# Job Satisfaction Among College Teachers Education Essay

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The present study aims to bring out the difference in the job satisfaction level among college teachers of professional and non professional institutions in Punjab and its impact on other factors like their turnover intentions, absenteeism and their individual as well as on institutional performance. In part realization of the objectives of the study, this chapter aims to present the analysis of data collected in the study pertaining to college teachers of professional institutions in Punjab.

## 4.2 PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS:

The data pertaining to professional college teachers has been analyzed in parts and the results of the study have been depicted by making use of Tabular form and descriptive statistics. In the first part, respondents' responses to the questionnaire have been analyzed. In the second part, demographic features of the data have been brought out to understand the results clearly. In the third part, overall job satisfaction among college teachers of professional institutions and factors affecting to it have been analyzed by using various statistical techniques like frequency distribution, percentile, mean standard deviation and two way ANOVAs test. In the subsequent parts relationship between job satisfaction and various other factors like turnover intentions, absenteeism, individual performance and institutional performance have been measured through Pearson's correlation.

## 4.2.1 QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE ANALYSIS:

The sample population for the study consisted of all the college teachers of professional institutions in Punjab. Sample data has been collected from 258 college teachers of professional institutions. The twenty college teachers on whom pilot study were conducted, were not considered in the sample. The data for the study was collected both personally and through mail. For the purpose 295 questionnaires were sent to the prospective respondents. After all follow up communication, 258 usable and 4 unusable questionnaires were returned. These 4 questionnaires were unusable because they had been partially answered. 33 college teachers of these institutions chose not to participate in the study. Thus the overall response for the usable questionnaires was 87.45%.

## TABLE 4.1: RESPONSE TO QUESTIONNAIRE:

## professional institutions

## Number of Respondents

## Non responders

## Unusable questionnaires

## Usable questionnaires

## %age of usable questionnaires

## College teachers

## 295

## 33

## 4

## 258

## 87.45%

## 4.2.2 DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS:

The table 4.2 presents the description of the population for the study by presenting each demographic variable with the number and the percentage of respondents in each category.

## TABLE 4.2: DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAMPLE:

## N

## Percent

## 1.

## Age classification:

Age Less than 30 Years

143

55.43%

Age between 31 to 40 years

86

33.33%

Age between 41 to 50 years

23

8.91%

Age above 50 years

06

2.33%

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 2.

## Educational qualification:

B.Tech; B.E; B.Pharma

52

20.16%

Post graduation(M.A; MCA; MBA; M.Tech; M.Pharma)

161

62.40%

M.Phil

23

8.91%

PhD

20

7.75%

Any other additional qualification (Diploma)

2

0.78%

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 3.

## Area wise classification of the Sample:

Patiala

54

20.93%

Jalandhar

50

19.38%

Amritsar

50

19.38%

Ropar

53

20.54%

Bathinda

51

19.77%

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 4.

## Gender of educators:

Male

111

43.02%

Female

147

56.98%

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 5.

## Nature of post

Regular

181

70.15%

Adhoc

66

25.58%

Part time

09

3.49%

Contract

02

0.78

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 6.

## Marital status:

Married

177

68.60%

Single

81

31.40%

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 7.

## Location of the college

Urban

97

37.59%

Rural

161

62.40%

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 8.

## Reason for choosing teaching as a profession:

Interest in teaching

219

84.88%

It is prestigious

19

7.36%

Holidays and vacations

1

0.39

Higher salary

1

0.39

Non availability of any other good job

10

3.88

Model from parents

1

0.39

Parent's interest

5

1.94%

Opportunity for promotion

## -

## -

Any other

2

0.77

## Total

## 258

## 100

## 4.2.2.1 Age of Educators:

The Figures in the above table 4.2 presents the age distribution of the sample collected for the purpose of study. It is observed that most of the educators are in the age category of <=30 years, (n = 143 or 55.43%), next followed by the age category 31 - 40 years, (n=86 or 33.33%). This could impact largely on the need for further training and development. This is followed by the age category 41- 50 years (n= 23 or 8.91%), which is followed by the age category of more than 50 years (n = 06 or 2.33%). The results reflect that most of the college teachers of professional institutions fall in the age category of <= 30 years old.

## 4.2.2.2 Gender of educators:

The Figures in the above table 4.2 presents the gender distribution of the sample. It is evident that the population was primarily representative of female educators to that of male educators. The male respondents comprised of 43.02% (N=111) and female respondents comprised of 56.98% (N=147) of the sample for the study.

## 4.2.2.3 Educational qualification:

The Figures in the above table 4.2 presents the educational qualifications of the sample. It is observed that the sample mainly comprises of college teachers who that hold a masters degree (n=161 or 62.40%), followed by such college teachers who holds graduate professional degree (n= 52 or 20.16%) like B.Tech, B.E, B.Pharma etc. Certain college teachers also possess higher education like M.Phil (n= 23 or 8.91%), and Ph.D (n= 20 or 7.75%). Two of the college teachers falling in the sample also holds diploma in their respective professional field as additional qualification.

## 4.2.2.4 Nature of post:

The Figures in the above table 4.2 presents the nature of the post of the college teachers of professional institutions falling under the study sample. Most of the college teachers of professional institutions falling in the sample are having regular Nature of post (n= 181 or 70.15%) followed by adhoc teachers (n= 66 or 25.58%). Nine college teachers (or 3.49%) taken in the sample are part timers and two college teachers (or 0.78%) in the sample are on contract basis.

## 4.2.2.5 Marital status:

The Figures in the above table 4.2 presents the marital status of the respondents contained in the sample. The representation reflects that majority of the sample are married (n= 177 or 68.6%). The remaining respondents of the sample are single (n= 81 or 31.40%). The results indicate that most of the staff are married and therefore are family orientated. This could impact on their levels of wanting job security.

## 4.2.2.6 Location of Institution:

The Figures in the above table 4.2 presents the location of those professional institutions from where the college teachers for the purpose of the study have been taken into consideration. 97 respondents (or 37.59%) have been taken from such professional institutions situated in urban areas while majority of the respondents (n= 161 or 62.40%) have been taken from the professional institutions situated in the rural areas.

## 4.2.2.7 Reasons for choosing teaching as a profession:

The Figures in the above table 4.2 presents the reasons given by the respondents for choosing teaching as a profession. It is heartening to note that the majority of the college teachers (n= 219 or 84.88%) of professional institutions are in the teaching profession just because of their interest in teaching. The second remotely followed category is of those teachers (n= 19 or 7.36%) who thought teaching as a prestigious profession. The other category having some notable numbers (n=10 or 3.88%) is of such teachers who could not find any other good job. The other categories of choice are holidays and vacation (n=1), higher salary (n=1), model from parents (n=1) and parents interest (n=5).

## 4.2.3 PRESENTATION OF RESULTS RELATED TO JOB SATISFACTION AMONG COLLEGE TEACHERS OF PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS USING DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS:

In the study Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire has been used to study the overall job satisfaction level and the factors affecting it in case of college teachers of professional institutions of Punjab. The Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire contains 20 facets of job satisfaction in an institution. For each of the 20 dimensions of the job satisfaction, frequency of responses has been counted and percentiles have been calculated. Secondly, ranking hierarchy in ascending order of various dimensions of job satisfaction has been prepared to find out regarding what factors college teachers of professional institutions are having low level of satisfaction or high level of satisfaction. In the next section, overall job satisfaction and factors significantly affecting the overall job satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions have been worked out by statistics like mean, standard deviation and two way ANOVAs test.

## 4.2.3.1 FREQUENCIES OF RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT FACETS OF JOB SATISFACTION:

Minnesota job satisfaction questionnaire used in the present study, to measure the overall job satisfaction level of college teachers of professional institutions of Punjab, contains 20 questions relating to twenty dimensions of work place job satisfaction. The responses of the college teachers of professional institutions have been recorded on five point likert scale. Frequencies of responses to each of the five point likert scale have been counted and percentiles have been calculated. No. of responses falling in each of the category and respective percentiles are presented in the following table:

## TABLE 4.3: FREQUENCIES OF RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT FACETS OF JOB SATISFACTION: [Note: all percentages were rounded off to two decimal places]

## Sr. no.

## Sub Scale

## I

## II

## III

## IV

## V

## N

## %

## N

## %

## N

## %

## N

## %

## N

## %

## 1.

## The chance to work alone on the job (Independence)

5

1.94

31

12.06

49

18.99

156

60.47

17

6.59

## 2.

## The chance to do different things from time to time (Variety)

16

6.20

82

31.78

38

14.73

95

36.82

27

10.47

## 3.

## The chance to be 'somebody' in the community (Social Status)

6

2.33

47

18.21

60

23.26

125

48.45

20

7.75

## 4.

## The way my boss handles his/her employees (Supervision)

5

1.94

37

14.34

33

12.79

142

54.04

41

15.89

## 5.

## The competence of my supervisor in making decisions (Supervision - Technical).

7

2.71

7

2.71

43

16.67

146

56.59

55

21.32

## 6.

## Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience.(moral values)

11

4.26

62

24.03

66

25.58

105

40.70

14

5.43

## 7.

## The way my job provides for steady employment.(Security)

6

2.33

65

25.19

59

22.87

104

40.31

24

9.30

## 8.

## The chance to do things for other people. (social service)

7

2.71

73

28.29

57

22.09

95

36.82

26

10.08

## 9.

## The chance to tell people what to do. (Authority)

2

.78

4

1.55

40

15.50

168

65.12

44

17.05

## 10.

## The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities.

## (Ability Utilization)

5

1.94

12

4.65

26

10.08

146

56.59

69

26.74

## 11.

## The way company policies are put into practice. (Company policies and practices)

8

3.10

65

25.19

72

27.90

102

39.53

11

4.26

## 12.

## My pay and the amount of work I do. (Compensation)

12

4.65

71

27.51

65

25.19

81

31.39

29

11.24

## 13.

## The chances of advancement on this job.(Advancement)

15

5.81

28

10.85

68

26.36

111

43.02

36

13.95

## 14.

## The freedom to use my own judgment.

## (Responsibility)

4

1.55

35

13.56

58

22.48

148

57.36

13

5.04

## 15.

## The chance to try my own methods of doing the job. (Creativity)

9

3.49

75

29.07

55

21.32

107

41.47

12

4.65

## 16.

## The working conditions.(Working conditions)

7

2.71

50

19.38

58

22.48

131

50.78

12

4.65

## 17.

## The way my co-worker gets along with each other. (co-worker)

9

3.49

34

13.14

52

20.16

134

51.94

29

11.24

## 18.

## The praise I get for doing a good job.

## ( Recognition)

6

2.33

16

6.20

52

20.16

146

56.59

38

14.73

## 19.

## The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job.(Achievement)

8

3.10

51

19.77

61

23.64

117

45.35

21

8.14

## 20.

## Being able to keep busy all the time. (Activity)

4

1.55

8

3.10

37

14.34

166

64.34

43

16.67

4.2.3.1.1 Independence: The term Independence refers to the chance to work alone on the job. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 156 college teachers (60.47%) were satisfied and 17 college teachers (i.e., 6.59%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the way they are allowed to work independently while 31 college teachers (12.06%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 5 college teachers out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the way they are allowed to work of their own. 49 college teachers (18.99%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 173 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the degree of independence allowed to them while performing their duties.

4.2.3.1.2 Variety: Variety means the chance to do different things from time to time. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 95 college teachers (36.82%) were satisfied and 27 college teachers (i.e., 10.47%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the Chances they get to do different things from time to time. while 82 college teachers (31.78%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 16 college teachers (6.20%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the variety of work they have to perform. 38 college teachers (18.99%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Although overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 122 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the variety of things involved in their job work but still there is a sizeable no. of college teachers who are not satisfied with the variety of work they have to do.

4.2.3.1.3 Social Status: Social status reflects the chance to be 'somebody' in the community. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 125 college teachers (48.45%) were satisfied and 20 college teachers (i.e., 7.75%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the social status enjoyed by them being college teacher of professional institutions. while 47 college teachers (18.21%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 6 college teachers (2.33%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the social status they command. 60 college teachers (23.26%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 145 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the level of social status commanded by them being the college teacher of professional institutions.

4.2.3.1.4 Supervision (Human Relations): Supervision refers to the way Principal handles his/her employees at the college. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 142 college teachers (54.04%) were satisfied and 41 college teachers (i.e., 15.89%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the way they are being treated by their superior. while 37 college teachers (14.34%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 5 college teachers (1.94%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the treatment melted out by their superior to them. 33 college teachers (12.79%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 183 college teachers out of 258 college teachers of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the way they are being treated by their superior in the institution.

4.2.3.1.5 Supervision - Technical: Technical Supervision is concerned with the technical competence of the supervisor in making decisions. The figures given in the table 4.3 given in the table 4.3 given in the table 4.3 shows that 146 college teachers (56.59%) were satisfied and 55 college teachers (i.e., 21.32%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the technical competence of their supervisor. while 7 college teachers (2.71%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 7 college teachers (2.71%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction regarding the technical competence of their supervisor. 43 college teachers (16.67%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 201 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the Technical competence of their supervisors.

4.2.3.1.6 Moral values: Moral value here means to be able to do things that don't go against conscience of the teacher. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 105 college teachers (40.47%) were satisfied and 14 college teachers (i.e., 5.43%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied that they are able not to do the work against their conscience. while 62 college teachers (24.03%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 11 college teachers (4.26%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the way they are forced to work.. 66 college teachers (25.58%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 119 college teachers out of 258 college teachers of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the way they are able to maintain their moral values while performing their job operations.

4.2.3.1.7 Security: Security refers to the job security arising out of the job. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 104 college teachers (40.31%) were satisfied and 24 college teachers (i.e., 9.30%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the level of job security attached to their jobs. while 65 college teachers (25.19%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 6 college teachers (2.33%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the level of job satisfaction attached to their jobs. 59 college teachers (22.87%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Although overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 128 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the degree of job security attached to their jobs but the college teachers who are not satisfied with the security attached to their job are also sizeable in numbers.

4.2.3.1.8 Social service: Social service means the chance to do things for other people. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 95 college teachers (36.82%) were satisfied and 26 college teachers (i.e., 10.08%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the chance they get to do the things for other peoples. while 73 college teachers (28.29%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 7 college teachers (2.71%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction over the chances they get to serve the society. 57 college teachers (22.09%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 121 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the chance they get to serve the society but the sizeable numbers of college teachers are not satisfied with the chances of social services available to them.

4.2.3.1.9 Authority: Authority refers to the chance a teacher gets to tell people what to do. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 168 college teachers (65.12%) were satisfied and 44 college teachers (i.e., 17.05%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the authority they command while on job. 4 college teachers (1.55%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 2 college teachers (.78%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction about the chances available to them regarding telling other peoples what to do. 40 college teachers (15.50%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 212 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the authority commanded by them on their jobs.

4.2.3.1.10 Ability Utilization: Ability Utilization means the chance to do something that makes use of concerned individual's abilities. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 146 college teachers (56.59%) were satisfied and 69 college teachers (i.e., 26.74%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the way their abilities are being utilized in the institutions. while 12 college teachers (4.65%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 5 college teachers (1.94%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the way their abilities are being utilized in the institution. 26 college teachers (10.08%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 215 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the chances they get to do the work according to their abilities.

4.2.3.1.11 Institution's policies and practices: 'Institution's policies and practices' is concerned with the way policies of the Institution's are put into practice. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 102 college teachers (39.53%) were satisfied and 11 college teachers (i.e., 4.26%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the way policies of the Institution's are put into practice. while 65 college teachers (25.19%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 8 college teachers (3.10%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the way policies of the institution's are put into practice. 72 college teachers (27.90%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 113 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the way policies of the institution's are put into practice but the sizeable numbers of college teachers are not satisfied with the policies and practices deployed by the professional institutions.

4.2.3.1.12 Compensation: Compensation refers to the pay and the amount of work which a teacher gets for the work he/she does. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 81 college teachers (31.39%) were satisfied and 29 college teachers (i.e., 11.24%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the compensation packages offered to them for doing their jobs. while 71 college teachers (27.51%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 12 college teachers (4.65%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the amount they get for their services. 65 college teachers (25.19%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 110 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the compensation packages but the sizeable numbers of college teachers are not satisfied with the amount of money they get for providing their services.

4.2.3.1.13 Advancement: Advancement means the chances of advancement on this job. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 111 college teachers (43.02%) were satisfied and 36 college teachers (i.e., 13.95%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the chances they get for advancement on this job. While 28 college teachers (10.85%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 15 college teachers (5.81) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the chance available to them for advancement on this job. 68 college teachers (26.36%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 147 college teachers out of 258 college teachers of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the chance available to them for advancement on this job.

4.2.3.1.14 Responsibility: Responsibility here means the freedom to use his/her own judgment while performing the job. The figures given in the table 4.3 show that 148 college teachers (57.36%) were satisfied and 13 college teachers (i.e., 5.04%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the freedom available to them for using their own judgments. While 35 college teachers (13.56%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 4 college teachers (1.55%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the degree of freedom available to them for using their own judgment. 58 college teachers (22.48%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 161 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the degree of freedom available to them for using their own judgment.

4.2.3.1.15 Creativity: Creativity refers to the chance of trying his/her own methods of doing the job. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 107 college teachers (41.47%) were satisfied and 12 college teachers (i.e., 4.65%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the chances available to them for trying their own methods of doing the job while 75 college teachers (29.07%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 9 college teachers (3.49%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the chances available to them for trying their own methods of doing the job. 55 college teachers (21.32%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Although the overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 119 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the chances available to them for trying their own methods while performing their duties but still a sizeable numbers of college teachers are not satisfied with the issue of creativity.

4.2.3.1.16 Working conditions: Working conditions means the general working conditions of the college. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 131 college teachers (50.78%) were satisfied and 12 college teachers (i.e., 4.65%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the general working conditions existing in the institution while 50 college teachers (19.38%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 7 college teachers (2.71%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the general working conditions existing in the institution. 58 college teachers (22.48%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 143 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the level of general working conditions existing in the institution

4.2.3.1.17 Co workers: Coworkers reflects the way his/ her coworkers get along with each other. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 134 college teachers (51.94%) were satisfied and 29 college teachers (i.e., 11.24%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the attitude of co workers in the institution while 34 college teachers (13.14%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 9 college teachers (3.49%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the attitude of co workers in the institution. 52 college teachers (20.16%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 163 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the attitude of co workers in the institution.

4.2.3.1.18 Recognition: Recognition means the praise a teacher gets for doing a good job. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 146 college teachers (56.59%) were satisfied and 38 college teachers (i.e., 14.73%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the recognition they get for performing a good job while 16 college teachers (6.20%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 6 college teachers (2.33%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with e recognition they get for performing a good job 52 college teachers (20.16%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 184 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with e recognition they get for performing a good job.

4.2.3.1.19 Achievements: Achievement means the feeling of accomplishment a teacher get from the job. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 117 college teachers (45.35%) were satisfied and 21 college teachers (i.e., 8.14%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the way they get a feeling of accomplishment from the job while 51 college teachers (19.77%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 8 college teachers (3.10%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction with the way they get a feeling of accomplishment from the job. 61 college teachers (23.64%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers (i.e. 138 college teachers out of 258 college teachers) of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the way they get a feeling of accomplishment from the job

4.2.3.1.20 Activity: Activity means being able to keep busy all the time. The figures given in the table 4.3 shows that 166 college teachers (64.34%) were satisfied and 43 college teachers (i.e., 16.67%) out of 258 college teachers were extremely satisfied with the way they are able to keep themselves busy all the time while 8 college teachers (3.10%) of them expressed their dissatisfaction and 4 college teachers (1.55%) out of 258 college teachers expressed their extreme dissatisfaction regarding keeping themselves busy all the time. 37 college teachers (14.34%) were neither expressed satisfaction nor dissatisfaction on the issue.

Overall majority of the college teachers i.e. 209 college teachers out of 258 college teachers of professional institutions seems to be satisfied with the way they are able to keep themselves busy all the time.

## 4.2.3.2 OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF DIFFERENT FACTORS FOR OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION AMONG COLLEGE TEACHERS OF PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

As the table 4.4 depicts, college teachers of professional institutions are having moderately good level of job satisfaction. As per the criteria, job satisfaction score ranging from 25 to 75 is termed as having moderate satisfaction. Mean job satisfaction score of college teachers of professional institutions is 69.81. So the score of college teachers of Professional institutions falls in the category of moderate level of job satisfaction.

Now in the following discussion, factors which are contributing significantly to the overall level of job satisfaction have been analyzed.

## Table 4.4 TABLE SHOWING SIGNIFICANCE OF FACTORS AFFECTING JOB SATISFACTION LEVEL OF COLLEGE TEACHERS OF PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

## Sr. no.

## Sub Scale

## N

## Mean Response

## Std. Dev.

## F Ratio

## P value

1

The chance to work alone on the job (Independence)

258

3.58

.86

1.20

0.0716

Not significant

2

The chance to do different things from time to time (Variety)

258

3.14

1.16

1.13

0.1631

Not significant

3

The chance to be 'somebody' in the community (Social Status)

258

3.41

.95

1.31

0.0160

Significant

4

The way my boss handles his/her employees (Supervision)

258

3.69

.97

1.32

0.0135

Significant

5

The competence of my supervisor in making decisions (Supervision - Technical).

258

3.91

.85

1.19

0.0779

Not Significant

6

Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience.(moral values)

258

3.19

1.00

1.22

0.0548

Not Significant

7

The way my job provides for steady employment.(Security)

258

3.29

1.02

1.23

0.0460

Significant

8

The chance to do things for other people. (social service)

258

3.23

1.06

1.16

0.1224

Not significant

9

The chance to tell people what to do. (Authority)

258

3.96

.68

1.12

0.1777

Not Significant

10

The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities.

(Ability Utilization)

258

4.02

.86

1.13

0.1673

Not Significant

11

The way company policies are put into practice. (Company policies and practices)

258

3.17

.96

1.31

0.0155

Significant

12

My pay and the amount of work I do. (Compensation)

258

3.24

1.07

1.38

0.0047

Significant

13

The chances of advancement on this job.(Advancement)

258

3.48

1.05

1.23

0.0495

Significant

14

The freedom to use my own judgment.

(Responsibility)

258

3.51

.85

1.20

0.0708

Not Significant

15

The chance to try my own methods of doing the job. (Creativity)

258

3.15

1.00

1.21

0.0602

Not significant

16

The working conditions.(Working conditions)

258

3.29

.90

1.29

0.0209

Significant

17

The way my co-worker gets along with each other. (co-worker)

258

3.54

.97

1.19

0.0869

Not significant

18

The praise I get for doing a good job.

( Recognition)

258

3.76

.97

1.14

0.1513

Not Significant

19

The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job.(Achievement)

258

3.36

.99

1.33

0.0120

Significant

20

Being able to keep busy all the time. (Activity)

258

3.91

.75

1.16

0.1174

Not Significant

Overall

258

69.81

8.71

## 4.2.3.2.1. The chance to work alone on the job (Independence):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.20. Hence the difference between the mean score of independence factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.58. It shows that as regards the chances available on job working independently, college teachers of professional institutions are fairly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.2. The chance to do different things from time to time (Variety):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.13. Hence the difference between the mean score of variety factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.14. It shows that as regards variety of work involved in the job, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.3. The chance to be 'somebody' in the community (Social Status):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is less than the computed value of Z= 1.31. Hence the difference between the mean score of social status factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.41. It shows that as regards social status enjoyed by them, college teachers of professional institutions are quietly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.4. The way my boss handles his/her employees (Supervision):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is less than the computed value of Z= 1.32. Hence the difference between the mean score of supervision style of the head of the institution factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.69. It shows that as regards supervision style of the head of the institution, college teachers of professional institutions are fairly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.5. The competence of my supervisor in making decisions (Supervision - Technical):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.19. Hence the difference between the mean score of technical capabilities of the head of the institution factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.91. It shows that as regards technical capabilities of the head of the institution, college teachers of professional institutions are highly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.6. Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience (moral values):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.22. Hence the difference between the mean score of upholding of moral values on the job factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.19. It shows that as regards upholding of moral values on the job, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.7. The way my job provides for steady employment (Security):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is equal to the computed value of Z= 1.23. Hence the difference between the mean score of job security factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.29. It shows that as regards job security enjoyed by them, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.8. The chance to do things for other people (social service):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.16. Hence the difference between the mean score of social service factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.23. It shows that as regards chances available on job for social service, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.9. The chance to tell people what to do (Authority):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.12. Hence the difference between the mean score of authority they command on the job factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.96. It shows that as regards the authority they command on the job, college teachers of professional institutions are highly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.10. The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities (Ability Utilization):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.13. Hence the difference between the mean score of ability utilization factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 4.02. It shows that as regards use of abilities on the job, college teachers of professional institutions are highly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.11. The way Institutional policies are put into practice (Institution's policies and practices):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is less than the computed value of Z= 1.31. Hence the difference between the mean score of institutional policies and practices factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.17. It shows that as regards the way of implementing institutional policies and practices, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.12. My pay and the amount of work I do (Compensation):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is less than the computed value of Z= 1.38. Hence the difference between the mean score of compensation factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.24. It shows that as regards compensation amount received by them for rendering their services, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.13. The chances of advancement on this job. (Advancement):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is equal to the computed value of Z= 1.23. Hence the difference between the mean score of advancement factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.48. It shows that as regards advancement opportunities available on the job, college teachers of professional institutions are fairly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.14. The freedom to use my own judgment (Responsibility):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.20. Hence the difference between the mean score of responsibility factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.51. It shows that as regards responsibility level on the job, college teachers of professional institutions are fairly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.15. The chance to try my own methods of doing the job (Creativity):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.21. Hence the difference between the mean score of creativity factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.15. It shows that as regards chances of creativity available on the job, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.16. The working conditions (Working conditions):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is less than the computed value of Z= 1.29. Hence the difference between the mean score of general working conditions factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.29. It shows that as regards general working conditions existing at the work place, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.17. The way my co-worker gets along with each other (co-worker):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.19. Hence the difference between the mean score of co-workers attitude factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.54. It shows that as regards co-workers attitude at the work place, college teachers of professional institutions are fairly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.18. The praise I get for doing a good job (Recognition):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.14. Hence the difference between the mean score of recognition factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.76. It shows that as regards recognition they get for doing a good work, college teachers of professional institutions are highly satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.19. The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job (Achievement):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is less than the computed value of Z= 1.33. Hence the difference between the mean score of achievement factor and overall job satisfaction is significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.36. It shows that as regards feeling of accomplishment the get from the job, college teachers of professional institutions are quite less satisfied.

## 4.2.3.2.20. Being able to keep busy all the time. (Activity):

As per the Table Z, we find that the tabulated value of Z = 1.23 at Alpha =0.05 for the degree of freedom of 257 is more than the computed value of Z= 1.16. Hence the difference between the mean score of activity level factor and overall job satisfaction is not significant.

As shown in the above table, the mean response of satisfaction level of this category is 3.91. It shows that as regards activity level at the job, college teachers of professional institutions are highly satisfied.

As shown in the above table, the overall job satisfaction level of college teachers of professional institutions is moderately good. it can be seen that there are various factors regarding which majority of teachers of professional institutions have expressed satisfaction and at the same time, there are various factors regarding which majority of teachers of professional institution have expressed their dissatisfaction.

Following are the various factors which affected significantly the level of job satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions:

The chance to be somebody in the community (social status)

the way my boss handles his/her employees (Supervision)

The chances of advancement on this job (advancement)

Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience (Moral values)

The pay benefits and amount of work I do (compensation).

The way my job provides for steady employment (Job security)

The way Institutional policies are put into practice (Institution policy and practices)

The chances on advancement on this job (Achievement)

General working conditions of the college

As from the above analysis, it is evident that although teachers of professional institutions are moderately satisfied as per our criteria of measuring satisfaction level, but still there are certain factors which are causing dissatisfaction to them. Moreover, in case of most of the factors mentioned above, their satisfaction level is moderate and not so high.

## 4.2.3.3 RANKING HIERARCHY OF DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION AND OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION OF COLLEGE TEACHERS OF PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

Various aspects of job satisfaction included in the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire have been dealt individually. For each aspect of job satisfaction, mean score of satisfaction level of college teachers of professional institutions have been calculated and are ranked in the ascending order. The ranking of the mean satisfaction score of different dimensions is done to find out the different dimensions of job for which college teachers are feeling low levels of satisfaction or high level of job satisfaction.

The ranking hierarchy of different dimensions of job satisfaction for college teachers of professional institutions in Punjab has been presented in the table 4.4:

## TABLE 4.5 RANKING HIERARCHIES OF DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION OF COLLEGE TEACHERS OF PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS:

## Sr. no.

## Sub Scale

## N

## Mean Response

## Std. Dev.

1.

The chance to do different things from time to time (Variety)

258

3.14

1.16

2.

The chance to try my own methods of doing the job. (Creativity)

258

3.15

1.00

3.

The way company policies are put into practice. (Company policies and practices)

258

3.17

.96

4.

Being able to do things that don't go against my conscience.(moral values)

258

3.19

1.00

5.

The chance to do things for other people. (social service)

258

3.23

1.06

6.

My pay and the amount of work I do. (Compensation)

258

3.24

1.07

7.

The way my job provides for steady employment.(Security)

258

3.29

1.02

8.

The working conditions.(Working conditions)

258

3.29

.90

9.

The feeling of accomplishment I get from the job.(Achievement)

258

3.36

.99

10.

The chance to be 'somebody' in the community (Social Status)

258

3.41

.95

11.

The chances of advancement on this job.(Advancement)

258

3.48

1.05

12.

The freedom to use my own judgment. (Responsibility)

258

3.51

.85

13.

The way my co-worker gets along with each other. (co-worker)

258

3.54

.97

14.

The chance to work alone on the job (Independence)

258

3.58

.86

15.

The way my boss handles his/her employees Supervision)

258

3.69

.97

16.

The praise I get for doing a good job. ( Recognition)

258

3.76

.97

17.

The competence of my supervisor in making decisions (Supervision - Technical).

258

3.91

.85

18.

Being able to keep busy all the time. (Activity)

258

3.91

.75

19.

The chance to tell people what to do. (Authority)

258

3.96

.68

20.

The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities.

(Ability Utilization)

258

4.02

.86

Overall

258

69.81

8.71

The above table shows the ranking hierarchy of different dimensions of job satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions in Punjab. There are certain factors regarding which their mean score of job satisfaction level is very low like, variety of work involved in the job, creativity involved in doing job, the way institutional policies and practices are put into practice, practicing of moral values, chances of social service, compensation received for rendering services, job security enjoyed, general working conditions of the institution and the feeling of accomplishment etc.

As shown in the above table, there are certain factors regarding which their job satisfaction level is quite moderate like, social status, advancement, responsibility level, co-workers attitude, independence involved, supervision style and recognition for the good work done.

The factors regarding which the college teachers of professional institutions of Punjab have expressed high level of Job satisfaction are- Technical capabilities of the supervisor, activity level at the job, authority they command and the use of their abilities on the job.

## 4.2.4 Job satisfaction and Turnover Intentions

One of the objectives of the study is to find out the impact of job satisfaction of college teachers on their turnover intentions. Turnover intentions of college teachers are measured trough set of questions. The responses to these questions were consolidated and were put in comparison to the level of job satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions. The following table depicts the summarized results of their turnover intentions and its relationship with their job satisfaction.

## Table 4.6 Pearson correlation between of Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention among College Teachers of Professional Institutions:

## N

## Mean

## SD

## R

## R Square

## P value

## Job satisfaction

## 258

## 69.81

## 8.71

## -0.3353

## 0.1124

## P<0.0001

## Turnover Intentions

## 258

## 9.434

## 2.266

## *significant alpha = 0.05

As the tabulated results of the responses to the question relating to turnover intentions shows that turnover intention among college teachers of professional institutions are quite on the high side. This may be due to fact that most of the professional institutions in Punjab are in private sectors and are run on professional lines. There is less of job security and not so good terms and conditions. That is why they are always in search of better prospects.

The above table also depicts a significant negative correlation (-0.3380) between job satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions and their turnover intentions. That means that college teachers of these institutions having less job satisfaction are having more turnover intentions.

## 4.2.5 Job Satisfaction and Performance of college teachers-

One of the major objectives of this study is to measure the performance of college teachers and then to find out the relationship between job satisfaction level and their individual performance. Performance of college teachers has been measured trough set of questions. The responses to the questions relating to measurement of individual performance were consolidated and were put on comparison with the level of job satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions.

## Table 4.7: Measurement of performance of college Teachers of Professional institutions in Punjab-

## Sr. no.

## Sub Scale

## N

## Mean Response

## Std. Dev.

1.

Research papers published

258

2.27

1.02

2.

Any book/academic or professional writing

258

1.49

0.83

3.

Receipt of any grant/ contribution in the past from any National/International Institution

258

1.15

0.54

4.

Participation in National/international conferences

258

2.24

1.14

5.

Working as a consultant outside the organization

258

1.09

0.29

6.

Supervision of any students for PhD/Masters

258

1.08

0.40

7.

Performance of students

258

4.67

0.61

8.

Extra co-curricular and extension activities

258

2.31

1.13

9.

Additional workload

258

2.61

1.14

10.

Participation in professional development activities

258

2.50

1.00

Total

258

21.42

3.36

As the tabulated results of the responses to the question relating to individual performance shows that the individual performance of college teachers of professional institutions is quite on the high side (Mean score = 21.42). This may be due to fact that most of the professional institutions in Punjab are in private sectors and are run on professional lines. So the college teachers of these institutions are always on their toes to perform.

There are only few areas where their personal performance is not so good. One such area is guiding future research. One of the reasons for this may be that there is a high rate of turnover in the professional institutions as can be seen in the later part of analyses. They may be engaged in the research of their own, but still a very few of them are engaged in guiding future.

Following table will depict the level of performance of college teachers and its relationship with their job satisfaction.

## Table 4.8: Pearson correlation between determinants of Job Satisfaction and Performance of college teachers-

## N

## Mean

## SD

## r

## R Square

## P value

## Job satisfaction

## 258

## 69.81

## 8.71

## -0.1605

## 0.02577

## P=0.0098

## Performance of college teachers

## 258

## 21.43

## 3.36

## *significant Alpha=0.05

The above table depicts that there is a strong positive correlation (.9633) between job satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions and their individual performance. It shows that with increase in the level of job satisfaction, their individual performance also rises.

## 4.2.6 Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism among college teachers of Professional Institutions:

In continuation of the process of identifying the impact of job satisfaction of college teachers on various factors, the next step will be to see its impact on absenteeism trend among college teachers of professional institutions. The following table is depicting the absenteeism trends among college teachers of professional institutions and its correlation with their level of job satisfactions.

## Table 4.9: Pearson correlation between of Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism among college teachers of Professional Institutions:

## N

## Mean

## SD

## R

## R Square

## P value

## Job satisfaction

## 258

## 69.81

## 8.71

## -0.08054

## 0.006487

## 0.1972

## Absenteeism

## 258

## 5.86

## 4.79

## Not Significant Alpha = 0.05

As depicted in the above table, there exists a negative correlation (-0.8339) between college teachers of professional institutions and absenteeism trends among them. As depicted by the responses to question related to these issues, the college teachers of professional institutions are having lower level of job satisfaction and at the same time, they are more prone to absenteeism due to various reasons.

## 4.2.7 Job Satisfaction of college teachers of professional institutions and the Performance of their respective institutions -

One of