Higher education, higher professional education is the upper level of vocational education following the secondary general or vocational education in the three-tier system, and includes a set of systematic knowledge and practical skills that address both theoretical and practical problems in a professional profile.Â This essay will discuss the 21st Century Issues for Higher Education, the experience in the university, identify the challenges and analyze how the University of Wollongong might respond more effectively to the challenges of globalization for the benefit of students. First paragraph talks about adaptation and benefits to students in international environment, the second paragraph talks about the Australian system of education, the third paragraph talks about the details of educational institutions in Australia. The challenges that international students face at the University of Wollongong are the changes of their "domestic environment", caused by globalization, language problems, lack of communication, lack of cultural discussions and trainings.
The consequences of globalization lead to adaptation of the society all over the world to the fact, that the world has become more "international", more united and everyone has similar goals in getting education. That is why respect, understanding and loyalty are one of the main qualities a student has to have. Internationals students in any part of the world would like to become a part of the community, they want to be useful and also they want their opinion to be taken into consideration. That is why institutions that accept international student, have to take care of the environment in the institution, and to explain their students the situation considering international students. The institution can also respond to the arising challenges of globalization to benefit the students. There can be invented new ways of communication, performance, teaching and solving problems. The institution has to use technological progress to make students' life easier and more advanced, and also to take into consideration the offers and wishes of the students themselves considering certain improvements in educational process and also in the university life. The institution has to pay more attention to creative ideas of students considering the improvements in the university, innovative approaches and new useful technologies to be more united in the educational process. In contrast to the general education, even in the developed countries, tertiary education is neither universal nor free. The success of the adaptation process of students in educational activities and social environment encourages students, as the impact of their intellectual activity, enhances the overall vitality and maintains high efficiency. Â The issues of the 21st Century Higher Education in the society include academic freedom, research, accreditation, discrimination, distance education, family and work, rights and perspectives. In addition, successful adaptation of students in international environment essentially determines the motivation, character and efficiency of training activities for the students. The study of psychological aspects of adaptation in education is associated mainly with the study of external and internal factors to adapt to tertiary education, in particular, to such of its fundamental components, as cognitive activities and interpersonal interactions. This involves the allocation of didactic (teaching) and psycho-social (communicative) adaptation.
Many foreigners at universities face the challenges, new experience and different issues connected with the perception of the subjects, with the lack of additional courses and trainings at the University. A distinctive feature of the Australian education market is its consolidation. Educational institutions merged to form large and small educational corporations.Â For foreign students it is beneficial that within each of these associations, they can study various courses, and to get translation from one to another and to do that without any additional exams (Dr. Hebe Vessuri, 1998). Since there is a structure with the different composition of the components, it allows realizing any, even the most ambitious plans. The Australian education system is built on the British model. Today the country has 40 universities, more than 450 colleges with an enrollment of more than one million students and about 550 centers teaching English (David T. Gamage, 2003).Â Taken together, these institutions offer courses that can satisfy all the demands of training.Â Recently, the education system, introducing the combination of English and partly in the American scheme of education, includes unique Australian training schemes for foreign students at colleges and universities (Guy Healy, 2010).
Today, the country has 38 public and two private universities (Elliot Mininberg, 2003).Â In these studies, total of the students in these universities is 700 thousand, including students of daytime, evening and correspondence courses. Â The most popular specialties are those, related to the business and the economy. More than half of foreign students come to learn exactly these specialties.Â After them follows the natural, human and social science, art, and then - engineering and technological specialties.Â At many universities there are also preparatory departments (Foundation Programs).Â This is a bridge between secondary education obtained in foreign educational institutions, and teaching at a university in Australia.Â Bachelor's degree in Australia is received during 3 years, except for seeking knowledge in medicine, law, engineering and natural sciences.Â Masters programs are designed for 1-2 years depending on specialization. And, as well, objectives of internationalization of university education cannot be achieved unless students themselves are fully committed to developing cross-cultural awareness, and willingly inclined to engage in inter-cultural interactions (Nesdale & Todd, 1993). As a fact, the distinction between home and international students may be considered to be too general when it is considered that both these groups are far from homogenous.
Nowadays, the positioning of international students reflects the ambivalence that universities feel towards them. For many, international students are simultaneously a source
of contempt because of their inadequate English language skills, resentment and, paradoxically, anxiety. There is the need to confront the inappropriate conflation of fee-paying with international student status, the caricature of international students that was constructed through the discourses, and the valorization of a form of academic identity within which academics surrendered their agency. The difficulties identified by international students have been discussed in terms of difficulties in the areas of language, relationships with teachers and peers, and educational conventions (Choi, 1997). Their difficulties are attributed not only to their personal lack of language competence and study skills, but also to their Australian teachers' and peers' lack of understanding of these difficulties in the educational context. Culturally different teacher-student relationships, and institutional environments and constraints also play a major part. For example, Korean students are more likely to have difficulties in speaking, joining the class discussion and developing "constant", mutual relationships with teachers and peers. It is difficult to adapt to the certain rules and regulations of the society and to try to become a part of this society. There is a lot of criticism the international students face, which then makes them suffer and, consequently, they become insecure. International students are also likely to suffer culture shock more severely in the classroom situation. Therefore there are some strategies and support programs which are able to promote more effective teaching and learning for international students. As a fact, concerted and reciprocal effort by all concerned should lead to better intercultural understanding and communication as well as a more rewarding academic partnership. The strategies and programs suggested could be equally useful in promoting intercultural understanding and communication with students of other ethnic backgrounds. In other words, international students are potentially valuable human resources in the decision-making processes of Australia in cooperation with other countries. Their experiences in Australia could contribute to effective relationships between the two countries, providing a better understanding of Australia, Australian attitudes and values (Dr. Tracey Wilen-Daugenti, 2006). Students' difficulties must be dealt with by educators and researchers at the level of multicultural education, international cultural and educational exchange and interdependent long-term relationships between the two countries.
The challenges of international students can be overcome if there is more effective intercultural communication and better relationships between Australia and other countries in future, as well as the prejudices will be reduced and there will not be any misunderstanding of the culture, language and education of other countries. Subjective factors affecting the process of social adaptation and causing problems of foreign student interns include:
- high level communication skills;
- an interest in history and culture of the country;
- the existence of interest to higher education in the country and, in particular, to the structure of higher education in the humanities departments;
- quantitative and qualitative composition of the student group at the Faculty of Humanities.
Objective factors include:
- the presence of a permanent "alien" languages in the environment;
- incomprehensible to foreigners organization of training activities at the Faculty;
- staying in a domestic environment, different from usual.
As well, international students have many problems and stressful situations during their adaptation at a new place. Adaptive stress is considered together with the process adaptation.Â Adaptation is an ability that evolved in the process of human evolution. Ability to adapt is a kind of element of protection from the difficulties, conflicts and other items of everyday life.Â In situations where the person has difficulties with adaptation refers to adaptation stress. International students have additional difficulties related to adaptation and the beginning of their studies.Â It is, primarily, the need to use a foreign language, not only scientific terminology, but its use in everyday life and during communication with peers (Bradley, 2009). Â Students from other countries also have difficulties in adapting to a new culture, customs and values.
Such a large number of various kinds of difficulties, including language problems, misunderstandings, cultural peculiarities and problems faced by students at the beginning stage of learning are the challenge that includes every big test and stress.Â Very often happens, that accumulated problems can lead to negative consequences, such as abstaining from further study, low self-esteem, negative relation to the University and future profession (David T. Gamage, 2003). Therefore, it seems very important the need for research on the causes of stress adaptation, as well as identifying the relationship between facing the difficulties and the methods of combating stress adaptation in students a year (Dr. Hebe Vessuri, 1998). In the group of foreign students the certain attitude without enthusiasm of teachers is the reason for refusal of further studies on the subject, which is usually a consequence of a very strong emotional reaction.Â The higher the demand for them by teachers is, the lower is their self-esteem.Â The biggest problem for them is indifferent attitude to them by teachers. In the group of foreign students an indifferent attitude on the peer is responsible for termination of contact with them and the irresponsibility.Â Being in conflict with their neighbors, foreign students seek help from others.Â In a situation where they are denied care, in their inadequate view, their actions are unorganized. On the basis of the results of research there can be established the fact that the beginning of study in higher education includes a large number of problems and situations that causes stress (Elliot Mininberg, 2003).Â The results also suggest that students use different ways of dealing with the stress adaptation. The research results can help in the adaptation of students to learning in higher education, prepare them for possible difficulties. "â€¦International education is an increasingly important part of Australia's international relations. It uniquely spans the cultural, economic and interpersonal dimensions of international relations. It assists cultural understanding for all parties involved. It enriches Australia's education and training systems and the Australian society by encouraging a more international outlook." (Beazley, 1992)
International education itself is an expression of the forces of globalization that are now reshaping people's identities, their social imagination, in which the notion of travelling overseas to receive one's education takes an important place. Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience and Higher Education for Change and Development, prepared respectively by the World Bank and UNESCO state: "Asia and the Pacific is the region which has experimented most widely with higher education - very often to meet the new employment requirements of market-driven economies. In contrast, serious poverty persists in certain countries and an over-supply of academic graduates (notably in India) face problems of employment in rapidly changing job markets (Bradley, 2008). "The essential task of the 21st century may well be to forge a new partnership between men and women in dealing with the present and in shaping the future of our personal and public agendas." (Carla M. Mestas, 2007)
All in all, the intensity of the participation of foreign interns to work on their own social adaptation is that none of them will complete an internship with poor educational and personal results.Â Nowadays higher education is increasingly internationalized and leaders and managers confront challenges everyday in their work of higher education. To be able to compete effectively, many universities rely on technology and search for new ways of delivery and communication. The training team of students similar to the role of facilitator training group is a rarity. Thus, observations of the learning process of foreign students have shown that in addition to general to all social problems of adaptation, there are specific features of the process of social adaptation for international students on the faculties of universities, and it is important to take into account the special social status of the international students. In the essay were reviewed the challenges that international students face, there was described the educational system of Australia, issues for higher education, difficulties the international student faces, adaptation of international students and the influence of globalization on the educational process all over the world. It is important to take into consideration the changing world, the peculiarities of the education, the challenges that students face. There should be found new approaches, implemented new creative ideas and improved the educational process to ensure stability and effectiveness in higher education.