An Individual Reflective Journal on a Group of Students

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Develop a profile of a group of no more than six (6) learners using a table or matrix that contains clear, relevant, professional and ethical information pertaining to that group. This information needs to describe the strengths, needs and interests of the six (6) learners.

Task 1




Student A IEP - ASD &Epileptic


Student A will always ask for help when needed. He participates well in class activities. Enjoys the support of his class mates. He loves to participate in P.E. He has had very few days away from school. He is a rote learner and thrives on routine.

This student needs to improve his metacognition skills. His thinking skills and linking skills need to be established. He needs further development of his spelling, reading and writing skills. He also struggles with the application of skills. This student needs emotional support and understanding of his condition. Peer-tutoring and the support of his classmates. Additional assistance from teacher aides and support teacher of learning difficulties.

He also needs to wait for teacher when asking questions. Change is also an area he struggles with.

Enjoys working on word search puzzles. He also likes playing soccer at lunch time with his friends. He is very conversant focus of NRL as a sport.

Student B

Student B works well once shown what to do.

He is also strong-willed. However he takes positive reinforcement well.

This student lacks confidence in his ability to achieve at a sound level. Encouragement to complete work in small, manageable chunks.

Let him learn by doing not just by showing. He needs to complete homework and assignment tasks on a more consistent basis.

He needs to develop more independent work habits

This student likes to get involved in sport. His future goal is to join the defence force.

Student C

Student C has a good grasp of communication skills. She is willing to help her peers when she has completed her tasks. She shows good leadership qualities in small group activities. This student enjoys art activities that relate to her topic that she is working on at the time. She also shows a personable attitude.

This student needs to be encouraged and guided as she sometimes lacks confidence in her abilities.

She also has mental health issues. Her low esteem sometimes hinders her work and lead to anger issues developing.

She likes playing her Nintendo Wii and playing sport. She also like socializing with friends. Her passion is in life is working with people who have social justice issues.

Student D

Student D will stay focused to task if prompting to task is given. Works well with one to one attention. He has a personable attitude toward life in general

This student needs confidence building in all areas of academics. He dislikes speaking situations. Encouragement instead of confrontation works well with this student. He needs assistance with organisational skills to complete tasks at hand

He enjoys music, skateboarding and riding motorbikes. He also likes texting his friends. He aspires to be an Artist.

Student E

Student E gets along socially with other students. He is very enthusiastic on favourite tasks.

This student needs to develop more independent work habits. He needs motivation to complete tasks to the best of his ability. He needs to ask for assistance in task that he is completing

This student like bands, cars and tattoos

Student F

Student F is passionate about art. He also shows a genuine sensitivity to those around him.

This student is a shy person who needs to be encouraged to complete his work and finds it hard to answer direct questioning. He also lacks confidence in his own ability to achieve at a sound level. He struggles with his mathematical skills and needs intensive work to assist him with his abilities to achieve. Praising of small achievements.

He also has mental health issues.

He enjoys music, skateboarding and riding motorbikes. He also likes hanging out with his mates

All of the above students need to increase their attendance at school. They will also need support for their homework and assessment tasks. All the boys in this group will also require a large amount of 'step-by-step' breakdown of skills.

TASK 2 - List by Student Issues & Impacts on Learning

Develop a table or matrix that can be used to document developmental information pertaining to the same 6 individual learners identified in task 1 above. The table or matrix must include how the information could be utilised to inform or modify instructional design for the focus learners.

Relevant to Module 2: The learning environment

Task 2

Developmental Information

Ways to use information to inform or modify instructional design - what can the LM do?


16 years - boy


Metacognition - he will need one to one support for his thinking and linking skills

Individual program - tailor activities to suit support activities

Use topics of interest to engage learning


He is of average build and has only just entered puberty. Has some coordination skills problems however over the last couple of years he has gained more confidence in his skills.

Physical Movement - encourage student to play sport at a higher level.

Streaming - like ability groups, or mixed ability groups to enhance skills

Social / Emotional:

Support with fine motor skills. His independent living skills and social skills will need a developmental focus.

Verbal and visual instructions offered one step at a time.


Enjoys doing word search puzzles and reading novels. Needs further development of his spelling and reading skills.

Lesson planning - Use a variety of creative activities to explore content.

Peer Tutoring - match up with students that can work with each other.


16 years - boy


There are gaps in his learning which inhibits his cognitive skills

Individual Program - Tailor activities to suit or designing modified tasks including both extension and extra support activities


He is a rather robust and solid boy. He is willing to participate is sporting activities.

Use opportunities for practice

Social / Emotional:

Frequently away due to poor self esteem and confidence in ability

Role play situations to explore how to relate effectively with others


Has difficulty in language skills

Verbal and visual instructions offered on step at a time.

Task 2

Developmental Information

Ways to use information to inform or modify instructional design - what can the LM do?


16 years - Boy


Lacks confidence in all areas of academics and dislikes speaking situations

Classroom Climate - The Learning Manager can be supportive, use of routines and strict guidelines


He enjoys music, skateboarding and riding motorbikes and sporting activities eg. Gym work

Physical Movement - sitting for long periods.

The Learning Manager can give a shortbreak to relieve physical tiredness

Social / Emotional:

He lacks confidence in his ability and does not like confrontation

Classroom Organisation - Learning Manager can arrange seating plan, access to resources, access to support personnel.


He needs assistance with organisational skills to complete task at hand

Individual Program - Tailor activities to suit or designing modified tasks including both extension and extra support activities

TASK 3 - Attitudes and Perceptions toward classroom tasks

"The effective teacher continuously works to influence attitudes and perceptions, often so skilfully that students are not aware of her efforts. Subtle though this behaviour may be, it is a conscious instructional decision to overtly cultivate specific attitudes and perceptions" (Marzano & Pickering, 1997, p. 13).

Create a graphic organiser that identifies specific instructional strategies that enhance learners' attitudes towards classroom tasks. The graphic organizer should provide an example of each strategy.


Perceive Tasks as Valuable and Interesting



of how strategies could be used with reference to six learners


Establish a sense of academic trust

Student D tends to be the class comedian and attempts to bend the classroom rules resulting in other students doing the same.

The Learning Manager will endeavour to show and explanation of preceding knowledge and what relevance it has to the task at hand. This will give the students a reason for learning as they put their trust in what the learning manager is showing them even if they do not quite comprehend what it is.

"….academic Trust can only be developed over time. It Requires that students have consistent experiences with teachers in which they eventually see the value of assigned tasks." (Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.30)

Help students understand how specific knowledge is valuable

Student C will continue to complete her homework or assignment without assistance and forget to ask for advice when needing help.

Explanation of the how information will be useful to them will help them to learn later more intricate thoughts, make interdisciplinary connections and / or when they complete a task.

(Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.30)

Use a variety of ways to engage students in classroom task (instructional strategies and resources)

Student D &E have a limited focus span. This will in turn lead them to be disruptive and not focusing on the task at hand

The learning manager could give a range of tasks allowing for student choice. This will permit them to combine techniques suitable for the different learning styles. Students will be motivated to learn and able to present their work in a way they prefer and feel more comfortable with.

(Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.31)


Believe they have the ability and resources to complete tasks

Provide appropriate feedback and monitor students

Student C often finishes what is expected of her and may sometimes mix up with other information

The Learning Manager can give the kind of feedback that encourages the student and expresses confidence in their ability. E.g. 'I knew you could do it. Now let's take a look at what you can improve for next time"

(Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.33)

Teach students to use positive talk

Student B lacks confidence in his ability and when he achieves at an accepts standard finds it difficult to accept praise when given

Encouraging the student to use positive self-talk will give a more positive outlook in the classroom. Using a reflective journal about negative comments to oneself can be turned around into positive self-talk. This in turn will build a confidence in their ability to complete tasks. (Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.33)

As this group is in their mid teens self talk is needed as peer pressure comes to the fore.

Help students recognise that they have the abilities to complete a particular task

Whilst attempting to complete a task Student A will not go on further in his task until he seeks help from teacher.

Learning Managers should explain clearly exactly what knowledge is required of them. Evidence of previous tasks that they have done and were successful in will help them refocus on a more complex task.

(Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.34)


Understand and be clear about the tasks

Help student to be clear about the directions and demands of the task - clear instructions

Student F finds it hard to answer direct questioning and receive clear instruction to complete the task.

The Learning Manager when reviewing directions with students should have them rehearse the more complex parts to help them identify and clear up any confusions. Also make sure that they fully understand what they are to do

(Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.35)

Provide students with clarity about the knowledge that the task addresses

Student E finds it difficult to ask for clarification in a topic and continues just to do bare minimum

The Learning Manager will need to ask themselves what knowledge the task is intended to teach and then communicate this clearly to the students. This in turn will show the student what they should be learning as a results of the task. (Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.35)

Provide students with clear expectations of performance levels for tasks

Student D tends to finish task at hand at an sound level however will not try and push the level higher

The learning manager needs to inform the student what standard of performance is expected of them. As the student grows they will learn to develop their own standard of excellence. Learning managers will however need provide performance standards to students when they are starting the task so they know and understand the criteria that will be used to evaluate their work.

(Marzano &Pickering, 1997, p.36)

Task 4: Attitudes and Perceptions - Classroom / Workplace management-a sense of comfort and order

Identify and describe the essential skills. Explain, with example if possible, how these skills promote a sense of comfort and order within learning environments.

Essential Skills - A Sense of Comfort

"A student's sense of comfort in the classroom affects his or her ability to learn… By involving students in making decisions about classroom climate, individual needs are more likely to be met"

(Marzano et al., 1997:3)

Essential Skill

How Skill Promotes A Sense of Comfort and Order

Scenario (with reference to six learners)


Language od Expectation

Establishing Expectations &Making Rules

This group of learners all at times attempt to stretch the boundaries of classroom expectations and the rules set in place.

Unclear expectations from the LM can be seen by students that there are no firm limits and boundaries of the classroom. Setting up a clear set of rules and expectations will give the students a nous of proprietorship and duty.

Giving Instruction - Telling students what to do

Student D has a tendency to turn off and misses the instructions given for the task at hand.

By giving clear and precise instructions students will understand the task and organise what they are required to do and keep them actively engaged. (Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p9)

Waiting and Scanning - Stopping to assess what is happening

Student E will sometimes lose focus part way through the lesson and being a quiet student will go unnoticed.

When giving instructions wait, look at your students; scan the room for 5 - 10 seconds to maintain the students attention. Whe scanning the group link with a descriptive encourager or use redirection if necessary (Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p11)

Cueing with Parallel Acknowledgement - Praising a particular student to prompt others

Student C is always on task however can be distracted by others

By using the scanning technique regularly when student are off task, the learning manager can choose to acknowledge an individual or group in close proximity who is on-task. The learning manager can also use low key acknowledgement involving body language as well. (Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p12,13)

Language of Acknowledgement

Body Language Encouraging - Smiling, nodding, gesturing and moving near

Student B has little or no confidence in his work when working independently. He often becomes upset especially if he has made a mistake or doesn't understand what he needs to do.

The learning manager's level of classroom monitoring when moving around the room and interacting non-verbally with students should help reduce episodes of inappropriate behaviour. The student who is having problems will feel at more ease.

(Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p15)

Descriptive Encouraging - Praise describing behaviour

Student F can sometimes lose sight of what behaviour is required in classroom and will be distracted.

The Learning Manager could encourage students to become more aware of their competence by describing exactly what you see or hear from them that you hope to see more frequently

(Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p16)

Language of Correction

Selective Attending - Not obviously reacting to some bad behaviour

Student A often strives for attention by calling out and not waiting for the teacher

The learning manager can use selective attending when a student is off task or showing inappropriate behaviour that is not seriously disrupting others.

(Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p18)

Redirecting to the Learning - Prompting on-task behaviour

Student D does at times stray from the task at hand and when asked to get back on task becomes argumentative and disrupts the class

The learning Manager can give a redirection to the learning, not the behaviour by asking a question about the task or ask a question related to an offer of teacher assistance.

(Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p20)

Giving a Choice - Describing the student's options and likely consequences of their behaviour

When Student E behaves badly, he will often choose to continue his bad behaviour and not reconsider the actions.

The learning manager should confront the student, who is disrupting the other learners, with available choices and their logical consequences

(Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p22)

Following Through - Doing what you said you would

Student D will often test the teacher when reprimanded and sometimes doubts the consequences she will suffer

The Learning Manager needs to follow through her actions otherwise the other skills will not be effective. Even if they feel nervous or uncertain as they need to stay confident. (Ed. QLD, Core Learning Component, 2007, p25)

'It is the certainty of the consequence rather than the severity of the consequence that is important (Roger 1995, p38)

Task 5: Habits of Mind - specific instructional strategies

Refer back to the 6 profiled learners from Task 1. Now consider specific aspects of instructional design (planning, questioning techniques, organization/management of environments/resources, assessment design etc.) within the learning environment. Describe how the Habits of Mind link to and enhance the specific aspects of instructional design that might be considered for your profiled learners. Justify the use of the Habits of Mind.

Targeted Student/s

Targeted HOM


Student A, B, D, E &F

Student C

Striving for accuracy

Generate, trust, and maintain your own standards of evaluation

Based on observation and work samples these student need to explore the words they will need to know. Errors will occur as the list will be unseen until the day of practice test. Attention will be given for the students to improve their spelling marks by end of week.

Based on observation and work samples this student needs to write down her standards so as to make her tasks more challenging thus generating and committing to a higher standard of work.

Context of lesson/s

Specific Teacher Talk

English Communication Lesson

Topic focus - Spelling and Dictionary meaning of words

Time will be given for students to focus on spelling.

The LM will go over the latest spelling list for a practice test

Students will then write out what ones were incorrect.

The students will be encouraged to have a list of words each night to practice.

By using the dictionary they should be able to comprehend the meaning of the words.

Opportunity for students to work in pairs to find the meanings.

" In today's lesson, we will be focusing on the spelling words which you will have learnt for test later in the week. There will be Two habits of mind that I will endeavour to cover through the lesson - Striving for accuracy and generate, trust and maintain your own standards of evaluation.

"Whilst we look at the words I will endeavour to show you an easier way to remember words as we go through the list."

"Listen carefully to the words that I will read out. Think about how the word sounds and write down as you go."

"Now that we have finished our words we will endeavour to find out the meanings of the words you have just written down.

"Now C as you like to work with A, can you go with him now and help him with his meanings.

B, D and E, I would like to see you all on task today and have all the meanings written down in your books. This list will be used for future reference is your next assignment so accuracy with spelling is to the utmost.

Now as we come to the last ten minutes of our lesson let's check our work and see how you all went. If you have any wrong I would like you to copy down the correct spelling as we go. This is part of working with accuracy.

It was good to see that all of you gained 75% average today and next test we will aim for 80%.

Congratulatons C on gaining 100% on your spelling and dictionary meaning today. It is good to see that your work is paying off and aiming for higher standard of work.

Thank you for today it is good to see that you have all met your goals today.