Language Arts For Students With Learning Disabilities Education Essay

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The purpose of this qualitative case study is to investigate the extent to which supplemental education service programs deliver instructional practices in Language Arts to upper elementary students with learning disabilities. The problem addressed the extent to which having experienced and trained personnel able to ensure students' IEPs are in close alignment with supplemental education service instructional plans is essential in improving student achievement for upper elementary students with learning disabilities and the challenges managers and school coordinators have when providing services to students with learning disabilities. With a significant amount of importance being put on the percentage of students scoring proficient on state English/ Language Arts test supplemental education services has become and continues to be a valuable resource for educational leaders, teachers, administrators and parents in the plight to hold schools and teachers accountable under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 current accountability system. This qualitative case study will explore the challenges one Virginia school district faced when providing supplemental education services to upper elementary students with learning disabilities. The research questions addressed the challenges SES managers and school coordinators face when providing SES services to students with learning disabilities. The research methodology includes a qualitative case study design which investigates the relationships and patterns through the experiences of participants. A qualitative methodology was selected to obtain a better understanding of the experiences and perceptions SES managers and school coordinators face when providing SES services to students with learning disabilities. This study will explore the need for experienced personnel who are prepared to ensure that the students with learning disabilities SES plans are in closer alignment with their IEP. The results of this study could assist supplemental education services and schools with collaboration through networks, partnerships, and alliances within and beyond the school setting in gathering a broader extensive knowledge of learning strategies for students with learning disabilities in supplemental education services programs.

Supplemental Education Services Instructional Practices in Language Arts and Math for

Elementary Students with Learning Disabilities

By

Sharon R. Carter

B.S., Hampton University, 1998

M.A., Cambridge College, 2006

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Education

Administrative Leadership for Teaching and Learning

Walden University

April 2011

Dedication

To my husband whose love and support enabled me to continue my studies and make this a possibility and to my grandchildren who have been a blessing to our family.

Acknowledgments

I would like express my deepest appreciation to my committee chair Dr. Lora Bailey and the second committee member, Dr. Michael Cass. I am indebted to the many colleagues who have supported me throughout my courses. I would like to thank my husband for without his support

I would like to thank all my previous professors at Walden University who have made available their support in a number of ways. Without their guidance this dissertation would not have been possible. It has been a pleasure to study at Walden University. I owe my deepest gratitude to all the professors at Walden University.

I would like to thank God for I would not be successful without God who guides me in my everyday life and activities; I thank Him for the good health he has given to me, and for the success in my studies.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Research Design and Approach 28

Threat to Validity 28

Data Collection Procedures 28

Data Analysis Procedures 28

Role of the Researcher 28

Participants Rights 28

Summary 28

References 35

Appendix A: Title of Appendix Error: Reference source not found

Curriculum Vitae Error: Reference source not found

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. #

Table 2. #

Table 3. Summary of Findings #

CHAPTER 1: Introduction to the study

Since No Child left Behind Act of 2002 passed the reliance on student performance on English, Language Arts test to hold educators and schools accountable to the state accountability system has become increasingly essential. The No Child left Behind Act of 2002 current accountability system places considerable weight on the percentage of students scoring proficient on state English, Language Arts tests. Under No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 each state must establish student performance benchmarks and identify schools not making adequate yearly progress (AYP) through state specific assessments McQuillan & Salomon-Fernandez (2008). As Lee (2004) explains the current accountably system is based on the final goal of having all public school students proficient in English, Language Arts by 2014. As McQuillan & Salomon-Fernandez (2008) explain each states requirements for (AYP) requirements differ. However, in each state as a result schools failing for four consecutive years or more may face corrective action. Schools in danger of not meeting the goal face consequences and may be ordered into certain interventions. Schools not making adequate yearly progress AYP for 3 consecutive years are considered," in need of improvement." Further McQuillan & Salomon-Fernandez (2008) work states that the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 mandates that schools, "in need of improvement" must make supplemental education services available to students in Title 1 schools. Supplemental education services (SES) has become significantly vital in the plight to assist each state in meeting the student performance benchmarks and scoring proficient on state language arts tests. This language arts research-based academic assistance must be aligned with the state academic standards set in each state (Casserly 2007). In a 2008 study McMullan & Salomon-Fernandez explain that SES is offered to the economically disadvantaged students who receive the free and reduced-price lunch program (p.1). Students with disabilities are not excluded from receiving these services. Ahearn 2007) states that "supplemental educational services programs must be consistent with a student's individual education plan under Section 614 Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004 (IDEA) or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and students with disabilities must receive appropriate supplemental education services and accommodations [34 CFR §§200.46(a)(4) and (5)]"(p. 1). In addition, all partnerships and alliances must work together to assure that students' with disabilities supplemental education service instructional services are closely aligned with the student individual education plan. Open communication between, teachers, schools, supplemental education services providers and school coordinators is essential in ensuring consistent supplemental educational services. In fact the sharing of students with disabilities individuals education plans (IEP) is critical in guaranteeing consistent supplemental educational services. Accordingly Ahearn (2007) states that, "all supplemental education services providers are not required to serve students with learning disabilities however the law does state that, if no provider is able to provide the appropriate services with necessary accommodations the Local Education Authority (LEA) needs to provide these services directly or either through a contract"(p.2) .

Background of the Study

After-school programs have become a popular approach to enhance academic

opportunities and outcomes of public elementary and secondary school children in the

United States Chatterji, Kwon, & Sng, (2006).

Educational organizations such as private and charter schools, as well as faith based organizations and private business may apply to become supplemental

education services providers. Tutoring services or education services interested in

becoming a supplemental education services provider must submit an application to its

State Department of Education for approval so that it may appear on a state list of

approved providers Chatterji, M., Kwon, Y.A., & Sng, C. (2006).

Information that is requested to become a provider covers such areas as the applicant's current experience, including the grades/number of students served, experience with specific student populations, and geographic setting. The applicant's

basic supplemental education services program information, including academic subjects,

grade levels and needs of students' served location; transportation, cost, and information

concerning the applicant's program design; operations, and organizational capacity are

needed. According to Chatterji, Kwon and Sng (2006), the state may approve a

provider only if it has a demonstrated record of effectiveness in increasing student achievement and will use instructional strategies that are high quality, based upon

research, and designed to increase student academic achievement The provider's services must also be consistent with the instructional program, academic content of the state in which she or he wish to offer supplemental education services (Casserly 2007). The SES provider must provide supplemental education services that are consistent with federal, state, and local laws. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 states that there are highly qualified teachers for every classroom, however the law is not specific on the qualifications of tutors furthermore tutors in supplemental education service programs do not have to be certified teachers (Ascher, 2006) . Some supplemental education service providers require training ranging from four to 20 hours and only a few evaluate their tutors. Casserly (2007) in speaking of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 states that supplemental service providers are to ensure that their tutoring services curriculum are aligned with the state academic standards and consistent with the instruction provided by the local education agency (LEA).

However, providers in each city curriculum are in aligning with state standards to the same degree. Casserly (2007) explains that most providers have the same language arts and math program that they use in every state. Many states have had to struggle with controversy surrounding effective language arts programs. The problem is compounded as the number of providers and the variety of student skill deficits grows.

Marzano (2003) work adds that the new era of school reform is the high emphasis on data. He explains that the emphasis is for schools to use data to identify probable successful interventions and use data to determine the effectiveness of student achievement. Further, he states that schools must look carefully at the research and then apply changes. Marzano's reform is to approach change on an incremental basis. To illustrate this, Marzano (as cited in Reynolds, Teddlie, Hopkins, and Springfield 2000) described a schools adoption of a new curriculum and instructional program gradually instead of all at once. States must take their time with the implementation of supplemental education services language arts programs in determining the effectiveness of each program.

Wenger (2001) research suggest that supplemental education services language arts programs should be an extension of the school day for students designed to enhance learning with educators working together and sharing knowledge in the effort to foster student learning. The literature on supplemental education services and students with learning disabilities suggest that little is known about students with disabilities who are accessing supplemental education services (Ysseldyke, J., Lehr, C., & Bulygo, A. 2008, January 1). In a document prepared by the Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) they expresses the need for supplemental education service providers that specialize in tutoring for students with learning disabilities and the need for experienced personnel that are prepared to ensure that the student's individual education plan (IEP) is in closer alignment with the student's supplemental educational service instructional plan. In an article on supplemental education services under NCLB by Eileen Ahearn in a ruling given by the United States Department of Education, June 13, 2005 p.10-11 supplemental education services must be consistent with the student individual education plan under 614 Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) or the student's individualized services under Section 504"(Ahearn 2007 p.2). Hargreaves (1995) proposed the idea suggesting effective educational change requires the educational environment to be a "moving mosaic," not an environment characteristic of static, well-defined roles and boundaries. Instead, the boundaries flexible and responsive to what occurs during the change process. The moving mosaic fosters collaboration through networks, partnerships, and alliances within and beyond the school setting.

Problem Statement

There is a problem in the N. N. Virginia Public School district. Despite that fact that Supplemental Education Services programs mandates that schools requiring academic improvement must make free tutoring available to students who receive the free and reduced-price lunch program in Title I schools. School SES coordinator and SES managers continue to face challenges with providing language arts services to students with learning disabilities in the upper elementary grade levels. A possible cause of this problem as stated by Ahearn (2007) is that that there are only a few experienced personnel in the supplemental education services tutoring programs trained to ensure that the student's individual education plan is in close alignment with the students' supplemental education service instructional plan.

A study by Ahearn (2007) confirmed that SES providers are often encouraged by the school districts to serve students with learning disabilities, although the staff may not have the experience and training to serve them. Casserly (2007) acknowledged that the NCLB (2002) mandates "highly qualified teachers" for every classroom during the day however; the law is not specific on the qualifications of tutors. Tutors in supplemental education service programs are not required to be certified teachers. Perhaps a study which investigates the challenges SES managers and school coordinators face when providing SES service to students with disabilities will be to explore the need for experienced personnel who are prepared to ensure that the students with learning disabilities SES plans are in closer alignment with their IEP.

The purpose of this study is to examine the challenges that SES managers and coordinators face when providing services to upper elementary students with learning disabilities. The study includes detailed indebt data collection of one of Virginia school districts SES managers and school coordinators challenges with providing language arts services to upper elementary students. My hypothesis will address the extent to which having experienced and trained personnel able to ensure students' IEPs are in close alignment with supplemental education service instructional plans is essential in improving student achievement for upper elementary students with learning disabilities and the challenges managers and school coordinators have when providing services to students with learning disabilities. Outcome-based evaluations will be used to determine the extent to which students with disabilities are receiving supplemental education services.

Purpose of the Study

The intent of this qualitative case study will be to explore the need for experienced personnel who are prepared to ensure that the students with learning disabilities SES plans are in closer alignment with their IEP. The study will explore the experiences of supplemental education service provider's managers and school coordinators. The intent of this study is to understand the perceptive of the supplemental education service provider's managers and school coordinators awareness of the instructional practices for students with learning disabilities in supplemental education services programs.

Information gained from this study can assist educator leadership within the K-12 context on whether there is a need for more stringent requirements for trained staff in supplemental education services programs able to guarantee that students with learning disabilities supplemental educational services are consistent with a student's individual education plan under Section 614(d) Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) or the student's individualized services under Section 504.

Nature of the Study

The study used a qualitative case study method. Creswell (2007) states that the researcher in a study selects individuals for a study because they have purposeful information and understanding of the research problem. The SES school coordinators and SES managers have direct knowledge of the challenges they face when tutoring students with disabilities in SES Programs. A qualitative interview allows the researcher to verify information from other sources or information developed by the researcher (Hatch 2002).

Rubin states that the qualitative interview will allow the researcher to elicit detailed information about the research topic by following up on answers given by the interviewee during the discussion (p. 4). A qualitative case study method of research has been chosen to answer the research questions for this study. A qualitative perspective approach allowed for a more in-depth study into the services for students with learning disabilities in supplemental education services programs. Qualitative research is done when the reviewers wants to empower participants to share their story. The characteristics of a qualitative research study include exploring human behavior in research in its natural setting, gathering field notes, conducting interviews and collecting artifacts or records and case studies (Hatch, 2002). In a qualitative study data is gathered directly by the researcher and can be problematic in terms of biases on the part of the researcher.

The emphasis of the study was to explore the extent to which the supplemental education services managers and school coordinators provide services to students with learning disabilities. Participants from this study included six supplemental education services managers and six supplemental education school coordinators. Each coordinator was hired by the school system to coordinator supplemental education services in language arts and math to elementary schools. The supplemental education service managers provided services for elementary students in language arts and math.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

The following research questions are addressed in the study:

What are the supplemental education service school coordinators perceived challenges with providing services to upper elementary students with learning disabilities in supplemental education service language arts programs?

2. What are the supplemental education service managers/directors perceived challenges with providing services to upper elementary students with learning disabilities in the supplemental education service language arts programs?

3. Explain the relationship between the challenges for supplemental education service managers/directors and school coordinators who provide services to upper elementary student with learning disabilities?

Definition of Terms

Supplemental education services (SES): A supplemental education services program that requires schools in academic improvement to provide free tutoring to students who receive the free and reduced-price lunch program.

Supplemental education services (SES) provider: A supplemental education services provider is a tutoring service that offers supplemental education services.

No Child Left Behind Act of 2002: The No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is a set of federal programs that requiring states to improve the academic achievement of public school students considered at risk for school failure.

Tutor: A tutor is a person employed to instruct another in some branch or branches of learning, or a private instructor.

Academic Assessments: Academic assessments are a set of high-quality, yearly student academic assessments that include, at a minimum, academic assessments in mathematics, reading or language arts, and science that will be used as the primary means of determining the yearly performance of their State.

Free and Reduced-Price Lunch Eligible: The free and reduced price lunch program provides free and reduced-price school lunches to students based on the student's family's income.

Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): Adequate yearly progress is a measure of student achievement on the state assessment in reading and mathematics.

Title I Eligible School: A Title I school is a public school in which a percentage of children are from low-income families.

Local Education Authority (LEA): The local education authority is a board of education that supervises public elementary or secondary schools.

Public School Choice: Public school choice is a program in which the opportunity is given to students in a school identified as needing improvement to transfer to a better public school in their district.

State Educational Agency (SEA): The State Education Agency is responsible for the State supervision of public elementary and secondary schools.

Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA): The Elementary and Secondary Education Act is a major federal law affecting k-12th grade education enacted in 1965.

Assumptions

Supplemental education services have the potential of improving students' performance, but it is not clear if the gains that were made in several schools are attributed to supplemental education services. The literature discussed the need for supplemental education services programs to integrate the Individual Education Plan of students with learning disabilities into the students' tutoring program, but did not state how and to what extent. This study will establish the need for experienced personnel who are prepared to ensure that the students with learning disabilities supplemental educational service instructional plan is in closer alignment with their individual education plans and to what extent supplemental education services programs are meeting the needs of students with learning disabilities.

Limitations

Supplemental education services programs and school districts may exaggerate claims if they think it will show their program or school in a more positive manner. Certain topics will deal with actions or beliefs for which there is a socially favored position. Supplemental education services providers may not keep a record of their services from the previous year. Therefore, supplemental education services tutoring providers may not be able to identify the students with learning disabilities in their supplemental education services program, or the qualifications of the tutors providing services to the students with learning disabilities in their programs.

The interviews will be conducted confidentially. Interview scripts will be approved by the dissertation committee; this will help to guard against researcher biases which could interfere with the interpretation of the data.

Significance of the Study

A study examining the need for experienced and trained staff for students with learning disabilities in Supplemental education services language arts tutoring programs is relevant to educator leadership within the K-12 context and the greater professional education community. Researching supplemental education for students with learning disabilities will promote positive social change by ensuring that students with learning disabilities receive a fair and appropriate education and that all partnerships and alliances work effectively and take a collaborative effort to guarantee success for all students.

The research on supplemental education services has determined that this is the first time federal funds have been used to pay for student tutoring services outside of the school system (Ahearn, 2007). This problem affects all students with learning disabilities because these students must as equally important pass the Virginia state (language arts) Standards of Learning (SOL) test. Researching supplemental education for students with learning disabilities will promote positive social change by ensuring that students with learning disabilities receive the additional assistance they need to have in order for them to receive an equal and appropriate education and that all partnerships and alliances work effectively and take a collaborative effort to guarantee student success and achievement.

Summary and Transition

A qualitative case study will be used for this study. The rationale for this qualitative case study will determine the need for experienced and trained staff for students with learning disabilities in supplemental education services elementary language arts tutoring programs. The study will include six Virginia supplemental education service managers and directors and six supplemental education services coordinators from one school division in the state of Virginia participating in the supplemental education services elementary language arts and math programs. The researcher's objectives will be made clear to the supplemental education services managers and directors verbally and in writing. The participants, rights, interest and wishes will be considered when choices are made regarding reporting the data (Creswell 2009, p.149). A coding system will be developed and used for the interviews to allow easy interpretation of participant's responses. Chapter 2 represents a review of literature that gives an analysis of supplemental education services, the increasing number of supplemental education providers and the effectiveness of the supplemental education services programs. Chapter 3 discusses the research method to be used for the quantitative survey research study. Chapter 4 and 5 explores the quantitative research study, the data collection, transcription of the interviews, survey and the consequential inferences.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Experienced and trained personnel are needed to ensure students' IEP's are in close alignment with supplemental education service instructional plans are essential in improving student achievement for students with learning disabilities. This study will investigate the challenges managers and directors in SES programs and school system personnel have when serving students with learning disabilities. Highlighted in this study are the works of Marzano, Hargreaves, and Wenger. Hargreaves (1995) suggested that effective educational change requires the educational environment to be a" moving mosaic" that fosters collaboration through networks, partnerships, and alliances within and beyond the school setting. The literature review was conducted through scholarly articles, and research databases that focused on examining the need for experienced personnel who are prepared to ensure that the students with disabilities supplemental educational service ILP is in closer alignment with their IEP. Supplemental education services information was obtained by searching relevant databases. Survey reports and related articles from 2002 to present. Walden's Dissertation and Theses database, EBSCO, and ERIC served as Tier 1 and 2 database resources. Data on the school districts not making AYP was obtained through the Virginia Department of Education web site and press reports and NEA state affiliates. The search terms used in this study include supplemental education services, supplemental education services (SES) provider, No Child Left Behind Act of 2002, Tutor, Academic Assessments, and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), Individual Education Plan, Individual Learning Plan and students with learning disabilities. The topics in education that led the researcher to organize the presentation of literature into the following sections include: The Process of Informing Parents, The Amount of SES Providers, Classroom Curriculum and SES Reading and Math programs, SES Effectiveness. This chapter seeks to answer the following question as it relates to the research questions that guide the study: What are school leaders and SES Manages and directors perceived challenges with the SES elementary language arts and math tutoring program? What are some challenges staff members encounter when working with students with learning disabilities in SES programs?

The Process of Informing Parents

Under the No Child Left Behind Act parents are able to choose a provider for their child from the state-approved provider list. Although parents can request the assistance of their local school, parents make the final decision. Parents must ensure that their child attends and participates appropriately in the supplemental services sessions and work with the school district and the provider to develop and identify specific academic achievement goals for their child. The quality of district notification letters varied considerably; some were easy to read and presented the options in a positive light, while others were confusing, discouraged the use of the options, or were biased in favor of district-provided services. This makes it increasingly difficult for parents to choose the most appropriate supplemental education services provider for their child.

Classroom Curriculum and Language Arts and Math Programs

Supplemental education providers must use a high quality, research-based language arts and math program designed to increase student achievement and consistent with the instruction provided by the local education agencies and aligned with the state standards. Many states have had to grapple with controversy surrounding "effective" language arts and math programs. Several providers have pre-and post-assessments and only a few have research-based language arts and math programs (Casserly 2007). The problem is compounded as the number of providers increase and the variety of student skill deficits grows. It seems that providers in each state are aligning their supplemental education program curriculum with state standards to the same degree. Most providers have the same language arts and math program that they use in every state. In a report evaluating Supplemental Educational Services (SES) in Virginia, conducted by the Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP) at the University of Memphis. In 2007-2008 a large majority of SES provider representatives (96.5 percent) reported that they aligned their services and curriculum with local and state academic content and standards either frequently or occasionally. Most SES coordinator responses (83.4 percent) indicated that SES providers 'services were aligned with state and local standards. The majority of SES coordinator responses (93.9 percent) indicated that SES providers complied with applicable state and local laws. The majority of SES provider representatives (85.7 percent) reported that they were able to adapt services to each school's curriculum either frequently or occasionally. Three-fourths of SES provider representatives (75 percent) noted that tutors frequently or occasionally integrated SES services with classroom learning activities. The majority of SES coordinator responses (78.8 percent) indicated that SES providers collaborated to set goals for student growth either frequently or occasionally. Over half of SES division coordinator responses (68.2 percent indicated that provider's adapted SES services to each school's curriculum.

The Amount of SES Providers

In a study conducted by the Civil Rights Project, UCLA, 2007 examining the trends in implementation of supplemental educational services and student participation in SES, from 2002-03 to 2006-07. The study concluded that the total number of students receiving SES services had increased over a five years period. The percentage of eligible students actually receiving services declined or leveled off after five years. The study concluded that over a five year period the number of SES providers expanded greatly in four of the six states studied. In one of the six states studied the number of SES providers remains the same and in one of the other states included in the study the number of SES providers declined. The number of providers grew substantially in all 11 districts. This research study will explore the challenges school supplemental education services coordinators and managers face when serving elementary students with disabilities.

The Effectiveness of SES

The Center on Education Policy, 2007 examined efforts states have undertaken to carry out the supplemental educational services requirements of NCLB, focusing on school year 2006-07. The study describes the procedures used to review and approve potential SES providers and the extent to which states were able to monitor the quality and effectiveness of SES providers. There study drew data from a fall 2006 survey of state education agency officials in 50 states. Thirty-eight states reported being unable to monitor the quality and effectiveness of SES providers "to a great extent." Only 10 states reported being able to do so "to a great extent." States attributed their inability to monitor to insufficient staff and funds. The greatest challenges to implementing supplemental services related to monitoring the quality and effectiveness of SES providers. Forty-one states and about half (51%) of school districts called this a moderate or serious challenge. In a report evaluating Supplemental Educational Services (SES) in Virginia, conducted by the Center for Research in Educational Policy (CREP) at the University of Memphis. In 2007-2008, 35 SES providers delivered SES services to 3,344 students in 26 school divisions. In total, 3,344 SES students (3,758 contracts) received SES tutoring services from 35 providers across 53 schools in 26 divisions in Virginia in 2007-2008. Within the 26 divisions, 55 Title I schools were required to offer SES services. Twenty-six (26) SES providers established 1,357 contracts in mathematics, while 32 SES established 2,401 contracts in reading/language arts. In the state-level analysis using data from all SES providers combined, no significant differences in either reading/language arts or mathematics performance were found between students receiving SES services and those not receiving SES services. While the survey findings revealed overall satisfaction with SES implementation and services, all respondent groups noted areas for improvement. These areas include: 1) integration of SES services with classroom instruction; 2) parental participation and division assistance in notifying parents about SES services; 3) limited hours of SES services; 4) monitoring of SES services both at the school site and in homes; and 5) transportation to and from SES services. Most SES provider representatives (78.6 percent) reported that they gave instruction to students with disabilities frequently or occasionally. Many SES provider representatives (71.5 percent) also reported that they offered appropriate instruction to ELL students as needed either frequently or occasionally. Many SES coordinator responses (67.4 percent) indicated that SES providers offered services to special education and ELL students. Nineteen (19) percent of students receiving SES services (572 students) were students with disabilities. Seven school divisions in Virginia participated in a United States Department of Education (USED) pilot for reversal of Public School Choice (PSC) and Supplemental Educational Services (SES) during the 2007-2008 school year. These divisions offered SES to eligible students attending schools in their first year of school improveme

CHAPTER 3: Research Methods

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges that SES

managers and coordinators face when providing services to elementary

students with learning disabilities. The researcher also sought to uncover if developing collaboration through networks, partnerships, and alliances within and beyond the school setting would assist supplemental education services staff in gathering a broder extensive knowledge of learning strategies for students with learning disabilties. The qualitative case study design was used to answers the research questions.. Hatch (2002) describes five qualitative paradigms positivist, post positivist, constructivist, critical/ feminist and poststructuralist. Hatch (2002) describes a paradigm as a belief system that guides the way we do things The philosophical qualitative paradigms that guides my research into supplemental education services for students with disabilities would be the post positivist paradigm. The post positivist researcher sees themselves as data collection instruments and reports generalizations based on careful analysis of interview data (Hatch, 2002). The post positivist paradigm states that there may be a real world out there, but it's impossible for humans to truly know it (Hatch, 2002).

This qualitative study will compare the challenges supplemental education services school coordinators and managers face with

providing tutoring services to elementary students with learning disabilities.

The research questions explored the challenges that SES managers and

coordinators face when providing services to elementary students with learning

disabilities. There were two hypothesis in this study.

There are significant challenges with having untrained special

education tutors in supplemental education services elementary language arts

and math programs able to ensure that students with learning disabilities

individual education plan under Section 614 Individuals with Disabilities Act of

2004 (IDEA) or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and students with

disabilities must receive appropriate supplemental education services and

accommodations [34 CFR §§200.46(a) (4) and (5)].

The following research questions are addressed in this study.1. What are the supplemental education service school coordinators perceived challenges with providing services to students with learning disabilities in supplemental education service language arts and math programs?

2. What are the supplemental education service managers/directors perceived challenges with providing services to students with learning disabilities in the supplemental education service language arts and math programs?

3. Explain the relationship between the challenges for supplemental education service managers/directors and school coordinators who provide services to student with learning disabilities?

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