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It is hard fact that the quality of education in any country depends upon the quality of the teachers. A high quality teaching staff is the cornerstone of a successful educational system. Attracting and retaining high quality teachers is a primary necessity for education in any country. One step in developing a high quality faculty is to understand the factors associated with teaching quality and retention. One of these factors is job satisfaction, which has been studied widely by organizational researchers and has been linked to organizational commitment as well as to organizational performance.
Job satisfaction is a complex variable and is influenced by situational factors of the job as well as the dispositional characteristics of the individual. It clearly shows that there are number of factors which affect job satisfaction of faculty members.
Though lots of studies has been done on the topic job satisfaction but still some work need to be done, which is completed by this paper. The main aim of this paper is as to accumulate all the factors affecting job satisfaction under one umbrella. This paper helps research scholars to identify some more factors which affect or may affect job satisfaction.
Key words: Job satisfaction, Recognition and Appreciation, Physical environment, Opportunities for promotion, Leadership style.
Job Satisfaction comprises of two words "Job" and "Satisfaction".Â Before we define the phrase, it is important to understand the word "satisfaction". Satisfaction is defined as the fulfillment or gratification of a desire, need, or appetite. Gratification is a state of being gratified or satisfied. Therefore, one can conclude that "satisfaction" is an internal feeling and no amount of external pleasures or comforts can satisfy you unless you want "to feel" satisfied.Â
The term 'Job Satisfaction', however, lacks adequate definition (Herzberg et al. 1957) as well as a satisfactory theory about its meaning. The difference in a broad spectrum of views seems to be caused firstly by the various nature of jobs that individuals perform; secondly the attempt to conceptualize job satisfaction in a variety of ways by different disciplines like Psychology, Sociology, Education and Management, etc., and finally, the variety of methods employed by various researchers to study job satisfaction.
In simple terms, the realization of workers' physical and psychological expectations constitutes job satisfaction. An individual joins an organization with certain expectations and when these expectations come true the individual becomes pleased with his/ her organization and his/her job, and this increases his/her efficiency and performance (Nelson & Quick, 1995). However, when these expectations do not meet with work conditions, job satisfaction does not occur, and as a result; the worker loses performance and efficiency and might even sabotage the job or quit it. It is important to prevent workers from feeling disappointed and maximize their efficiency and performance by identifying and regulating the factors that affect job satisfaction (Noe, et al. 1997).
Job satisfaction or dissatisfaction is the result of various attitudes, the person holds towards his job, towards the related factors and towards life in general. Job satisfaction is reflected in the attitudes people hold towards their jobs, positive attitude towards the job connote satisfaction with it and negative attitudes towards it connote dissatisfaction with it. Thus job satisfaction is the end state in feeling, accompanying the attainment by an impulse of its objective.
Job satisfaction is related to human needs and their fulfillment through work. In fact, job satisfaction is generated by the individual's perception of how well his job on the whole is satisfying his various needs. The need for gratification and satisfaction is a continuous process. Job satisfaction at a point of time depends upon the workers aspiration level and degree of dissatisfaction he gets from his job. If the work situation fulfills the desires of the employees, it is to be expected that their attitude tend to be favorable. In turn frustration resulting from such desires, tends to produce unfavorable attitudes and possibly by a sort of chain reaction, hostility, poor job performance, attendance problems, high turnover and other undesirable side effects.
According to Kochan (1978), Job Satisfaction is the whole matrix of job factors that make a person like his work situation and is willing to head for it without distaste at the beginning of his work day. This means that Job satisfaction includes two aspects: Living and enjoying the job and Going to one's job with head erect and smiles.
Thus Job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say, "I am satisfied with my job". Thus job satisfaction is a favorableness with which employees views their work.
Importance of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction has been the center of the concentration for researchers over three decades. The reasons for such concentration are manifolds:
To the worker
1. Job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that can often leads to a positive work attitude.
2. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible, innovative, and loyal.
3. A satisfied worker is more committed towards his organization.
4. It improves their quality of life.
5. It improves their physical and mental health.
For the organization
1. It improves the quality of work.
2. It improves the quantity of production.
3. It improves the goodwill of the organization.
4. It reduces the recruitment and training cost.
5. It creates peaceful working environment.
6. It attracts good talent from outside.
Therefore, it is very important for the organization's to make all the efforts to make their employees satisfied otherwise consequences can be very bad. Next heading explain the effects of low job satisfaction.
Effects of low Job Satisfaction
Absenteeism means it is a habitual pattern of absence from duty or obligation. When the employees are not satisfied from their work or organization then they frequently remain more absent, which indicates not proper utilization of organizational resources. It is not good for the organization future and success.
Job satisfact ion
Rate of turnover and absences
Fig.no. 1 Curve showing relationship between job satisfaction and rate of turnover and absenteeism.
In the above diagram line AB shows inverse relationship between job satisfaction and rate of turnover and rate of absenteeism.
As the job satisfaction is high the rates of both turnover and absenteeism is low and vise a versa.
2. High Turnover
In human resource, Turnover refers to the rate at which an employer gains and losses the staff. When the employees are not satisfied then they are more willing to quit the job and want to join another organization.
If the employer is said to be have a high turnover rate of employees, then that company will have shorter tenure than those of other companies.
3. It increases recruitment and training cost increases
As employees leave organization due to lack of job satisfaction then Human resource manager has to recruit new employees which increases the recruitment and training expenditure of the company.
4. Low Productivity
If the employee is not satisfied with his/her job then his/her productivity decreases and vice-versa.
5. Poor quality of work
If the employee is not satisfied with his/her job then his/her productivity decreases as well as he will not do produce products of good quality.
6. It ruins the Goodwill of the organization.
Low satisfaction forces the employees to quit and join new job. It ruins organizations goodwill.
7. It ruins physical and mental health of people.
Dissatisfaction with once job may have especially volatile spillover effects on many other things such as family life, leisure activities etc. Many unresolved personality problems and maladjustments arise out of person inability to find satisfaction in his work. Both scientific study and casual observation provide ample evidence that job satisfaction is important for the psychological adjustment and happy living of individual.
Factors affecting Job satisfaction
As the time changes the new factors affecting job Satisfaction are also increasing at a high pace. Following are the factors which affect the job satisfaction of faculty members at varying degree.
One of the most important purposes to do a job is to earn money because it is money only through which needs, demands can be fulfilled. If one gets a handsome salary by which one can afford the living may cause job satisfaction. But if the salary cannot bear ones expenditure then one cannot be satisfied with the salary. Findings from several studies underline pay as one of the most important factors influencing one's level of job satisfaction. In a study conducted by Herzberg (1959), employees who are dissatisfied with their pay, is likely that they are also dissatisfied with their work.
Sometimes it has also been found out that other job related factors are not satisfactory but pay is good, in these kind of situations employees are willing to serve the organizations just because of good pay, which doesn't suit the profession of a teacher.
It means designation like lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Asst Professor, etc. Designation also affects job satisfaction. If one is holds a rank according to his/her qualification, experience then it gives them satisfaction and vice-versa.
3. Recognition & Appreciation
It is human nature whatever we did we want stroke for it, which gives us satisfaction. The same thing is applicable for teachers too. If they did some good work they want recognition and appreciation for the same.
In a study that was carried out in 23 Romanian organizations, recognition and appreciation were found to be motivating factors responsible for increased effectiveness of employees at work and their high levels of job satisfaction (Farhad Analoui, 1999).
When people are not recognized and appreciated they lose their willingness, interest from work which reduces the quality of their work. Therefore, employees should be recognized and appreciated for their good work.
4. Opportunity for Promotion
Promotion means the chances for advancement in hierarchy. Everyone wants to succeed and wants to move upwards in his/her career ladder. Employee perceptions about opportunity for promotion are also another determinant that influences job satisfaction. When opportunity for promotion is available than it gives satisfaction to the employees and vice-versa.
One survey found that a perceived lack of promotion opportunities was the strongest reason why federal employees left government service (U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board 1987).
5. Interpersonal Relationships
Man is a social animal. She/he cannot live alone they want company of others to spend time, to enjoy life, to share feelings. She/he wants good relationship with their supervisor, colleagues, co-workers and with everyone. Some studies have shown that the better the relationship, between fellow workers and between workers and their immediate boss, the greater the level of job satisfaction (Arne L. Kalleberg and Loscocco, 1983).
6. Demographic Factors
Studies have shown that age, gender have important effects on job satisfaction.
Age also play an important in affecting job satisfaction. In the earlier studies conducted by Kalleberg and Loscocco, (1983) older workers were more satisfied than younger workers. But in present scenario it is seen that older employees are less satisfied in comparison to young employees. It is because with the increase in the age and experience expectations of senior faculty members are also increasing. If they are not met it causes dissatisfaction.
The majority of studies that focus on faculty satisfaction have explored the relationship between satisfaction and gender. Most of these studies have found that male faculty members have higher levels of overall job satisfaction than female faculty members, particularly in terms of benefits and salary received (Bilimoria et al., 2006; Callister, 2006; Hult et al., 2005; Olsen et al., 1995; Settles et al., 2006; Tack & Patitu, 1992).
On the other hand, Ward and Sloane (2000) did not find any significant differences between male and female faculty members in overall levels of job satisfaction. They did observe, however, that male faculty members had almost three times the satisfaction levels of female faculty members when it comes to promotion opportunities.
Okpara et al. (2005) and Oshagbemi (1997) found that female faculty members in higher academic ranks expressed more satisfaction with their jobs than their male peers.
c) Marital Status and Children
Marital status and children can also impact faculty satisfaction. The results of studies that explore the relationship between marriage and faculty job satisfaction have yielded mixed results. On the one hand, marriage has been shown to increase satisfaction levels for faculty members (Cetin, 2006; Hagedorn, 2000; Leung, Siu, & Spector, 2000). Yet, some studies have shown that marriage can have a negative impact on faculty job satisfaction (Aisenberg & Harrington, 1988; Bryson, Bryson, & Johnson, 1978). Additionally, the presence of children in the household has been found to impact job satisfaction. Carr and Ash (1998, p. 536) found that "women with children published less, had slower self-perceived career progress, and were less satisfied with their careers than were men with children."
7. Participation in decision making
The level of satisfaction also depends upon the kind of participation in decision making process of organization. If decision making process is participative then employees are satisfied and vice-versa.
8. Support in research work.
A teacher can be successful only when he carries both task together i.e. Teaching to the students and his research work. He cannot do his research work successfully until and unless support is given by the college. If support is available from the college then it gives satisfaction to him/her. Moreover, his research work brings fame to the college also.
9. Support in Teaching
The future of the nation is in the hands of teacher. If the proper time for lecture preparation, time to keep update about the current affairs is not given to the teachers then they cannot give fruitful lectures, which at the same time spoil the time of both teacher as well as students. This kind delivery of lectures does not give them satisfaction. In order to give good lectures proper time should be given to the teachers which in return give them job satisfaction. Therefore, the organizations are required to provide sufficient load to the teachers which helps them in maintaining balance between different works.
10. Support for higher studies.
So many faculty members want to go for higher studies while remaining in the job. They can achieve their dream only when college supports them and motivates them. If support is available from college side it provides satisfaction to employees and vive-versa.
11. Equal Opportunities Working Environment
Other factors that affect one's levels of job satisfaction appear to be related to ethical issues and individual differences. Workers prefer an equal opportunities environment where they will be respected in terms of their race, religion, gender, educational background, physical disability etc. An environment as such encourages workers to feel equal among them and contributes to job satisfaction (Finchham & Rhodes, 1994)
12. Opportunity to Use One's Abilities
God bestowed everyone with some abilities. At the same time everyone wants to use his/her ability. If one is not given the opportunity to use his/her ability than one cannot get satisfaction out of his job because he is totally working under the instruction of others. In simple words, employees generally need and like jobs that make use of their abilities. (National Commission on the State and Local Public Service, 1993)
13. Physical Environment
Physical environment covers infrastructure of the building, class rooms, furniture and other interior, teachers room, toilets, specially, female teachers toilets, computer facilities, telephone, fax, communication and location of the College, transportation facility, etc. Physical environment is directly linked with job satisfaction. If one's get favorable physical environment he or she may be satisfied with the job. Opposite is true that unfavorable working environment creates dissatisfaction.
14. Academic qualification
Academic qualification is the standard of one's academic background. Such qualification is asked for applying any job. Getting job as per one's academic qualification will satisfy him or her, on the other hand if some one's job is inferior to his or her academic qualification brings dissatisfaction to him or her. So there is a direct relationship between job satisfaction and academic qualification.
15. Leadership style
The kind of leadership style the employee gets also affects his satisfaction. Head teachers who adopt laissez-faire styles of leadership, for example may be considered to exert very little influence on the college. Dogmatism of the head teacher or harassment in the name of supervision by the senior teachers many time cause dissatisfaction. Participative style of leadership is the best which provides satisfaction to workers.
16. Availability of leaves for attending Seminars, Conferences and FDPs.
In order to be successful in his/her academic career one need to attend number of seminars, conferences, Faculty Development Programs, Workshops, etc. In order to attend it one needs to take leave from college. If leave is available to attend them than it gives satisfaction to the faculty members and vice-versa.
17. Policy and Administration
The policy and administration of college also influence the satisfaction. If policies are fair and equally applicable to all then it gives satisfaction and vice-versa. At the same time if administration is active in taking action then it gives satisfaction and vice-versa.
18. Availability of different kinds of leave
In every organization different kind of leave are available like casual leave, medical leave, study leave, Maternity leave, etc. If there is transparency in the availability of leave then it gives satisfaction to faculty members and vice-versa.
19. Work itself
It includes the extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility. If these things are available then it causes satisfaction and vice-versa.
20. Quality of students
Another very important factor which affects the satisfaction of teachers is the kind of students available for teaching. If the students are very dull and do not ask any cross question that it creates dissatisfaction among the faculty members and if the students are of good I.Q and ask good questions from teachers than it gives satisfaction among the teachers as well make the class interactive and interesting.
21. Feedback and its communication
If the feedback is given to the faculty members from time to time then it is easy for them to rectify it and make them better teacher and gives them satisfaction. Moreover it is equally important how their feedback is communicated. If the feedback is positive then it must be appreciated in front of others and if it is negative it must be communicated personally so that the individual should not feel humiliated. If it happens then the person is not satisfied from his/her job.
22. Availability of time to advise the students.
It is the moral duty of the teachers to provide full satisfaction to its students by helping them and solving their queries to the fuller extent. If time is not available to the teachers to solve the student's queries due to lecture load or due to some other college responsibility then it causes dissatisfaction among them and spoil their image too and vice-versa.
23. Working Hours
Today's generation before choosing job gives equal focus on working hours too. If working hours are too long than personal life disturbs which in return affect professional life too. The same thing is applicable in academics too. If working hours are too long than teachers do not have the time for their family as well as to prepare next day lecture which reduces their satisfaction level.
24. Freedom to choose methods of teaching
It means the opportunity to use own methods of teachings. If teachers are bound to taught the students in a particular way like through Projector, OHP, etc then they are not satisfied because everyone wants to use his/her own method to teach the students and vice versa.
Today's time, need and expectations of people has changes a lot. Now people want flexibility in their working pattern. It means now teachers want when they have their scheduled lecture they come to the college and deliver and leave as soon as it gets over and after completing their other work. If such kind of facility is available then it causes satisfaction to them and vice-versa.
It is the culture only which distinguish the one organization from other. It is also fact that culture of the organization plays a very important role in influencing the job satisfaction of workers. Organizational culture here it means college culture. Organizational culture is the social glue that binds members of the organization together. The relationship between superior and subordinate, decision making, delegation of authority, types of leadership, and bureaucratic power are part of organizational culture. Job satisfaction is related to these criteria. If all these things are neutral or positive then it gives satisfaction to employees or vice-versa.
27. Library facilities
In order to teach rich content a teacher need to consult good number to books. The teacher satisfaction level also depends upon how much book facility is given to them from the college side. If teachers are given full freedom to access any number of books, journals then their satisfaction level will be higher and vice-versa.
28. Social status
The kind the social status your college will provide also affects the satisfaction level of teachers. If one is working in a very reputed college then his satisfaction will be higher in comparison to others.
29. Personal Life
It has direct link with job satisfaction. If a person is happy and satisfied in his personal life than he enjoys doing his job too which gives his job satisfaction.
30. Transportation facilities
If the transportation facility is available to the teachers then it gives them satisfaction and vice versa.
31. Job Security
Job security means holding a job that provides a safe future. Everyone wants security of his/her job. If one is secure about his future than it is easy for him/her to concentrate on his/her job well, which in return give them satisfaction.
Ashford et al., (1989) examined the impact of job insecurity on organisational commitment and job satisfaction and found that job insecurity is leads to reduced satisfaction and commitment. There is also evidence were job insecurity reduces job performance (Rosow & Zager, 1985).
From the above data it can be concluded that there are number of factors which causes satisfaction and dissatisfaction to faculty members. But there is no standard factor which affect all simultaneously. Their impact is varying from person to person. It happens that the factor which causes dissatisfaction to one may cause satisfaction to other or does not affect him at all.
At the same time these factors are not limited. There can be more factors which open more avenues research.