Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most communal childhood disorders and can carry on during adolescence and maturity. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common emotional, cognitive, Carelessness, and behavioral disorder pediatricians, family physicians, neurologists, and psychiatrists treat in children. (biblio kokkino selida 1). Children with ADHD are at risk of developing other psychiatric difficulties in , childhood, and maturity, including asocial behaviors, concern, and material use confusions.The ADHD is one of the mental disorders, usually diagnosed for the first time in the nursery, in the childhood or adolescence. People with ADHD have hardships in significant elevations of their life times, like, at school, work, with their family or with personal relationships. Generally, they cannot control their behavior and hyperactivity, plus, they cannot concentrate and pay attention. ADHD is a behavior disorder that influences children about 8% to 10%. According to statistics, boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with it almost 3:1 fig1. The diagnose normally became around the period of seven, but symptoms carry on throughout adolescence and adulthood. About 50%-70% of children with ADHD keep symptoms during adulthood, with prominent features the impulsivity, deficit and hyperactivity (Barkley, 1998).The most common disorders are attendant disruptions language, communication, learning disabilities, conduct disorders, and anxiety disorders. The evaluation and treatment of the common disturbances are often as important as the assessment and treatment of ADHD. (Cantwell, 1996) The ADHDÂ can be caused by many factors - neurological,emotional, nutritional and environmental - and may include many types of behavior (DuRaul & Stoner, 1994 Ë™Greene, 1987). However, one of the etiologist of ADDH is because of the heredity, but also for neurobiological factors. For example, some students may experience mild and infrequent episodes while others may permanently disrupt the class. Methods used for this pupils include: medication, behavior modification,training skills and specific family support. And thus several studies have attempted to link the disorder with features of temperament and personality of individuals.
ADHD has three components:
Sustaining attention and concentration
Controlling motor activity.
Spohrer, K. E., () Supporting Children with Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder
(2nd edn), Great Britain: The Bath Press, Bath.
The figure demonstrates that there are more boys with Attention Deficit hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Learning Disability (LD) than girls.
Children with ADHD
Out of his seat
Children with ADHD are usually characterized by Inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity.
Children with ADHD have difficulties in attention than other children on their age and on the same sex. Difficulty is to maintain to the attention and the focus on their effort. Very difficult for children with ADHD is when they are invited to complete homework at the house or at school. The main problem is not that the child very easily can lose his/herÂ Â the inattention or distractionÂ Â by an external factor, butÂ to reduce the persistence of an attempt or to maintain the adaptation to work. The clinical picture of the child often changes because it depends on if the activities are interchange, and if they are competitive. Parents and teachers report often that children have adherence difficulties in their attention to a particular job or do not give the necessary time in the game. However, parents and teachers often describe the attention problems with the specific proposals: <<not seem to hear>>, <<daydreaming>>, <<easily distracted>>, <<loses his stuff>>.
Impulsivity, the inability to control behavior.
Children with ADHD except the disruption of attention they have also and an inability to control behavior, which is mainly known as impulsivity always compared with the other children with the same age and sex. These children react incredibly quickly to the situations, without assessing them for it, without waiting to hear the directions so that they make errors impetuous . Often these children in a particular situation they risk, by ignoring the negative and destructive consequences for them. A particular problem for children with ADHD is that they are not waiting for their tern in the game. In the school work, where their participation is request, they select those that required less labor and where the rewards are immediate, ignoring those in that are required bigger efforts. ChildrenÂ with ADHD usually speak loud and fast, occurring before completed the questions, interrupt the conversations of others or the teachers' (for example,Â the teacher speaks and the child interrupts him/her during the lesson because he/she wants to ask the teacher "what time is it?") and involved in those without any request.
The third symptom of children with ADHD is hyperactivity, kinetics or phonetic, in relation always with their development level.The parents describe the children with ADHD, as if they : <<constantly, in action>> ,Â <<cannot remain in a place>> ,Â <<speaking excessively>> ,Â <<are nervously>>. In the school, run through the class, shaking nervously their hands or feet, deal with things irrelevant with their school work, speak without the permission of teachers, a comment the work or the behaviors of other students.
How looks like a child with ADHD?(The most common symptons of a child with ADHD)
There are some misapprehensions when a child has ADHD and when not. Children with ADHD may have difficulties with auditory processing, even if their hearing is good. A child with ADHD will frequently feel muddled about what theyÂ are expected to do. They are probable to suffer from frequent castigation for their inattentive, impulsive and disruptive behavior. Their self-esteem plunges and then a disaffected child may improve the supplemental oppositional challenging disorder described by argumentativeness, customary non-compliance and lack of temper control or he/she may grow into a disaffected teenager with behavior disorder.(biblio me paidaki selida 11) A child with ADHD usually in the classroom gets up from his chair very often, is aggressive towards his classmates, being unconscious and daydreaming, losing and also forgetting equipments. Sometimes, the child does not make his homework or even though handing them too late, handing in unfinished or sloppy work (Based on Taylor 1994). Also, the kid does not pay attention to the teacher's instructions, for instance, for one minute a child with ADHD could be listening to the teacher and then not. A child with ADHD, often feel confused about what must do. So, the self-esteem of the child could be descended and then the child may become argumentativeness, non-compliance and lack of mood control or the child may become a defeated adolescent with behavior disorder. According to research, a child with ADHD having difficulties in language development (Cantwell, 1996, Hill, 2000, Redmond, 2004) hearing the teacher or his parents. low performance in linguistic tests (vocabulary) (Redmond, 2004) Also, having problems in organisation and monitoring the language narrative (Zentall, 1998), in communication, especially when he uses social the language and in written expression (spelling errors, punctuation) (De La Paz, 2001, Mathers, 2006). Also, there are some researchers that comment the symptoms of stammering and ADHD, although it is a small group of children with disturbances of flow of speech. (Healey & Reid, 2003). The school may be a problem for a child because it is probably the first place that the child ought to exercise his self-control and to be adapt to a structured environment.
Examples of children's behaviour with ADHD
The student tries to attracted (h draw) attention: Speaking all the time, shouting, whistling, and making pointless noises, raising hands.
A wandering rejects, hitting, verbal and physical attack on people and property, slacking,Â does not accept recommendations, has not developed the self-control, lack of attention and cannot sit quiet.
The child could stayÂ awake and be like baby.
In the breaks,Â these children areÂ very lively, they are dangerous to other students or threatening, andÂ they areÂ often aggressive, not part of the team andÂ are notÂ accepted by team.
To sum up,Â we would say that behavioural problems are divided into three categories. In reactive environmental or behavioural problemsÂ were responsiblyÂ is the environment and therefore, the child has problems in a particular area while inÂ another environment theÂ behaviour of the childÂ is good. Then we have the behavioural problems of organic type, which classified the hyperactive syndrome, the discount perceptual, the impulsivity and disturbances in attention, in memory, inÂ learning and inÂ thinking. Finally there is the type of antisocial behaviour problems, which occur with mendacity, theft, aggression, andÂ destruction.
People with this disorder often exhibit: outbursts of anger, strong pretentiousness, impatience, Moody feeling, stubbornness, low self-esteem.
HOW DOES ADHD AFFECT THE SCHOOL PROCESS???
Behavior problems, poor organization and learning difficulties.
Adhd is not thought over to be a learning disability, even though it can occasionally interfere with a child's ability to do well in school. Nevertheless , the National Institute of Mental Health indicates that 20%-30% of children with adhd also have and a learning barrier. Some symptoms like disorganization, weak executive performance and the incapability to use policies can be current in both ADHD and learning disabilities. Children with ADHD because theyÂ present excessive energy, isolation passivity and disorganisation, they can have barriers at school. For instance, a student with ADHD tries to attract the attention that is why talking all the time, shouting, whistle, raising all the time his / her hands. Also, during the breaks is very intense, he/she can become dangerous to another pupils or even though to himself/herself either. Usually, this students concern a lot the teacher and if the teacher does not have the appropriate experience for these situations thanÂ can cause learningÂ Â barriers and to the other students. Furthermore, the student does not interest about the lesson, also he / she is isolated, melancholic, not playing or he/she is not socialized in the classroom. Thus, all these can causeÂ learningÂ barriers to the children with ADHD.
The symptoms of ADHD - child cannot stay calm in the classroom, concentrated and listen to his teacher- these can cause learning disabilities to an ADHD child. Face problems in the school due to his poor organization, impulsivity / hyperactivity and distraction. As a result, children with ADHD are more likely to stop school and to present low academic performance. However, with the appropriate educational practices and treatment, including medication and psychotherapy, these effects can be avoided.
Difficulties in school learning
Learning disabilities, are not simply a failure to do one's work in school, but is typically defined as a significant discrepancy between one's intelligence or general mental abilities, on the one hand, and one's academic achievement, such as reading, math, spelling, handwriting, or language, on the other hand. (biblio aspro sel.75) The difficulties in school learning are because of the lack of concentrationÂ and attention. The possibility of concentration and attention is the key to learn. A child who cannot concentrate in what sees or hears or feels he/she cannot learn. So, a child with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is in danger to have some learning barriers, precisely because the attention is the main condition to learn. Another cause having barriers in school it might be also the fact that the child with ADHD can be complicated to contain oral words, proposals or letters (sound memory), decode sounds (acoustic discrimination) and feeble optical memory.
Common Classroom problems associated with ADHD
Almost all the children with ADHD cope with difficulties at school. The performance is the result of division of attention and hyperactivity in the classroom. Approximately, children have learning disabilities (Barkley, 1998) specifically, 10-40% of children with ADHD present problems in the reading, 12-30% in the mathematics and 15-30% in the spelling.
Being frequently out of his/herÂ chair at unsuitable times and in an inappropriate condition
Not following the teacher's instructions.
Losing and forgetting necessary items.
Producing work that is incomplete or sloppy. (biblio prassino selida 8)
Bothering schoolmates, disturbing them in their work creations, or averting them from focusing.
Difficulty on completing the exercises.
Linguistic characteristics of children with ADHD
Children with ADHD areÂ Â probable to talk further than the children without ADHD, mostly during an unconscious discussion. However, when faced with tasks where they must systematize and generate speech in reply to exact task requests, they are likely to talk less, to be more dysfluency (e.g., use pauses, fillers like "uh", "er", and "um" and misarticulations ), and to be less experienced in their classification of speech. Studies indicate that 30% to 50% of children with ADHD present difficulties in the expression and perception of language. Instead of, almost the 60% of preschool children who exhibit a disturbance in the language and speech (Communication Disorders) also present, and the criteria for ADHD (Tannock, 2005).
Some children might develop feelings pf anxiety, insecurity, failure and low-esteem because of barriers and failures at school. Because of the affective disorder, the child cannot concentrate on work or even in the game and make mistakes inadvertently, often seem not to listen when the teacher speaks, and he/she isÂ Â unable to follow instructions or to complete school work.
How does ADHD interfere with the relations with their peers?
Several studies have found that children with ADHD, may be perceived as shy or unsociable from their peers. The aggressive behavior of children may play an important role in rejection by peers. Children with ADHD appear to face a greater extent the weakening of relations with the peers. So, the relationship with their peers it is very important because the children will feel isolated and self-esteem resulting to be influenced at school .
Intersections between ADHD and Learning Problems
The child with ADHD usually has and some learning barriers. He/She might have barriers in reading and writing and also he/she can have specific learning difficulties like dyslexia. The ADHD usually occurs in the elementary stage, and it is a result of a specific learning disorder.The child with ADHD has learning barriers in the school, because ofÂ his/her disorders and cannot learn effectively. Almost 50%-70% of the child with ADHD have learning difficulties and adjustments problems. Child cannot be concentrated in order to complete his/her homework. Generally, the children with ADHD avoid homework because it requires effort and concentration. The child, find difficulty to listen to his/her teacher and cannot organize his/her homework. Also, almost all the time interrupts the teacher to go to the toilet or to drink water, and forget his/her book and exercise book at schools. Furthermore, the child might have poorly formed letters or words or messy writing. Moreover, a child with ADHD might appear barriers with his/her speech. The child may have difficulty distinguishing sounds, for instance, to analyze, organize and use the informations that involved during someone speaks. Also, the child may appear barriers in articulation : he/she cannot clearly say some consonants or consonant clusters ( e.g. b, p, spl, ts ). However, the child presents barriers in the pension as the structure of written and spoken language is very simple, and also we can observe that the child can have alsoÂ editorial mistakes.
90% of children with ADHD are under-productive in school work.
90% of children with ADHD underachieve in school
20% of children with ADHD have reading difficulties.
60% of children with ADHD have serious handwriting difficulties.
30% of children with ADHD drop out of school in the USA.
5% of people with ADHD complete a 4-year degree course in a college or university in the USA, compared with approximately 25% of the general population.
Cooper, P., O'Regan, F. (2001) Educating Children with AD/HD A teacher's manual selida 20
Children with ADHD often cannot maintain the friendships and the relationships.Â They usually suffer from low self-esteem, as a consequence of their situation. These children need steadily special educational methods. There is no reduce for the ADHD, although ritalin and similar drugs may reduce some symptoms.
Usually, the children with ADHD have repeated involuntary contraction of their muscles, face, scalp and trunk and/or they might repeat some sound voices. The ADHD is a disorder that cannot exceed suddenly as the child grows up. On the contary, if ADHD not be addressed promptly, and with no help of experts, then the symptoms that appeared in childhood not only remain, but, complicated and intensified during adolescence and adulthood. Teenagers who had developed ADHD in childhood, often have an increased anxiety and nervousness, low academic performance, also, they have social problems and emotional adjustments and usually, manifested delinquent behavior.
Furthermore,Â according to Mark (1993)Â a noise is enoughÂ (ex.Â a pencil orÂ a scraper thatÂ fell down,Â a leaf from the notebook, the cough of a child, the air outside, a honk from a car in the street)Â to tigger the child with incredible nervousness, stress, concern. So, thus mightÂ lead him/her to crises and violent outbreaks of anger and behavior disorders.
Children with ADHD might have learning difficulties, but, they do not have mental retardation or low intelligence. These children are gifted, creative and their intelligence is middle(average) or even above regular(normal). All have individual talents, which can and should be appreciated from the society. Their excessive energy with a suitable guidance can be directed to the correct(right) directions. They need special encouragement and support, especially on academic matters and activities that they are not so much fascinating. So it is necessary a properly collaboration for the teachers and parents concerning the good for the child.
Thus, therefore, all the symptoms should be assembled in a long time and via different situations and proportionally be appreciated so to exist also the proportional confrontation from teachers and parents.