanings in the class (Catt et al, nd). Since teachers as communicators should not be limited to the 'process of communication where there is a receiver and sender' but should embarked on , again, sharing of meanings (Catt et al, nd).

Fourth, know the students' learning skills (Egel, 2009; Schussler, 2009; Knotts et al 2009). By knowing the student's learning skills the teacher can develop classroom strategies, discussion methods, lecture presentations that are student-centred and not curriculum-centred (Schussler, 2009).

Fifth, know your teaching style (Schussler, 2009; Daly, 2004; Kaufman, 2003). Principles have been laid down by scholars, teaching methodologies have been defined and created, what the teacher should do is chose and harnessed the teaching method that best suits her/his personality, interests, background, life story. This is done so that as the teacher is made aware of the students' learning skills, he too is conscious of his own teaching style so that the necessary adjustments may be undertaken in order to facilitate the meeting between the teachers's teaching style and the students' learning skills (Schussler, 2009;Daly, 2004).

Sixth, use the available relaxation techniques (Mintz, 2007) such as breathing exercise, stretching, yoga or tai chi. This relaxation techniques will soothe and calm the nerves of the teacher. Again, pick the one which best suits the personal condition and context of the teacher.

Seventh, look your best. This simple advise will give you confidence as you take your stand in front of the class.

Eight, go to the classroom before the class so that you acquaint yourself with the surroundings and the environment. And while waiting for others to arrive talk with your students as this will ease their tension as well as yours (Catt et al nd).

Finally, ninth, try to relax. Believe in yourself, you have prepared enough and enjoy the class.

These strategies are not the panacea for teachers' nervousness. These recommended stratagems so that the teachers will not be overwhelmed by their nervousness and are in fact capable of using their classroom nervousness to their advantage. However, one question that is popping up is 'does it work?' and to address this an interview has been conducted.


Accepting the importance of the combination of theories and practise, after learning the theoretical underpinnings of the question of this paper, the primary research is done in order to know how some teachers are coping up in the real world. Two teachers have been interviewed. T1 has been teaching in the last 15 years while T2 has started teaching only last year. Both are female teachers and are asked the same questions. What is striking as they share their stories, both T1 and T2 have experienced nervousness in front of the classroom. T1 said " As I walk the stairs to go to my class, I feel nervous even if I know that I have prepared for my lecture last night. I have been like this since I started teaching 15 years ago. It is not that I am not comfortable. It is like being nervous because you are going to give your best performance." While T2 shared "During my first meeting with my class, though I have prepared for it and I have tried my best to look and appear confident, the moment students start arriving, my hands sweat profusely, I feel dizzy and cold. I am very nervous. But I try my best to look calm. To be honest I do not know if I succeeded." T2, continuing, said, "I ate my words. I was talking too fast, giving instructions left and right and I did not made an eye contact with the students. But you see looking back at it now, I have come to realise that it is part of the game. Being nervous in front of the class is simply part of teaching. I still feel the jitters but I do not let it overwhelm me like before." These stories tell us that teachers' nervousness in class may be experienced in varying degrees and in different forms or manifestations. And how do they cope up? T1 said, "I challenge myself to continue gain further expertise in my field. I believe that I become more effective in sharing knowledge with my students because I am familiar with the intricacies of my discipline. I am not saying that I know everything in the field but I have enough knowledge to share with them. In the class all of us enter into an arena where equals meet and share with each other our ideas, our thoughts. And that is how I cope." For T2, she said "I still have lots to learn but what I have propels me to continue -my idealism, my passion and drive for teaching."

Their stories tell us that teachers' nervousness in class is something that we have to reckon with. Even experienced teachers have it. Perhaps, what ought to be done is to use it to our advantage and make the adrenaline rush invigorate our classroom interactions.



After receiving the feedback and learning their comments, I listened and try to analyse on how I can make better so that in the future I will minimise or even not commit the same lapses in my teaching. After going through their feedbacks or comments, the first action that comes to the fore of my mind is I should take the necessary steps to change or modify now. After this resolve, I intend to turn this resolution into concrete reality by taking the following actions:

First, learning that the classroom environment is essential for students to be more engage, I will design my classroom activities in two ways. First, I will allot time for the students to individually speak up like for example answer one question depending on the topic. The second strategy is to pair them so that each can individually interact with another students. Of course, as they do this I will go around each group. This style demands that I be conscious of time, so I'll see to it that the allotted time be followed. Anyways, I can always look at my watch gracefully to check for time.

Second, since I have learned that the background of the classroom interactions is drawn from students' learning skills, I will think of examples, especially in the vocabulary exercises, words that fall under easy, moderate and difficult categories. In this way, I will be able to accommodate all the varying skills of the students even if everybody is already in the intermediate level. Moreover, I will use not only pictures but will also act it out in class to help them grasped the words (of course, this is limited only to those words that I can act in class). Like for example, I am talking of 'pork dishes', I will be sounding 'oink, oink' so that the students can relate it to pig.

Third, knowing that I have a problem with my voice, I think it is up to me to provide the necessary gadget so that I can be heard by the farthest student in the class. I am thinking of buying a microphone to address this. I can also do some exercises to develop a louder voice. However, for the meantime I think that I have to utilise technology to fill in this gap.

Fourth, for my good points which include my good sense of humour, my relax stance in class, and recognising the contributions of the students in the discussion. I believe that these points are significant in creating a positive, challenging and caring classroom environment. As such, I plan to further develop these by increasing my confidence in teaching through further studies and actual teaching experience.

Fifth, after doing this research, I have come to realise that teachers' nervousness is not something to be nervous about. In fact, it is something that I can use to my advantage. Moreover, I have realised that teachers' nervousness is not something that has to be overcome but it is something that can be used to enliven the discussion and to drive myself for further development as T1 said "I think it is normal. Its part of the game. Don't just be overwhelmed by it. I you are no longer nervous when you go to class, take your Sabbatical Leave. You need a tune -up."


In this part of the paper, I would like to reflect on the following: what I've learnt about myself as a teacher and what I've learnt about the teaching process.

Perhaps, I can say that the most important thing that I have learned about myself as a teacher is that being a teacher is a big and serious responsibility. A teacher is not somebody who just goes in the class, presents the lectures, wait for the bell to ring and then leave the class. It is definitely not that. This experience has taught me that being a teacher is becoming aware of your own context and stories, of your students' stories and skills and of finding the means and the ways with which both of you will meet and become co-journeyers in the quest for knowledge. Being such, my responsibilities as a teacher begin before the class, during the class and after the class. It may seemed overwhelming, preparing the lesson plan with the central idea that a student-centred plan should be developed, the delivery and communication of ideas during the actual class with the ethos that the classroom environment should be caring, flexible and challenging enough in order to maintain students' engagement in class while pursuing goal of the lesson plan. And after that, at the end of the class is the evaluation. All of these things have to be done in one session. It is definitely challenging. However, these challenges do not deter my desire in becoming a teacher. After the class, I asked myself and reflected have I achieved my learning goals? There is an ounce of uncertainty. Nonetheless, when others have evaluated my class presentation and I looked into their comments, I have come to realised there is still much to learn, there is still much to develop so that I will become more effective in my class me. I appreciate this process. I see the entire course as a venue wherein myself and the others enter into an interactive and collaborative dialogue so that I can further develop what is positive and change those which are negative. And this makes teaching even more worth it. Since, the peer evaluation will always become the chance for me to learn how others see my teaching. And in this way, it affords me the opportunity for self-criticism, reflection as well. Thus, giving me the room for furthering myself, my craft as a teacher. In addition, I believe these teaching responsibilities are necessary and I do not renege from it because learning and classroom interactions are complex and multidimensional (Eun & Heining-Boynton, 2007; Daly, 2004). In this sense, I have come to regard teaching no longer just a career that has to be fulfilled but a vocation that demands the utmost dedication on my part.

Moreover, in the last practise teaching, I have seen the facets of my personality that can be further harnessed and developed so that I can become a good teacher. I have found out that my relax attitude and congenial personality makes it easy for me to tell jokes to the class, to share my stories and experiences with them are the good and positive points that I can utilise in order to catch the interest of my students and make them feel comfortable and relax. At the same time, I have also seen that there are still many points that I still have to improve. These points, which include my voice, my nervousness and the likes, are important features that are necessary in my becoming a good teacher. Receiving these feedbacks have motivated me to enrich myself more so that I can become better in my craft as a teacher. I see the negative points more as a chance for me to enhance myself. I believe that the changes in myself will help me in becoming not only a better person but an effective teacher. I do not see my negative points as drawbacks but I see them as a chance or opportunity to make better. Furthermore, knowledge of the perception of others regarding my presentation/discussion in the class allows me to learn and create more venues for further improvement. And that is what had happened. That is why, the negative points that have been raised during my presentation are still, for me, a positive feedback as it is all aimed in my becoming a better person and good teacher.

Seeing myself as a teacher has also changed my perspective of the teaching process. The entire experience has deconstructed my perception of the teaching process. In the pass, I have seen teachers who just come to class, discuss their topics and then leave the class when the bell rings. I have thought back then that 'that' is the process- teaching is just that. However, standing in front of the class, experiencing it myself, learning about the rudiments that happen before, during and after the class has totally changed my view of the teaching process. As a result of my experience in this module, I have seen that teaching process is in fact a two way process. The teacher is not just the sender or repository of knowledge in the class. This means that the teacher is not the only person in the class who possesses knowledge. Indeed, the teacher is the one standing in front but that does not mean that the teacher alone is the be all and end all in the class. The class is the teacher and the students and all the other factors that may affect and influence the student and teacher relationship. In this sense, the teaching process as a two way process means that both the teacher and the students assume the role of receiver and sender of ideas and messages in the class. Nobody is a mere receiver or a mere sender. Everybody has to assume both the role of being a sender and receiver. And this is only made possible by the fact that the class becomes the venue with which the everybody becomes sharers of meanings. Being such, now I see that in the teaching process, as I try to share with my students things that will help them, the things and ideas that the students will share in my class will also help me in becoming a better person, a good teacher. In this regard, indeed, teaching process is a two way process.

As sharers of meanings, the teaching process has become for me the opportunity for growth not only for my students but also for myself. I have come to realise that there is a continuous need for me to further endeavour for expertise in my field as I have seen that it is only in my learning more about my field that I can share more with the students. The passion that I have for my field will allow me to become more involved in the intricate dynamics of discipline. And if I have an intimate knowledge of the intricate dynamics of my discipline, then I can share more, I can open more ways of looking and approaching the discussions.

Recognising the fact that I am a beginning teacher, I do not want to make grand generalisations but I have to be honest as well. I have come to see that teaching process is a misnomer. I know I may be seeing too much. I am claiming this because I have seen that the teaching process is in fact a journey to knowledge, a journey to life both for my students and myself. In this new sense that I have come to see the teaching process I see myself as co-journeyer of my students. In this perspective, my students and I retain our autonomy, independence and individuality as we try to find meanings, knowledge in our lives. However, as I see myself in the same journey with my students, I also have come to appreciate that we are a community journeying together. In this way we are not isolated islands but we are individual islands link together, made more beautiful by the fact that the presence of each other are necessary in my becoming a better person, a good teacher. This for me is a very significant change in my perception and view of the teaching process. This new perception demands that first and foremost , I respect my students as persons with dignity befitting that of all human beings. The roles that we may assume in class differ but that does not mean that they are lesser than I. Respecting them, I believe, is the first necessary step for this new meaning of teaching process for me. When, respect is given to my students, then it becomes clear why teaching process is a two way process, why teaching process is sharing meanings, and why teaching process is becoming co-journeyer of my students. Furthermore, it makes clear why there is an ethos for further scholarly improvement on teachers - the more we know, the more we can share.

In the end, all of these reflections and knowledge will turn into naught when no action is taken. The time to act begins now.