Leadership Across Culture Attachment Style Influences Education Essay


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Nowadays companies are even more international and multicultural therefore they need effective cross-cultural leaders capable of leading international teams. In fact the possession of effective leaders is essential because companies will benefit from efficient teams in a good climate and cohesion in it. To know what is an efficient cross-cultural leader several writers had theorized about characteristics of cross culture leaders. Among the most crucial leadership features are relationship competences and openness to new perspectives. These skills derive from personal relationship tendencies called Attachment styles.

The attachment theory has always formed the basis of human relationships across cultures. It develops and studies the parent-child relationships and how it can influent the child development. Attachment theory is a combination of different disciplines as psychology, evolutionary and ethology. But recently this concept of attachment style has evolving in scientific studies focus more in individual development. Some researches like the developmental psychologist Mary Ainsworth has brought new perspectives and fundamental characteristics in the 1960s and 1970s. In order to reinforced the concepts of attachment style she inserted the concept of "secure base" and announced a theory of several models in child: the secure attachment, anxious attachment and the last one, the avoidant. Then later it was the disorganized attachment which was developed.

In the 1980s, the theory was enhanced and it was centered on attachment in adults. Several items had been shown up like relationships between adults at all ages, the personal and romantic relationships, and the attraction between adults.

In this case we are going to study attachment style in a business model in order to understand what this theory can bring to business world.

In fact Gregersen, Morrison and Back (1998) reported that 85% of the Fortune 500 companies surveyed didn't think they had "an adequate number of global leaders, 67% of the firms think their existing leaders need additional skills and knowledge before they meet or exceed needed capabilities". Moreover a recent American study of 750 companies found that "between 10% and 20% of US managers sent abroad returned early because of job dissatisfaction or difficulties in adjusting to a foreign country. Of those who stayed for the duration, nearly one-third did not perform up to the expectations of their superiors"(Black & Gregersen, 1999). These figures show how the cry for effective leadership for cross-cultural organizations is both urgent and widespread.

According to Wheatley in 2002, "It's not our differences that divide us; it's our judgments about each other that do". This quotation shows that attachment style is defined according to specific criterions, which are personal because we are all different thanks to our "mindsets". Some people are more comfortable working with foreign people and they work effectively whereas others are clumsy, threatened because it is not a way of working that they are used to see. The most important for a leader across culture is precisely to have these qualities of open mindedness, sociability and to be ease with people from different cultures. In whole they have positive mindsets about self and others (Manning, 2001).

This paper argues how companies can know if their managers are effective in international team and what are the methods to improve them by training for instance. This theory had been spread to romantic relationships of adults in the 1980s by Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver. Therefore four styles of attachment have been pointed out in adult attachment style. To identified them some researchers created questionnaires and methods to detect what attachment style people are. These methods can be used in businesses in order to improve themselves and find what the gaps of the companies are.

Table of contents


What are attachment styles?



What is your attachment style?

Attachment style history

Attachment style method

How to implement in companies?


Solution for improvements




What are attachments styles

Four distinct attachments styles can be mention in two categories. The first one is the secure attachment style and the insecure attachment style. Directly within the insecure attachment style we can make out three adult styles according to Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991): "preoccupied" adults, "dismissive" adults and "fearful" adults. All of these attachment styles are categories founded on relational and interpersonal competences.

More precisely attachment theory is a dual work between John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth (1991). Their work underlined some concepts from ethology, cybernetics, information processing, psychoanalysts and developmental psychology thanks to Bowlby described basic principles of the theory. "He thereby revolutionized our thinking about a child's tie to the mother and its disruption through separation, deprivation, and bereavement." Marys Ainsworth's new theory was linked with the ideas of Bowlby but it was also some personal and exhaustive researches in order to improve her theory and work. For Ainsworth a secure base of the concept of the attachment figure means that an infant can explore the world and discover for himself. Furthermore, she developed the notion of maternal sensitivity to baby signs and the role of the baby-mother in the development of her baby.

These several ideas drawn from the attachment theory have a long developmental history. Even if Ainsworth and Bowlby did not have work together and had their own ideas during their careers, they were both influenced by psychoanalytic thinkers, and above all by Freud.

Secure attachment style:

As children, securely attached people tend to be closer to their parents, and generally become easily upset when they are gone away. It is said that this style comes from the behavior of the caregivers of the person. Parents of securely attached children commonly play more with their children and give them a bit more attention, which create a possessive behavior from the child. Securely attached children are also considered to be less aggressive and more mature, as a greeting from the attention of their parents.

Studies have shown that when they grow up, securely attached people tend to be more comprehensive, and more empathetic towards their parents.

As adults, securely attached people tend to have trusting, and then to easily create some strong and lasting relationships. This behavior is caused they want to be surrounded by people they know and they can rely on. They want to find social support anywhere around them, the family, the friends, even the professional sphere.

Plus, the high self-esteem securely attached people share makes them very comfortable discussing their very own feelings with their relatives. This contributes to the trusty atmosphere they constantly build. In another study, it could be inferred that women with a secure attachment style had positive feelings and senses about their adult romantic relationships compared to other women with insecure attachment styles.

In the professional sphere, securely attached people tend to be more able to deal with cross cultural relations and collaborations. In a multicultural team work, people with a secure attachment style often have to be considering as potentially the best manager.



To compare with the secure attachment style, insecure attachment style derives from different backgrounds and ways to grow up. According to the same theory, in this case caregivers are perceived as non-responsive or inconsistently responsive to children's needs, children take it personally, developing insecure attachment style with anxiety about or avoidance of relationships- or both.


"I want to be emotionally intimate with others, but I often find

that others are reluctant to get as close as I would like. I am uncomfortable being without close relationships,

but I sometimes worry that others don't value me as much as I value them."

As a child, the caregiver's responsiveness will develop different cognitive "relationships models". We can see that preoccupied adults used to be over protected by their caregivers but they caregivers were perceived as non-responsive, which means that they were not listening to the needs of the child. On the contrary, they were over protecting him without consulting him. Thus, the child wasn't able to develop self-confidence: he can develop close relationships but he is not autonomous. The way caregivers behave with the child will influence on many things such as empathy, self-disclosure, collaborative approach to conflict and social interest.

As an adult, preoccupied adults are known for having a negative view of themselves and a positive view of others. Because of the overprotection of caregivers, they aren't confident and they are dependent on other's acceptance. Even if they are comfortable with disclosure, the fact that they aren't autonomous prevents them from being efficient. Because they need others acceptance to value themselves, their work is very influenced by their co-workers.

Preoccupied adults are constantly worried about their relationships with workers or lovers. They have a desperate need for intimacy. Indeed, they are always questioning about the relationship: "Do you really love me?"

They seek responsiveness, intimacy and approval in their relationships. Their goal is to be intimate with others but they are so dependent on other's acceptance that they are seen as non-autonomous adults. This makes them have a bad view of themselves. They will blame themselves in case of conflicts. Indeed, they think that they are the cause of problems.

Preoccupied adults also show a high level of emotional expressiveness and impulsiveness: they are looking forward to make relational commitments and engaging them in too much self-disclosure. Thus, they would overreact in case of conflicts because they exaggerate relationships.


Similar to securely attached people they have high overall work satisfaction but according to Hazan & Shaver, 1990; Hardy & Barkham, 1994; Manning, 2001; Toepfer 1996 they are too work oriented that they obtain major satisfaction from work and challenge. However they are also the most frustrated when not challenged and recognized at work instead of secured. They are tasks oriented therefore they are highly recognized as leader for their high skills and work implication. Moreover they are self-confident that also part of their leadership "It is very important to me to feel independent and self-sufficient," Thus their high avoidance nevertheless they are less satisfied at work than secure. Particularly with coworkers they distrust peoples "I prefer not to depend on others or have others depend on me." and achieve personal objectives with followers instead of getting the best in everyone for global goals. This aspect places the problem of international management which needs high relationships working for being flexible and aware to internationals behavior and understanding.


For the last insecure attachment style which is "Fearful" adult style, we can mention some specifics features which may display a wide away of symptoms. We can remark that fearful features are some combination of emotions and feelings present in both preoccupied and dismissive adults. Adults who are characterized by the "fearful" style have negative perceptions of themselves and of others. These persons are uncomfortable getting close to others and they want emotionally close relationships but they can't trust others entirely or more precisely to be dependent on them. Some typical statements of a fearful adult can be: "There is something wrong with me", "I don't matter, I just hate myself" and "No one would want to be with someone like me." These three statements show a huge lack of confidence and a discomfort. In a more professional view fearful adults are the least satisfied with work and work relationships and more likely to use defensive, rather than adaptive, coping strategies. For instance they can more easily report their troubles from their personal life at work and so it can be have a negatively impact on it. Vasquez, Durik and Hyde (2002) reported that fearful adults are often overloaded with work and had fewer work rewards than secure attached adult.

What is your attachment style?

Attachment style history

The adult attachment style scale (AAS) was officially developed in 1990 but made from earlier theory of Hazen & Shaver (1987) and Levy & Davis (1988). The scale was developed by decomposing the original three prototypical descriptions (Hazen & Shaver, 1987) into a series of 18 items.

Regarding to Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; there is one way to illustrate distinctions between secure and insecure adult attachment style is to use the description from one self-report measure, the Relationship Questionnaire. Adult are asked to indicate which statements explained above sounds most like them.

However currently some questionnaires are now more developed, these questionnaires are also used for dating profile for matching people's needs. By determining and understanding relationship in couple web research design is able to identify attachment style.

Attachment style method

The methods were applied to children to identify and predict their attachment style, so we could adapt their environment to their potential reaction. The Strange Situation might be the most common one. The idea is to put a not older than 18 month child in some kind of disturbing situations, so we can observe is reaction, and see if he is already ready for school or not. Here are some samples of situations we make the babies face:

The mother or the caregiver and the baby enter the room.

The mother sits, responding if the infant seeks attention.

A stranger enters, starts talking to the mother, and then gradually approaches the infant with a toy. The mother leaves the room.

The stranger leaves the child playing unless he is inactive, and then tries to interest him in toys. If the infant becomes distressed, the episode ends.

The mother enters and waits to see if her child greets her. The stranger leaves quietly and the mother waits that the baby settles, and then she leaves again.

The child is alone in the room. This episode is curtailed if the infant appears to be distressed.

The stranger comes back and repeats the third episode.

The mother comes back and the stranger leaves. The reunion behavior is noted, and then the situation is ended.

Other technics for older children consist in creating a story with the parents of the child, and to make him end the story. It allows the child to show the basic social models he learned observing his parents or caregivers.

For adults, the most common technics still are the questionnaires that cover their relations. They are more able to explain how they feel about their relationships, and to think about their own potential reactions in various situations.

Some typical questions are recurrently used and cover different topics to define attachment style. The subject of the survey chose from strongly agree to strongly disagree, this scale made by  (Hazen & Shaver, 1987) gives a series of 18 items scored to show up the degree of avoidance and stress.

The 18 items that compromise the measure are as follows:

I find it difficult to allow myself to depend on others (Av)

People are never there when you need them (Av)

I am comfortable depending on others (S)

I know that others will be there when I need them (S)

I find it difficult to trust others completely (Av)

I am not sure that I can always depend on others to be there when I need them (Ax)

I do not often worry about being abandoned (S)

I often worry that my partner does not really love me (Ax)

I find others are reluctant to get as close as I would like (Ax)

I often worry my partner will not want to stay with me (Ax)

I want to merge completely with another person (Ax)

My desire to merge sometimes scares people away (Ax)

I find it relatively easy to get close to others (S)

I do not often worry about someone getting close to me (S)

I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others (Av)

I am nervous when anyone gets too close (Av)

I am comfortable having others depend on me (S)

Often, love partners want me to be more intimate than I feel comfortable being (Av)

Note: (S)= Secure, (Av)= Avoidant, (Ax)= Anxious/Ambivalent

To sum up mains topic covered are first of all familial background like parent's situations to explain personal behavior, secondly the self-confidence "I often wish that my partner's feelings for me were as my feelings for him or her." Thirdly social behavior "Do you feel stressed while presenting?" shows up relation and perception in publics events. After all the emotional relationship "I enjoy the physical aspects of sex more than the emotional aspects." All these statement linked to personal relationships gives an overview for public behavior. Since they are deep relationship with partner they can precisely bring out insecurity. Endow appendices*:

The objective of this kind of test is to make the subject focus on the nature of his relations with his relatives, his family, and his behavior with strangers and all the people he could potentially meet. It then makes us understand how he or she would probably behave and react in some typical situation of the common life, and characterize his or her global attachment style.

How to implement in companies

Attachment styles are a personal characteristic, but it has an importance in the work place. Thus we can study how to implement attachment styles in companies.

First of all, in order to understand the stakes for your company, there is several questions based on 360° leadership assessment which will give you a great frame of the stakes.

360° leadership assessment:

How effective are the leaders in your organization at actually leading others?

Do your leaders have the skills and knowledge to guide your organization successfully into the future?

How do you know that your leaders are getting you the results that you need to achieve your organization's goals?

This assessment allows managers to know their weaknesses and strength. Indeed it's important for leaders to know what they should improve or what they have to stop doing. This is important because they can see how attachment styles influences their behavior and they can match their attachment style with their strength and weaknesses in order to know what they are able to do to be more efficient. Indeed, this leadership assessment describes many characteristics of leadership that can be influenced by the attachment style such as:

Manage conflicts effectively

Manage people effectively

Facilitate cooperation and teamwork

Making though decision

These lineaments show how important attachment style can be: for instance, a fearful adult will not be able to manage conflicts and an avoidant adult will not be able to facilitate cooperation and teamwork. Therefore, these assess highlights the points on which managers should work on. Consequently, there are organizations implications and personal implications of attachment styles in order to implement them in companies.


Individual implications

Attachment styles have a particular importance on the behavior of a leader. It will sometimes influence his work in a good way as we can see with secure leaders who have relationship competence or avoidant adults who are said to be very efficient. However, it can influence work in a bad way, for instance, secure people are seen as good leaders, but their relationships competences aren't well valued. Also, the fearful attachment style has a bad influence on teamwork. Several personal implications of attachment style have been developed by studies, which show how to minimize the influence of our attachment style, how to monitor it and how to move from one to another.

Minimize the impact of insecure attachment styles on leading diverse organizations

Attachment style are described as a personal state, it impacts the way we behave with others and defines our personality. Indeed, we can say about someone characteristics that show his attachment style:

"He is an anxious person."

"He is comfortable with others."

"He likes to make tasks on his own."

Attachment style can be increased or decreased; managers can adapt their attachment style to situations in which they can influence their response. Indeed, attachment style defines personality traits that will be obvious in some situations. Consequently, in order to work efficiently, managers have to be able to take into account their personality trait.

Research have studied attachment style categorization which resulted in analyzing what are the situations that show our attachment style and the trait of personality which will be sought :

Secure adults: their confidence and their relationship competences will tend to open them to new experiences and novel stimuli than insecure adults according to Green & Campbell (2000).

Insecure adults must "prime" themselves by reminding of close relationship. Thus they are more open to diverse others and less likely to stereotypes, especially in leading international teams.

What is interesting is that an adult can "securely prime" himself in different situations. Indeed, they can act as secure people whereas their attachment style is insecure. By "priming" their behavior, adults will be more open to others and will develop relationship competences.

A second study is about how avoidant and dismissive adults have difficulties with trusting others. Avoidant adults are known for their will to make everything. They think they are the best at what they do. So, they are reluctant to delegate, which can lead to inefficiency. This study shows that they can overtake their belief that "nobody will do it as well as I can" or "the stakes are too high to allow mistakes" by following some personal reasoning on their behavior:

- They must recognize that they have a personal issue with trusting others

- Then they have to try to trust others

For this purpose, they have to use the situational leadership model: they have to try to trust their employees by coaching high potential employees when they accomplish difficult tasks. Consequently they will improve their confidence and their team work will be more efficient. A third step is to gradually delegate small task and then, larger ones. It allows managers to get to know their employees progressively in order to be more efficient.

The situational leadership model describes the way from a directing leadership to a delegating leadership. Indeed, avoidant managers are high directive and low supportive behavior but this model shows that they can move to a more delegating management.

It's a great tool for managers because by using this model, they can also develop their own knowledge and confidence in others. Consequently, dismissive managers will be able to delegate more. Therefore he will be more efficient at work and moreover a better team leader.

Monitor and shift responses in an attachment style-triggering situation

Nowadays, managers face many different situations such as stressful, worrying or complicated situations. A research by Pietromonaco and Barrett (1997) reveal that the attachment style of a manager is more likely to be obvious in some situations such as the ones above.

Managers have to recognize those situations in order to work effectively. Indeed, by knowing the situations which can trigger a certain behavior and in which they might response inefficiently, they can monitor their response and act accordingly. Several examples of those situations are mentioned in this research:

When a subordinate challenges to one's credibility or authority, managers have to monitor their behavior so their response to this situations can be more meditated. This situation concern especially avoidant adults.

Situations of rejection are threatening situations which can trigger automatic responses for preoccupied or fearful adults.

Attachment styles can often be an obstacle to team work, because of the differences and misunderstandings. Nevertheless, strategies based on cognitive therapy can be a great tool for managers to improve their teamwork. Indeed, the cognitive therapy is a personal strategy such as others seen above which intend to make realize to the managers that there is others ways to behave than the one which is defined by their personality.

The influence of attachment styles can be even more important when working in international teams. Indeed, there are many differences in behaviors between cultures and attachment styles can be either an advantage or a huge disadvantage because the human factor can lead to inefficiency and misunderstandings.

The "thought self-management" is a cognitive therapy developed by Neck & Smith (1997) which show the efficiency of personal strategies, especially in diversity leadership:

Face beliefs that leads to dysfunction

Change the point of view in order to see obstacles as opportunities

Think on how to act and develop a clear vision of the situation

Keep success as the main objective of the project while leading international teams

Mendleson & Mendleson (1996) have developed also a cognitive strategy which intends to describe to managers how they can work efficiently and lead diverse organizations. It's a two-step strategy:

Confront assumptions and stereotypes between co-workers from different cultures

Work on a relationship-oriented way of working together in order to overtake difficulties

Those personal strategies describe how managers can monitor their attachment style according to certain situations of work. It allows managers to improve their efficiency in the workplace. Thus, they are able to know their attachment style and it becomes more a strength than a weakness for avoidant or fearful adults which can shift their responses in order to be successful in the workplace.

Decrease insecure attachment and increase secure attachment.

Managers can definitely change their attachment style, even if attachment style is known to be stable; managers are able to increase secure attachment and in the meantime to develop relationship competences. Indeed, what is important here is that studies no longer describes how to minimize the impact of your attachment style or how to monitor and shift responses but they describe how managers, leaders, employees change of attachment style.

Changing of attachment style is not a simple personal work. Indeed, studies show that it's not easy in stable environment:

In a stable environment it's possible to change your attachment style according to Hardy & Barkham (1994): with a reduction in work issues and more work satisfaction, adults can move from their insecure attachment style to secure attachment style. However it's not something that happens in a short time, it takes time to change the way we behave especially in the workplace.

Attachment style can be changed when an adult is facing adverse events. It's the case for divorce.

Nevertheless, according to Fraley (2002), short-term efforts of adults who try to change their attachment style are not enough. When trying to change of "working model", trying to increase the confidence takes more than personal efforts. He suggests that if an adult wants to change his attachment style, some aspects of his environment must change. It means that managers have to evolve in a different environment in order to definitely change their usual behavior.

This last personal implication is very important. Indeed, it proves that childhood is not the only variable that defines the attachment style. Moreover, it's important to underline the fact that fearful or avoidant adults are not incompetent but that they can improve their efficiency in the workplace by moving from an attachment style to another.

Organizational implication

Regarding to e.g. Fish, 1999 enterprises usually not send the right people abroad because of not including considerations of attachment style. In fact organizations should take care about that to increase leadership efficiency. Dismissing are likely selected whose technical and organizational expertise and high work investment makes them excellent candidate. High commitment and work satisfaction with leadership explain also their situation as group leader. But most frustrated when not challenged and recognized at work their task orientation and distrust to people decrease leadership efficacy.

First of all select managers with secure attachment to facilitate communication and efficacy; secure socialized charismatic will bring out the best in other instead of exploiting the followers for personal gains. Secondly assist managers with insecure attachment style to develop more positive attitudes towards diversity and stronger relationship skills. Avoidant are highly involved in work and skilled is the best for helping top manager. Avoid preoccupied and fearful whose emotional problem from life can spillover staff and affect performance.

Solution for improvements

Minimize the impact of insecure attachment style by getting people secure.

Employees have to feel comfortable; manager must create a safe atmosphere to help people learn from themself and others without blames and criticism. Some beliefs might hurt. Management must avoid distrust by encouraging open and honest communication actually people may have a history of dishonesty with themselves and others. For instance insecure attachment style peoples can affect relationship by being narrow-minded and disrespectful but totally blame others for their attitude. The understanding of unsecured can help the employee to face his problem and help him to solve it. Get always problems from others sometime means that problems are actually from you.

Other aspect of insecure drift is overwork; management must try to reduce work problems by implementing working process, and rules without excluding freedom and creativity that one the stakes, effective working process can help employees to get better organization to do not feel stressed anymore.

Moreover an overall response to this problem is to create a treatment plan. It should include healthy and positive behaviors (secure behaviors) to replace insecure step by step. Self and others perception will change as well to create a new strong base of secured attitudes.


The intercultural leader need is much more essential for an international company because leaders have to deal with intercultural persons compared to a national company. Thus secure attachment can be seen as the foundation for the relationship competence and open-mindedness of cross-cultural competence. These relationship abilities and cognitive capacities needed for efficient leaders are grounded in secure attachment styles. It's obvious that there is an important difference between a secure leader and an insecure leader which companies have to face otherwise to have negative impacts. For instance, negative consequences of a poor management are well publicized and so it is costly for companies. It can also tarnish the company reputation toward suppliers, customers, investors etc… And directly within the company it can reduce team morale, cohesion and performance. For example, according to a study nearly one third of the US managers who are sent abroad did not perform up to the expectations of their superiors. On the contrary choose carefully leaders can have major positive impact for the company. First an efficient leader who listens and understands his team is synonymous of high job satisfaction. But also life satisfaction for employees, less work stress for them and as a result efficiency work teams.

To conclude on attachment style theory we can point out some criticisms toward it. First criticism is named Nature versus Nurture from J. R. Harris theory: Harris (1998) trusts that parents don't condition their child's personality or nature. A child's peers have more influence on them than their parents have because it is a person of similar age and often a friend with who he had complicity. The relation between parents and their child are very different than a child and a friend of him. For example, we can mention immigrant children. "A child can continue to speak their parent's native language at home, but can also learn their new language and speak it without an accent, while the parents' accent remains. Children learn these things from their peers because they want to fit in (Harris, 1998)."

Children acquire, for the most part how to behave from other people of their immediate surroundings. It's the same for adults; it is obvious that adults have a behavior more similar than people who belong to their social groups rather than their parents. For instance, people at work act more like their colleagues because they spend a lot of times there. That's why the criticism is focus on it because it is not only because of their childhood that adults have categorized and removed in certain categories. It is simplistic way to say, that child had such a life so he will be like that. The environment in which we evolve is so complex and individual that it is not easy to make segments.

Secondly, enclosing people in a single category might be pretty reductive, and simplistic. These theories consider that from their childhood, and for their whole lifetime, people correspond to only one category, and that they cannot change it. We truly believe that people's experiences, the people they meet, their professional and personal evolution can, and even do change our attachment style. Many people will see their behavior in front of strangers and in front of their relatives evolve as they age, as they learn from their experiences, the event they will go through, simply from life.

We also could consider that some people can belong to various attachment categories; depending on the context we study their behavior. They may, for instance, adopt a secure attachment style with their relatives, while they cannot build strong relationships or trust people they work with.

At last, the topics covered by the attachment identification method can be considered much closed. Not only the relation with the relatives and the family should be studied in order to define the attachment style of someone, but maybe also his or her behavior towards politics or economy, his consideration for his own future, how he perceives himself, and a lot more topics that touches his personality. We should study all the factors the might influence one's relationships, so we could understand exactly why belongs to an attachment style or another.


Questionnaire: http://www.web-research-design.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq.pl


Are your parents divorced?


I often wish that my partner's feelings for me were as my feelings for him or her.


I rarely feel neglected by partner.

Strongly disagree

I enjoy the physical aspects of sex more than the emotional aspects.


Do you feel stressed while presenting?

Strongly disagree

*Strongly agree - Agree - Disagree - Strongly disagree

Questionnaire: http://www.web-research-design.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq.pl


Are your parents divorced?


I often wish that my partner's feelings for me were as my feelings for him or her.


I rarely feel neglected by partner.


I enjoy the physical aspects of sex more than the emotional aspects.

Strongly agree

Do you feel stressed while presenting?

Strongly disagree

*Strongly agree - Agree - Disagree - Strongly disagree

Questionnaire: http://www.web-research-design.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq.pl


Are your parents divorced?


I often wish that my partner's feelings for me were as my feelings for him or her.


I rarely feel neglected by partner.

Strongly agree

I enjoy the physical aspects of sex more than the emotional aspects.

Strongly agree

Do you feel stressed while presenting?

Strongly agree

*Strongly agree - Agree - Disagree - Strongly disagree

Questionnaire: http://www.web-research-design.net/cgi-bin/crq/crq.pl


Are your parents divorced?


I often wish that my partner's feelings for me were as my feelings for him or her.


I rarely feel neglected by partner.


I enjoy the physical aspects of sex more than the emotional aspects.

Strongly agree

Do you feel stressed while presenting?

Strongly agree

*Strongly agree - Agree - Disagree - Strongly disagree

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