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The quality is defined by British Standards Institution, 1978 as The totality of features and characteristic of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implicit needs.
Quality in Education can be defined as: "The development of intellectual skills and knowledge that will equip graduates to contribute to society through productive and satisfying engineering careers as innovators, decision makers and leaders in the global economy."
"The ability of a product to satisfy the requirements of the customer (Roma Mitra et al., 2007) and quality in engineering education is an open system at various levels i.e. students, teachers, curriculum, institutional and state level."
Quality depends on the institution infrastructure, faculty's research and development activities and industry institution interaction etc. Some more definition of TQM are given below-
"TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of product and processes to achieve customer satisfaction."
"The main philosophies of TQM include customer focus, continuous improvement and process - orientation in teaching and learning process."
2.2 Existing Scenario
In present time, education has become a mass phenomenon in India. The load on education system has become very high but the policies and procedures related to admission, teaching, infrastructure and examination have not been streamlined to handle this vast load. Despite the best efforts, government bodies like Directorate of Technical Education of various states, AICTE and universities have not been able to achieve much in maintaining desired quality standards of the technical institutions. External interference and pressure in all aspects of education such as admission policy, teaching process, faculty selection and examination system etc have played vital role in deterioration of quality of education.
In order to produce technical manpower of right quality, it is extremely important that all policies and procedures relevant to technical education are standardized and their variations from one institution to another are substantially removed. Technical education being a national issue, it is necessary that technical education in the country be driven by common policy. Due to proliferation of technical institutions in the country, demand for faculty has gone up excessively. Acute shortage of well qualified faculty forces the management to appoint even fresh engineering graduates as faculty who are required to engage classes immediately after joining the institution without being given any training and preparation time.
This causes the decline in quality of teaching in these technical institutions. Poor quality teachers and poor quality students form very good team and jointly encourage indiscipline and bad work culture in the institution.
In order to achieve the esteemed goal of producing well qualified and trained technocrats an institution has to work efficiently and effectively. Every technical institution strives towards imparting technical competence to the student by creating a healthy environment for their personality development and finally enabling them to achieve higher grades in their respective fields. The students constitute the input of the whole system. The accomplishment of the process of imparting knowledge is greatly affected by environment in which the students are put and also on their self zeal to learn and excel. The fresh engineers from technical institution need to be offered training in industries to give them first hand practical exposure. Good education in its totality must include the overall development of the student and must not restrict to training in a specialized discipline. Research and development activity is very much essential to survive in this competitive world. The institution must have proper infrastructure to carry out research and development activities. Total Quality Management (TQM) approach is an effective but long term measure for transforming the minds of people engaged in technical education towards providing quality education. Secretaries who learn about new techniques and technologies for use in the office are much more likely to suggest improvements to the processes they are exposed to. Professors should audit courses in other departments, particularly those courses that are prerequisites for their own courses. Faculty members who learn about TQM are much more likely to endorse the concept and to suggest new ways to implement TQM in their jobs. One cannot predict just what piece of knowledge will spark the idea that will lead to a significant process improvement.
2.3 Issues in Higher Technical Education
Since the early eighties, due to rapid industrialization and economic growth, engineering and technical education in India have been developing faster than anywhere else in the world (AICTE, 2012), and India now has the second largest number of engineering students in the world. Recent Indian scientific, industrial and technological development, particularly in space, nuclear and missile technology, computer engineering and information science has achieved a lot. Since technical education determines the development and socioeconomic condition of a nation, there is a greater need for high quality technical education to produce technically skilled manpower in India.
The basic components of a technical institute are the students, the infrastructure, the teachers, the curriculum, the teaching and learning aids (Sirvanci, 2004), the linkage mechanism with industry-institute and other user system, the management system, the support services system, the guidance and counseling, the internal and external evaluation system, the feedback system (Jain e.t. al, 2008), etc. There are other important components which are called the process components. They are, way of teaching, the way the students learning, students activities beyond the regular time table, the motivation of both faculty and students, attitude of the management, the overall academic climate, the opportunities and encouragement for innovations and creativity, research and development, the openness of communications, the leadership qualities of head of institutions and of departments, the sense of involvement in providing quality services, the organization structure, the quality of team work, the reward and recognition system, the faculty development programme, the appraisal system, the clarity in the vision and objectives of the organization.
Today engineering colleges must not only provide their graduates with the intellectual development and superb technical capabilities (Lidia, 2009) but following industry's lead, colleges must educate their students to work as part of teams, communicate well, and understand the economic, social, environmental and international context of their professional activities. These changes are vital to the nation's industrial strength and to the ability of engineers to serve as technology and policy decision makers.
2.3.1 Scope for engineering education in last decade in Karnataka state:
Table 1: List of year wise students appeared, passed & percentage in Second Year PUC science combination (fresher's only)
(Courtesy: Karnataka Secondary Education Board, Bangalore)
Table 2: CET Results Statement For Engineering
Higher fee seats
(Courtesy: Karnataka Education Authority, Bangalore)
Table 3: Percentage Of Students Opted For Engineering
Passed in PUC
Govt. seats for
From the above Table 3 it is visible that, during the academic year 2003-2004, the percentage of 60.93 students opted for engineering and 39.07 percent students opted the other courses like medical, dental, agricultural, veterinary, nursing, Bachelor of Science and diplomas. The same trend followed all the years and about more than 50% of the students who have passed the science course they opted the engineering. This shows the students' affinity towards engineering and the scope for the engineering course in Karnataka.
2.3.2 Defining quality in engineering education:
Quality in education is a complex concept with varying conceptualizations but at the same time. Quality in education has been defined with the following parameters:
Excellence in education
Value addition in education
Fitness for purpose
Fitness of educational outcome and experience for use
Conformance of education output to planned goals, specifications and requirements
Defect avoidance in education process and
Meeting or exceeding customer's expectations of education.
Quality education from a TQM perspective is "total quality management in education is multi-faceted - it believes in the foundation of an educational institution on a system approach, implying a management system, a technical system and a social systemâ€¦..It includes within its ambit the quality of inputs in the form of the learning and teaching activity; and the quality of outputs in the form of enlightened students that move out of the system". (Sahney e.t. al., 2003)
The US National Science Foundation (NSF) Task Force on TQM has come up with the following definition of Quality Engineering Education:
"Quality Engineering Education is the development of intellectual skills and knowledge that will equip graduates to contribute to society through productive and satisfying engineering careers as innovators, decision makers and leaders in the global economy of the twenty first century." Quality Engineering Education demands a process of continuous improvement of and dramatic innovation in student, employer and societal satisfaction by systematically and collectively evaluating and refining the system, practices and culture of engineering education institutions.(Nataraja, 2000)
2.3.3 Indicators of Quality:
Following are the indicators of the quality
Indicators of student quality:
¶ Number of students completing degree
¶ Time taken to complete the course
¶ Proportion undertaking practical Training
¶ Proportion participating in research and development
¶ Employment profiles and salaries on Graduation
¶ Number of students recruited by reputed companies
¶ Number of students seeking post-graduate studies
¶ Satisfaction levels of students and Employees
¶ Perceived reputation of graduates and alumni, nationally and internationally
¶ Number becoming entrepreneurs
¶ Passing percentage of the students with higher class
Indicators of faculty quality
¶ Number of applications for faculty position, at different levels
¶ Academic quality, in terms of publications, honors, awards, patents, sponsored projects and consultancy.
¶ Retention success; turn-over
¶ Teaching quality, innovative initiatives
¶ Publication records
¶ Sponsored research, consultancy and continuing education activities
¶ Professional society and public service involvement
¶ Ability to mobilize resources for department and institution
¶ Internal and external (national and international) honors and awards
¶ Quantum of practical experience
¶ Effectiveness of student counseling
¶ Faculty career satisfaction levels
Indicators of institutional quality:
¶ The utilization of strategic planning Processes
¶ Interaction with the environment, industry, profession, community.
¶ Mobilization of resources for institutional Development
¶ Diversity of external financial support
¶ Demand from outside agencies for R & D and continuing education
¶ Adjunct appointments with Industry
¶ Inter-disciplinary activities
¶ Self-assessment and accreditation Processes
¶ Alumni involvement
¶ Perceived reputation, nationally and Internationally
¶ Use by national agencies as think tanks and for technology development
¶ Leadership in education and research
2.3.4 Quality issues and desired actions:
The various quality issues must be addressed by all the technical institutions and an action plan is prepared for improvement of the system as whole is given as under
1. Relevance of curriculum
Identify hard and soft skill requirements for employment; identify generic skills and specific skills; develop standards for each of the objectives for all the subjects of study. Also develop standards for practical skills. Curriculum document must include all details and not merely the course content and evaluation scheme.
2. Leadership & Team works:
It is essential however, to identify the characteristics of the effective leader. This includes openness and clarity, well informed and fair in judgment, a well developed strategic sense and the capacity to build staff's commitment to institutional goals (Prasad, 2002). It is important to recognize the need and value of lifelong learning. Securing themselves for continuing opportunities to learn, in the period of technological, economic and social change and knowledge expansion. The most productive approach to uncover the developmental opportunities for administrators is team work. Now the scenario is changed, it is the age of multi disciplinary and inters disciplinary age. Activities require assistance from all the area.
3. Management responsiveness:
Norms and standards have been fixed by AICTE and NBA to create external pressure to bring the institutes to a minimum level of acceptance. These external pressures should be utilized by the management to create internal motivation within the institutions. Otherwise, external pressures will have only temporary effects particularly to the intangible quality control aspects. Interests of the management and those of the faculty, and students have to be seen holistically.
4. Human value and ethics:
In the words of Bharat Ratna late Shri C. Subramanian "true education should be able to produce an integrated personality in the individual-an integrated development of hand, head and heart. Today we see pathetic picture of the youths of our country adopting all sorts of subterfuges to get through examination and get certificate just like a sick man getting health certificate without getting rid of his sickness"(Sudarssanam, 2002). Knowledge without ethics is like to have a weapon without humanity. So the students must be given a foundation course in human values and ethics.
5. Motivating the faculty:
Recruitment of good faculty and their induction, development, appraisal and reward for retention is a challenge to all the Technical Institutions. If the faculty is motivated, lot of enthusiasm will see in the campus for innovation, development, good teaching- learning practices and that of research.
6. Government, funding and regulation:
The composition of bodies, authorities in the universities like syndicate require to be still more democratic, free from politicization and partiality. The present inconsistencies in this regard need to be eradicated, the nomination of professors, deans etc. to the syndicate should be in fixed order instead of at the wish of the vice-chancellor. Significant raise of funds from government for teaching and research, time to time revision of salary and emoluments in comparison to industry. Special provision should be made for teachers' welfare and their children's education. Making higher education accountable and socially relevant.
7. Improving institutional academic climate:
Good Teaching-learning practices, transparent teacher evaluation and reward system, encouragement for innovations and development work, sponsored research work, and institutional and individual consultancy work would change the total academic climate of an institute for betterment. Conduct of continuing education programs for working professionals is another area which would add to this aspect of improvement. Computation facilities, laboratory and workshop facilities, library facilities need to be extended beyond the academic routine hours. Research work will get a boost if research scholars working for higher degrees are made available in the campus. A clear cut policy enabling consultancy work is framed by the institution.
8. Quantity and quality:
With increase of quantity there should be monitor for quality also. The development of higher education in last six decades presents a picture of light and shade. In the grab of quantitative success there is qualitative failure. Massive production of engineers and their lack of employability, which in turn probably reveals a low standard of education or an education that, lack relevance. In October 2007 union HRD minister commented about higher education as a sick child and union minister of state for HRD expressed disappointment about the quality of higher education
9. Effective curriculum implementation strategies:
Institutions need to design and develop curriculum implementation strategies such that responsibility and initiative in learning is gradually shifted to students with teachers playing the role of managing effective and efficient learning and creating opportunities for self learning and self pacing in learning. For bench marking best practices teachers need to examine how curriculum is implemented in other professions like in medical profession, specialized institutions like NIFT, Hotel Management Institution, Management Institutions, etc. Where examples for bench marking are not available, institutions need to develop their own model and standards. For this, teachers would require exposure to modern industry and good training institutes. They also need to be taken for study tours to see for themselves best practices.
10. Attitudinal change for achieving excellence
Day by day it is realized that the most important aspect of a successful career is that of maintaining positive attitude. That is why, now we refer to acquisition of Attitude, Knowledge and Skill (ASK) by students. While the curriculum document states about knowledge and skill component, it is mostly silent about attitudinal component except that it is inherently embedded in the system. Both teachers and students community needs to realize the need for positive thinking, and positive attitude. Group work, involvement in planning and decision making, appreciation for good work, transparency in the system, creating conducive environment for everyone to contribute and grow, are some of the important factors that would lead to attitudinal development. The management and teachers need to play role models for the students to get inspired.
11. Industry and other institutions interaction:
Marketing of product and services of the institute to the society has to be planned and implemented systematically. The responsibility of student's placement in industry has to be jointly taken up by the Head of the institute, training and placement officer, the heads of departments and the students. For an established institution, the old students, well places in industry, must be located and their involvement be planned. Networking with organizations and institutions is done for mutual benefits. Investment on efforts made in
placement of students will pay high dividends to the institutions in the long run.
12. Self learning & self paced learning:
Learning-to-learn ability is going to be the most essential requirement for Employment and to remain in employment at the work place. By proper design of the teaching learning system, the students must be motivated to learn by making their own efforts. Exploratory type teaching learning built around open-ended problem solving activities need to practices.
13. Students taking initiative in learning:
Orientation program at departmental level explaining the structure of the programme and positions of the subject in the whole curriculum has to be explained to the students. The relevance of study of the subjects and their components have to the explained by teacher and by using experts from industry. Visit to application industries be planned as early as possible. Students have to be provided with details of the curriculum and are requirements. The skill set required for gainful employment have to be clearly explained to students preferably by involving experts from industry. Guidance and counseling services to students have to be extended. Teaching -learning should be planned to include class-room interactions, emphasis on practical work, independent study, group projects, assignment, library study, feedback, etc.
14. Effective evaluation system:
Student evaluation system must be valid, reliable, and should be objectively designed. Emphasis should be on assessing the higher order cognitive skills like ability to think and apply, ability to analyze and synthesize, and of solving problems. Evaluation of students other personality trials like ability to work in group and contribute, ability to self learning and communicating, etc. need also be taken care of in making assessment of students. Multiple evaluation tools like objective and short-answer type tests, quiz, seminars, group discussion, project report preparation and presentation, etc. may be included in student evaluation. At the university or board of examination level, there is need for developing model question papers, question banks, and table of specifications for setting question papers in various subjects. On the basis of these analytical points, action plan can be prepared for each of the activities at management level, teacher's level and at the level of students. A monitoring mechanism must be included to evaluate progress and providing feedback.
2.4 Past Research Work
India, a massive nation of over one billion, has wide diversities, nevertheless it's the unity in constitution of India. The Gross Enrolment Ratio and Disparity Index in Higher Education in India shows that there are massive disparities in terms of space, sex and social background. Constitution of India has guaranteed education up to category 10 as a basic right (Grewal, 2012). But it has to possess the technology base to cater the necessity of growth. It has kept a goal for a 10% growth rate for its economy. Maintaining this abundant high growth rate desires highly skilled and knowledgeable manpower. This base will solely be provided by the wonderful higher technical education. Government of India established All India Counsel of Technical Education (AICTE) to manage the excellence of upper technical education. in line with ISTE Handbook 2007-08 (pp.487-488), AICTE had 1346 technical education establishments with four, 39,689 students below its wing to supply higher technical education in India. Analysis shows that the distribution of those establishments is unequal geographically. A study by Punjabi University Patiala reveals that in the educational session 2007-08, the proportion of rural students was solely three.71 p.c within the higher skilled courses run by the 5 universities of Punjab. An earlier study (2006) by this university conjointly highlighted the low share of rural students (4.07 percent) within the four universities (Punjab, Punjabi, GNDU and PAU) of Punjab throughout 2005-06 (Ghuman, 2009). so disparities exist in India's technical education within the type of equity, quality and amount. Education management for excellence in technical excellence among these disparities in India is so a vital drawback. This paper discusses numerous Models for Managing Excellence in Higher Technical Education among Disparities in India in 3 steps i.e., (a) discuss theories and models for education management (b)outline theories and models for quality education and (c) evaluate appropriate theory and model for managing excellence at the side of equity in higher technical education to vast range of scholars.
It needs to be emphasized that people with specialization in educational planning and management are rarely available in India. Therefore, Higher Technical Education in India (HTEI) may not be in a position to recruit people who are adequately trained and experienced in the area of educational planning. Varghese advocated faculty development programmes and in-house capacity building activities to be initiated in a sustained fashion provided that faculty members are permanent. This is an important dimension of developing an institute. (Varghese, 1999) Bush (Bush, 1999; Bush, 2003) reiterates that "educational management has to be centrally concerned with the purposes of education. These purposes or goals provide the crucial sense of direction to underpin the management of educational institutions."Unless this link between purpose and management is clear and close, there is a danger of "managerialism . . . a stress on procedures at the expense of educational purpose and values" (Bush: 1999, p. 240). There are only very few universities or institutions imparting education and training in the area of educational planning and management. (Varghese, 1999). However, there is an acute research gap in this area that basically discourages implementation of an effective total quality management in higher level of technical studies in India.
2.4.1 Exploring Research Gap
Technical Education is the component of education most directly concerned with the acquisition of the knowledge and skills required by workers in most manufacturing and service industries. Technical Education needs to strengthen basic cognitive learning to give students and trainees more flexibility to meet the changing requirements of the workplace. It must also help them develop the competence to move on to higher learning. Newly emerging high technology jobs often require job seekers to have immediate 'plug-and-play' skills, cross-disciplinary knowledge, better communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to work in teams. Other attributes such as motivation, creativity, self-adjustment, commitment, attention to detail and a sense of responsibility are critical to success and must take equal priority to functional skills in Technical Education. In the last several decades changing socio-economic trends have resulted in an evolution from 'supply driven' Technical Education to 'demand driven' Technical Education. The new global economic environment demands a further re-orientation in Technical Education to render it more responsive to the needs of students, workers and employers. In order to understand the research gap, it is critical to once review all the prominent research work being conducted in past for the purpose of better quality implementation in technical education
Table.1. Prior Research Work
No comparative Analysis
Rugarcia, Felder, Woods, Stice
Recognition and quality assurance
Focused on European Education system
Generic Problem Solving
Analysis results not elaborated
Ngwira e.t. al
Quality management w.r.t South Africa
Discussion on HEQMISA
Focused on South Africa
No discussion on results or implementation
Prados e.t. al
Good description for global impact.
Quality standards not considered in analysis
Higher education in India
Good paper to understand Change.
No implementation seen in quality standards
International Education Satisfaction
Discussion on SERVQUAL
No implementation seen in quality standards
Becket e.t. al
Quality management in higher education
Analysis on quality standards
Good analyzation paper from global perspective
Quality management in Higher education
Quality Standards not focused
Gazi Mahabubul e.t. al
operation system in education
Privatization and teacher education
Quality Standards not focused
Christian M. Stracke
Generic issues in learning, education
Other higher standards like TQM not considered
Kaushik e.t. al
pass percentage of
Better process capability analysis done
Gap between Higher Education, Academic Research
Human Resources Training
Other higher standards like TQM not considered
Tan e.t. al
Service quality and knowledge sharing
Focus on a particular faculty thus this certainly may not provide us a comprehensive picture of the link between the students' perception and knowledge sharing
Usharani e.t. al
Competitive Course planning
data mining techniques
Majority of parameters not considered for technical education
No consideration of quality standards
Evaluation System in Technical Institutes of India
Analysis on assessment system
Not focused on quality standard
Feedback approach from students
Focused on Industrial Training.
Quality Standards not considered
Management Education in India
Not focused on technical Education
Engineering Education System
Statistical Process Control
Good Empirical Model
Focused on less parameters on technical education
Manjula e.t. al
Engineering Education System
Better illustration and results obtained but focused on generic education
Table.2: Framework for quality management in higher educational institutions (John, 2005)
Model for quality management in higher education
Srikanthan and Dalrymple
(2002, 2003, 2004), Australia
Approach is based on evidence from educational literature.
Four methodologies: transformative; engagement theory of programme quality; methods to develop a university of learning; strategies for achieving a responsive university.
In teaching and research, students are participants and the focus is on their learning.
Implementation of 2002 model focusing on philosophies and approaches to student learning and methods of engendering a dynamic collaboration around student learning.
Recommends a move from the ritual of teaching to focus on student learning, academic productivity and organisation performance.
Radical change using student learning as the central criterion.
Pires da Rosa et al. (2001, 2003), Portugal
Based on empirical research, nine criteria supporting self-analysis and acting as a source for quality improvement and leading strategic development.
Quality management associated with evaluation activities covering teaching and research and regarded by participants as positive.
Academic award model
Badri and Abdulla (2004), UAE
Concerned with teaching, research and services to develop a more explicit approach to faculty rewards/awards.
Model includes criteria for diversification, course development, material production, student evaluation, course files, teaching portfolio and contributions to conferences and workshops.
Model to assess quality of student experience and learning outcomes
Tam (2002, 2006), Hong Kong
Assessment of quality in HE should be measured in terms of student growth. This calls for attention to student outcomes, including cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of learning, skills and satisfaction with university environment.
Investigates relationship between university experience and student outcomes as a means of determining a university's success in meeting its educational goals and proposes approach oriented to this.
Instrument designed to help understand the student experience.
Multi-models of quality in education
Cheng and Tam (1997), Hong Kong
Identifies seven models of quality in education and emphasizes the complexity of pursuing educational quality.
Effectiveness and quality are concepts used to understand performance, so approach needs to be comprehensive and take account of longer-term goals.
Cross cultural issues require further investigation.
Performance measures for academic departments
Al-Turki and Duffuaa (2003), Saudi Arabia
Adopts a systems approach and identifies performance measures to evaluate productivity, efficiency, effectiveness, internal structure, growth and development.
Hierarchical performance measurement model is based on outcome measures for each category - input, process and outputs.
Reid and Ashelby (2002), UK
Identifies tangible benefits from internal audits, such as significant cultural changes, which can reinforce quality enhancement, create greater staff involvement, as well as give benefits to the institutions.
Considers programme management, development and evaluation, staff development, assessment of students, external examining processes, collaborative provision and value added.
Quality dimensions framework
Owlia and Aspinwall (1996), UK
30 different quality characteristics identified for HE, using generalized dimensions defining quality drawn from manufacturing/software and service methods.
Five-phase TQM implementation model
Motwani and Kumar (1997), USA
Identifies the issues which institutions need to consider when implementing TQM in five phases: deciding; preparing; starting; expanding or integrating; and evaluating
From Table.1 and Table.2, it can be easily visible that there are couple of dozens of research work being conducted in past for the purpose of enhancing the quality of education around the world. But it can be seen that there are very less benchmarked research work especially focused on Indian technical education system with Total Quality Management. Majority of the work done in past is qualitative type which depends purely on the data furnished by the respondents, therefore those models cannot be precisely concluded as reliable model. On the other hand, there are also research work with empirical approach, but the data considered is either incomplete or TQM is not considered, which purely reflects an obvious research gap in the same area.
2.4.2 Scope of Research
The challenge that faces the education environment has always been to ensure that the quality of teaching and learning is maintained. One possible path for improving the quality of education lies in the application of the ideas/principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) to the teaching and learning (T&L) process. Employing these TQM quality attributes in the education context creates value for educational institutions, employers, and students. Most of the principles of TQM can advantageously be employed in the area of education and training. This paper highlights the essence of TQM and explains how educational and training institutions can improve the quality of their services by taking a cue from the principles of TQM. TQM is needed in Technical Institutions for the some of the following reasons:
To be growth oriented and have a good reputation
To be never out of market
To be capable of maintaining customer confidence.
To be cost effective.
To improve customer satisfaction and to develop confidence.
To use the creativity of faculty and students for development of the institution.
To provide careers to the faculty instead of jobs
To provide job satisfaction to all employees
To enhance healthy competition
To be an example to other institutions
To eliminate the waste of resources at all levels
Quality improvement initiatives are a must in Technical Education system in India to prepare both students and technical teachers not only for local employment but also for employment in the global market. Therefore, the aim must be to achieve international standers in all respect. A holistic approach instead of piecemeal approach is a must for achieving that high level. Application of principles of Total Quality Management in technical education must be made to covert the threat of getting marginalized to an opportunity to achieve excellence. Technical Education system is dynamic in nature and it faces many challenges in responding to societal, technological and economic changes in the local and global environment. The issue today is not so much about the value and role of Technical education in the social and economic development of a nation. Technical education is widely recognized as an important part of the total education and training system. The real challenge is how to reposition it in response to the global forces driving change in a knowledge-based economy. In this respect, I will draw upon and share my experience from a research perspective. It is hoped that this research work will provide some useful insights on the underlying philosophy, policies, choices and rationale, which will be highly helpful to shape the systems of technical education and training in India and even other countries. In education and training sector the concept of use of TQM and benchmarking is gaining importance. General agreement on trade in services (GATS) is going to create steep competition in the service sector both nationally and internationally. Quality is going to be the key factor for survival with satisfaction. In Technical Education and training, India has responded quite well in creating more facilities by motivating private entrepreneurs to invest. While the users are happy with respect to quantity of technical manpower produced, the all round feeling is that a lot needs to be done to improve the quality. The concept of TQM and benchmarking when applied to technical education would be highly beneficial to the system, if implemented with all sincerity and commitment.